List of people legally executed in Queensland

  • John Bulbridge – 18 December 1830 – Hanged at Moreton Bay for absconding from the penal colony there and committing a robbery at Port Macquarie
  • Charles Fagan – 18 December 1830 – Hanged at Moreton Bay for absconding and committing a robbery at Port Macquarie
  • Mullan – 3 July 1841 – Indigenous. Hanged at the WindmillWickham Terrace, Brisbane, for the murder of surveyor Granville William Chetwynd Stapylton[GR1]  at Mount Lindesay
  • Ningavil – 3 July 1841 – Indigenous. Hanged at the Windmill, Wickham Terrace, Brisbane, for the murder of surveyor Granville Chetwynd Stapylton at Mount Lindsay
  • Patrick Fitzgerald – 8 July 1850 – Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol, Petrie Terrace, for the murder of James Marsden at Gigooman
  • Jacob Wagner – 8 July 1850 – Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murder of James Marsden at Gigooman
  • Angee (An Gee) – 6 January 1852 – Chinese. Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murder of James Holbert in the Burnett district
  • Davy – 22 August 1854 – Indigenous. Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murder of Adolphus Trevethan on Rawbelle station in the Burnett district
  • Dundalli – 5 January 1855 – Indigenous. Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murders of Andrew Gregor and William Boller. This was the last official public execution in Queensland
  • William Teagle – 28 July 1857 – Hanged at Brisbane Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Leighton at Drayton
  • Chamery – 4 August 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Mary Treatroff at Dugandan
  • Dick – 4 August 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Mary Treatroff at Dugandan
  • Thomas Woods – 7 December 1860 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Gabriel Morell at Coonambula
  • Georgie – 12 Dec 1861 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Bridget Ryan at Little Ipswich
  • Tommy – 2 April 1862 – Chinese, real name not recorded. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of George Lang at Nebo
  • Matthew McGuinness – 8 April 1862 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of a shepherd named Schaff between Gayndah and Mundubbera
  • Alexander Ritchie – 1 August 1864 – Hanged at Toowoomba Gaol for the murder of Charles Owen at Yandilla
  • Jackey – 3 November 1865 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Ann Mee at Degilbo
  • Rudolf Mornberger – 13 December 1865 – German. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Heinrich Bode on the Logan River
  • Thomas John Griffin[GR2]  – 1 June 1868 – Police officer and gold commissioner hanged at Rockhampton Gaol for the murder of troopers John Power and Patrick Cahill on the banks of the Mackenzie River while they were on duty escorting a large sum of money from Rockhampton to Clermont
  • Billy – 7 December 1868 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Mary Thompson at Tivoli
  • Jacob – 17 May 1869 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Jane Knott and Amelia Reichmann at Ideraway
  • John Williams – 24 November 1869 – Hanged at Rockhampton for the murder of Patrick Halligan[GR3]  at Eight Mile Island
  • George C.F. Palmer – 24 November 1869 – Hanged at Rockhampton for the murder of Patrick Halligan at Eight Mile Island
  • Alexander Archibald – 22 December 1869 – Hanged at Rockhampton for abetting the murder of Patrick Halligan at Eight Mile Island
  • Gee Lee – 7 March 1870 – Chinese. Hanged at Toowoomba for the murder of Louis Vernon at Caroline sheep station on the Burenda run, in the Warrego district
  • Jacky Whitton – 7 March 1870 – Indigenous. Hanged at Toowoomba for the rape of thirteen-year-old Henrietta Reiss at Bodumba station near Warwick
  • William Prendergast – 28 March 1870 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Patrick Hartnett at Fortitude Valley
  • William Brown (or Bertram) – 29 August 1870 – Hanged at Toowoomba for robbery under arms at Mangalore
  • Donald Ross – 21 November 1870 – Hanged at Rockhampton for the murder of George Rose at Springsure
  • George – 15 May 1871 – Indigenous. Hanged at Rockhampton for the rape of Ellen Manning at Gracemere
  • Dugald – 28 May 1872 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of twelve-year-old Catherine Hutchinson south of Gympie
  • Patrick Collins – 29 May 1872 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Simon Zieman at Gunde Gunda Creek near Surat
  • John Garbett – 10 March 1874 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Tom Conroy at Taroom
  • Alick (alias Johnny) – 29 December 1874 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of eleven-year-old Gertrude Brauer at Doughboy Creek
  • Jackey Clayson – 14 April 1875 – Indigenous. Hanged at Rockhampton for the rape of Johanna Kopp at Palmerville
  • Johann (John) Wenzell – 29 August 1876 – German. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Joel Martin at GabbinbarToowoomba
  • George – 18 May 1877 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Maryborough Gaol for the rape of Mrs McBride
  • Tommy Ah Mow – 18 May 1877 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Maryborough for the rape of Mrs McBride
  • James Cunningham – 14 January 1878 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Frank Steinebecker near Cairns
  • Sam Ah Poo – 19 August 1878 – Chinese. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of M. Fisher McMichael at Bundaleer Plains, near Noorama
  • Ervora (alias Johnny) – 23 December 1878 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Charles “the Swede” Andrews near Tambo
  • Joseph Mutter – 9 June 1879 – German. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Maria Josephina Steffen at Ravenswood. “When the drop fell the convict’s head was completely severed from the body. The executioner attributed this horrible result to the hard condition of the rope, caused by the frost”
  • Joseph Wells – 22 March 1880 – Hanged at Brisbane for armed robbery and attempted murder at Cunnamulla
  • James Elsdale (alias Munro) – 31 May 1880 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Michael McEvoy at Belltopper Creek, Aramac
  • Jimmy Ah Sue – 31 May 1880 – Chinese. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Ah Coo Wah at Copperfield (Clermont)
  • Maximus ‘Pedro’ Gomez – 21 June 1880 – Filipino. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of William Clarke on Possession Island (Bedanug), Torres Strait
  • Kagariu (Johnny Campbell) – 16 August 1880 – Indigenous. Bushranger. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Jane MacAlister at Kipper Creek, Northbrook
  • Ah Que – 12 December 1881 – Chinese. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Ah Wah and Geon Ching at Palmerville
  • George Byrne – 22 May 1882 – Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Susan Isaacs in Elizabeth Street, Brisbane
  • Towolar (Jemmy) – 5 June 1882 – From AmbaeNew Hebrides. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Jeremiah Worth at Bundaberg
  • Jango – 15 October 1883 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Eliza Mills at Dingo. He was sixteen at the time of his crime
  • George – 15 October 1883 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the rape of thirteen-year-old Johanna Anderson at Gracemere
  • James Gardiner (alias McMahon) – 15 October 1883 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of ‘German Ada’ at Rockhampton
  • Walter Edward Gordon – 25 October 1885 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Walter Bunning near Rockhampton
  • Tim Tee – 5 April 1886 – Chinese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Jimmy Ah Fook at Dulvadilla
  • Wong Tong – 21 June 1886 – Chinese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Kok Tow near Bundaberg
  • Christopher Pickford – 30 May 1887 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Martin Emmerson at Ravenswood Junction
  • John Harrison – 13 June 1887 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of William Thompson
  • Ellen Thompson – 13 June 1887 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of her husband William. She was the only woman hanged in Queensland
  • Sedin – 12 November 1888 – Malay. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of John Fitzgerald and Christian Meyriga at Normanton
  • Edmond Duhamel – 12 November 1888 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Sarah Ann Descury at Croydon
  • Michael Barry[GR4]  – 2 June 1890 – Hanged at Rockhampton (Wandal) for the murder of his wife Mary. He was the last person to be hanged in Queensland outside of Brisbane
  • Donald – 25 April 1892 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the rape of Eva Scott at Hornet Bank Station near Taroom
  • Frank Charles Horrocks – 26 September 1892 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Rudolph Weissmüller at Mooraree near Brisbane
  • Charles Gleeson – 24 October 1892 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Patrick McKiernan at Prince of Wales Island (Muralug), Torres Strait
  • Leonardo William Moncado – 24 October 1892 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Bob, an Indigenous cabin-boy, on board the Northern coastal trading vessel Sketty Belle
  • George Thomas Blantern – 23 October 1893 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaod for the murder of Flora McDonald at Marlborough Station
  • Hatsuro Abe – 28 May 1894 – Japanese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of a Japanese widow, Omatzie, on Thursday Island
  • Miore – 20 May 1895 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Francis Macartney at Avondale. See Narasemai below
  • Narasemai – 20 May 1895 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Francis Macartney at Avondale
  • Sayer (also called Safhour) – 22 July 1895 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Peter Anderson near Etowrie near Mackay.
  • Jackey – 4 November 1895 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Jacky Williams near Mount Morgan.
  • Frank Tinyana – 4 November 1895 – Filipino. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the attempted murder of his wife Amelia and the murder of Constable William Conroy on Thursday Island.
  • William Broome – 11 June 1900 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Mary Le Blowitz near Bundaberg
  • Charles Beckman – 13 May 1901 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Alfred Anderson at Bowen
  • Wandee (or Wantee) – 27 May 1901 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Alfred Burnstead near Townsville
  • John Rheuben – 30 September 1901 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Fanny Hardwick[GR5]  at Rockhampton
  • Arafau (or Orifough) – 3 December 1901 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Morris Summers near Farleigh
  • David Alexander Brown – 9 December 1901 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Graham Haygarth at Charters Towers
  • Patrick Kenniff – 12 January 1903 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Constable George Doyle at Lethbridge’s Pocket near Carnarvon
  • Sow Too Low (or Sotulo) – 22 June 1903 – From Malaita (now part of Solomon Islands). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of John Martin and Sergeant David Johnston at Mackay Gaol. He was also thought responsible for the murder of 12-year-old Alice Gunning near Mackay
  • Gosano (also called ‘Kanalso called Charlie’) – 17 April 1905 – From Malaita (now part of Solomon Islands). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of John Parsons at Ingham
  • James Wharton – 17 July 1905 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of William Munday at Toowong
  • Johannes – 14 May 1906 – From Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Constable Albert Price
  • Twadiga – 14 May 1906 – From Gawa Island (now in Papua New Guinea). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of five-year-old William Baulch, at Homebush, near Mackay
  • Look Kow (or Lee Kow) – 31 December 1906 – Chinese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Lee Chay Yuen in Townsville
  • August Millewski – 16 December 1907 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of an Indian man, Wallum Nabby, near Nananga
  • Bismarck – 19 April 1909 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Janet Evitts at Jundah
  • Arthur Ross – 7 June 1909 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of bank clerk James Muir
  • Alexander Joseph Bradshaw – 13 June 1910 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of George and Alice Sutherland at Carron River, near Croydon
  • George David Silva[GR6]  – 10 June 1912 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of seventeen-year-old Maud Ching at Alligator Creek, near Hay Point. On the same occasion he also murdered Maud’s younger siblings Teddy, Dolly, Hugh and Winnie, and their mother Agnes
  • Charles Deen – 5 May 1913 – From Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Peter Dana (Dina, Dinna) at Innisfail
  • Ernest Austin– 22 September 1913 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Ivy Alexandra Mitchell. He was the last person executed in Queensland

 [GR1]Granville William Chetwynd Stapylton (1800-1840) was a pioneer explorer and surveyor in Australia.

In 1839, Stapylton was one of the three surveyors (the other two being Robert Dixon and James Warner) sent by New South Wales Governor George Gipps to the Moreton Bay penal colony, arriving on the Sarah Jane.[2] Their first task was to make a coastal survey of Moreton Bay and then to survey Brisbane and the surrounding districts in preparation for the closure of the penal colony and the opening of the area for free settlement in 1842.

He was killed on 31 May 1840 by Aboriginal people while surveying, 14 miles (23 km) east of Mount Lindesay.

 [GR2]Thomas John Augustus Griffin (27 July 1832 – 1 June 1868) was an Australian police officer and gold commissioner who was executed in 1868, after being found guilty of the double murder of two fellow police officers, Constable John Francis Power and Constable Patrick William Cahill.

The murders were committed on the banks of the Mackenzie River near the present-day site of the Bedford Weir at Blackwater, Queensland while the troopers were escorting a large sum of money from Rockhampton to Clermont, which Griffin stole and then hid when he returned to Rockhampton. The money was discovered after Griffin was executed when it was revealed he had attempted to conspire with a turnkey while locked in his cell, negotiating a possible escape and drawing a pencil sketch of the money’s approximate location.

In a notorious case of grave robbery, Griffin’s grave was illegally exhumed more than a week after his execution, and his body deliberately decapitated and his head stolen.[

 [GR3]Patrick Halligan (1838 – 25 April 1869) was an Irish-Australian hotel licensee and gold buyer who was murdered in Rockhampton, Queensland on 25 April 1869

 [GR4]ichael Barry (10 September 1843 – 2 June 1890) was a convicted Australian murderer.

Barry was found guilty of murdering his wife, Mary Barry (née McNertney), in Rockhampton, Queensland on 26 February 1890.

He was sentenced to death and was hanged at the Rockhampton Gaol on 2 June 1890

 [GR5]The murder took place in a boarding house in one of six cottages located next to the Terminus Hotel, known as Carpenter’s Cottages, owned by local identity Edwin Robert Carpenter. Hardwick had moved into the boarding house with her three-year-old son and her mother upon leaving Rheubens, after which she commenced a relationship with a Sinhalese cook called Charlie Price, which prompted Rheubens to become jealous. Rheubens desperately attempted to convince Hardwick to re-commence their relationship, during which time Rheubens allegedly assaulted Price on two separate occasions.

On the evening of 2 June 1901, Rheubens attempted to visit Hardwick but following another of Hardwick’s rejections, he went away and returned with a tomahawk. Following a struggle, Rheubens produced a sheath knife and stabbed Hardwick in the chest before leaving the scene.

Within an hour, police located Rheubens at his home where he was arrested in a violent struggle. After being taken back to the watchhouse, police discovered Rheubens was suffering from a head injury. After a medical examination, Rheubens was transported to Rockhampton Hospital under police escort. He was admitted to hospital where he stayed under police guard.

Hardwick’s body was buried in the South Rockhampton Cemetery on 3 June 1901

 [GR6]George David Silva (1884 – 1912) was an Australian mass murderer. Silva, who was of Sinhalese descent, worked as a farmhand on a property owned by Charles Ching at Alligator Creek, about 20 miles from Mackay, Queensland.

On 16 November 1911, Charles Ching told Silva he was traveling to town for supplies and money for Silva’s wages. While he was away Silva murdered the six Chings after the eldest daughter Maud had rejected his advances. The bodies of Agnes, Maud, Hugh and Winnie were found in the house. Mother and eldest daughter had been shot by a revolver and a muzzle-loading rifle, while the boy and baby had their skulls smashed in. The bodies of Teddy and Dolly Ching were found a mile and a half away; both had been shot and their skulls smashed in.

Police and aboriginal trackers inspected the crime scene, and after the trackers stated that there was no trail to follow the police homed in on Silva. Silva, fearing a lynch mob from Mackay, eventually confessed to police.

Tried only for the murder of Maud Ching, Silva was hanged at Boggo Road Gaol in Brisbane on 10 June 1912 and buried in South Brisbane Cemetery

List of people legally executed in Norfolk Island

  • Peter McLean – 14 December 1800 – Irish convict and political prisoner, hanged without trial for conspiracy to mutiny
  • John Houlahan – 14 December 1800 – Irish convict and political prisoner, hanged without trial for conspiracy to mutiny
  • John McDonald – 13 April 1832 – Hanged for the attempted murder of fellow-convict Thomas Smith
  • Thomas Reilly – 23 September 1833 – Hanged for the murder of fellow-convict Edward Doolan
  • Matthew Connor – 23 September 1833 – Hanged for the attempted murder of constable Patrick Sullivan
  • James Reynolds – 23 September 1833 – Hanged for the attempted murder of constable Patrick Sullivan
  • Robert Douglas – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Henry Drummond – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • James Bell – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Joseph Butler – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Robert Glennie – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Walter Burke – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Joseph Snell – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • William McCulloch – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Michael Andrews – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • William Groves – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Thomas Freshwater – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Henry Knowles – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • Robert Ryan – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
  • James Burrows – 26 December 1835 – Hanged for the murder of fellow-convict John Dursley
  • George Thompson – 26 December 1835 – Hanged for the attempted murder of fellow-convict John Fell at Longridge
  • William Westwood (Jackey Jackey) [GR1] – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for mutiny and the murder of convict constables John Morris, John Dinon, Thomas Saxton and police runner Stephen Smith, on 1 July 1846, known as the “Cooking Pot Uprising[GR2] 
  • John Davis – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • Samuel Kenyon – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • Dennis Pendergast – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • Owen Commuskey – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • Henry Whiting – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • William Pearson – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • James Cairnes – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • William Pickthorne – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • Lawrence Kavenagh – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • William Scrimshaw – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • Edward McGuinness – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • William Brown – 19 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
  • John Liddall – 3 November 1846 – Hanged for murder of Henry Clarke
  • Bernard Macartney – 3 November 1846 – Hanged for murder of Henry Clarke

 [GR1]William Westwood (7 August 1820 – 13 October 1846), also known as Jackey Jackey, was an English-born convict who became a bushranger in Australia.

Born in Essex, Westwood had already served one year in prison for highway robbery before his transportation at age 16 to the penal colony of New South Wales on a conviction of stealing a coat. He arrived in 1837 and was sent to Phillip Parker King‘s station near Bungendore as an assigned servant, but grew to resent working there due to mistreatment from the property’s overseer. In 1840, after receiving 50 lashes for attempting to escape, Westwood took up bushranging. The following year, troopers captured Westwood at Berrima, where he was convicted of armed robbery and horse stealing and sentenced to life imprisonment at Darlinghurst Gaol. Westwood escaped again and continued bushranging until his re-capture in July 1841. Sent to Cockatoo Island, he led a failed mass escape, and was transported for life in 1842 to Port ArthurVan Diemen’s Land.

Westwood tried to escape from Port Arthur two times and received 100 lashes for each attempt. He successfully escaped in 1843 by swimming the channel; two other convicts who accompanied him were eaten by sharks. His new bushranging career ended that November when he was captured and sentenced to twelve months hard labour and solitary confinement. The following year, William Champ, Port Arthur’s new commandant, promoted Westwood to his boat crew, and approved his removal to Glenorchy on probation after the convict rescued two drowning men. Within several months, he returned to bushranging, and after his capture in September 1845 outside Hobart, was transported for life to Norfolk Island. There, in response to commandant Joseph Childs‘ confiscation of the prisoners’ cooking utensils, Westwood led the 1846 Cooking Pot Uprising, during which he murdered three constables and an overseer. He was captured and executed along with eleven other convicts.

In the days before his execution, Westwood wrote an autobiography at the suggestion of Thomas Rogers, a religious instructor, who later had it published in The Australasian. Westwood also wrote a letter to a prison chaplain who had once befriended him, detailing the severe treatment of Norfolk Island prisoners by the authorities, and decrying the brutality of the convict system as a whole. It was published widely in the press and cited by activists campaigning for the end of penal transportation to Australia.

 [GR2]The Cooking Pot Uprising or Cooking Pot Riot, was an uprising of convicts led by William Westwood in the penal colony of Norfolk Island, Australia. It occurred on 1 July 1846 in response to the confiscation of convicts’ cooking vessels under the orders of the Commandant of the penal settlement, Major Joseph Childs.

List of people legally executed in New South Wales

From 1788 to 1830

Precise location of execution not indicated

  • Samuel Mobbs – 16 March 1797 – Hanged for burglary.
  • James Reece – 8 February 1799 – Hanged for bestiality with a sow. Reece tried to cut his own throat on the morning of his execution.
  • John Hardy – 2 June 1800 – Hanged for vagrancy and theft.
  • William Jones – March 1803 – Hanged for robbing Thomas Harley, a settler from Prospect.
  • James Lovell – 22 February 1805 – Hanged for forging and uttering.
  • George Holland – 11 October 1806 – Hanged for breaking into the house of Laughlane Gallighcoghan at Parramatta and stealing 10 shillings. Holland had assaulted the occupant of the home, described as a “feeble old man”.
  • Dennis Kaneen – 27 November 1806 – Hanged for breaking into the house of James Hogsen and stealing six bushels of maize, some meat, sugar and a copper coin amounting to nine shillings and three pence.
  • William Page – 15 December 1806 – Hanged for burglary from the house of William Tracey at Fennel Farm.
  • Abraham Smith – 15 December 1806 – Hanged for burglary from the house of William Tracey at Fennel Farm.
  • William Poxam – 4 April 1807 – Hanged for sheep stealing.
  • John Hughes – 4 April 1807 – Hanged for entering the house of Edward Redmond and stealing a chest containing cash, bills and other property.
  • Hugh Dowling – 28 September 1808 – Hanged for armed burglary of the house of William Styles at Nepean and stealing cash and clothing.
  • William Davis – 11 June 1813 – Hanged for cutting and maiming William Mason with a knife during a drunken brawl at Ultimo.
  • Thomas Thorpe – September 1813 – Hanged for assaulting and robbing John Galligan of a silver watch on the King’s Highway.
  • William Gray – March or April 1814 – Hanged for highway robbery. Stopped the cart of Edward Powell Jr and John Beckwith on the King’s Highway and robbed them of ten gallons of spirits and other items.
  • Dennis Donovan – 12 July 1814 – Hanged for burglary of the house of John Cowley at Surry Hills, the murders of William Alder, Thomas White and Hannah Sculler on the Hawkesbury, and for rape. His body was handed over for anatomisation and dissection.
  • Patrick Dawson – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomized.
  • Philip McGee – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomized.
  • Henry Laycock – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomised.
  • Thomas Hill – 1 March 1816 – Hanged for cutting and maiming police constable Thomas Smith near Parramatta.
  • William Langford – 1 March 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery on the Parramatta Road, robbing William Wright of a silver watch.
  • Elizabeth Anderson – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for the murder of her husband, John Anderson, at Pitt Town. Her body was handed over to surgeons to be dissected and anatomised.
  • James Stock – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for the murder of John Anderson at Pitt Town. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Nicholas Knight – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery of Mrs Pearce on the Liverpool Rd, of two gallons of rum and a quantity of barley.
  • Thomas Collins – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery having violently assaulted and robbed the cart of John Andrews on the Parramatta Road.
  • Hugh MacAlaire – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery having violently assaulted and robbed the cart of John Andrews on the Parramatta Road.
  • Moowattin (also called Daniel Mowatty) – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for the rape of a fifteen-year-old girl at Parramatta. The first indigenous person legally hanged in Australia.
  • Patrick Ryan – 19 December 1825 – Hanged for arson in setting fire to the house of Richard Thompson at Bathurst.
  • John Judd – 30 April 1830 – Hanged for robbery and putting in fear of John Smith in the Singleton area. After receiving sentence of death from Judge Dowling, Judd remarked to the court “My Lord and Gentlemen of the Jury, it is only five minutes choking.”
  • John Roach – 30 April 1830 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear in the Singleton area.

Sydney Cove

  • Thomas BarrettA person wearing a hat

Description automatically generated with low confidence – 27 February 1788 – Barrett was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing or conspiring to steal from government stores. He was the first person hanged in the colony of New South Wales.
  • John Bennett – 2 May 1788 – A 20-year-old convict who was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for theft.
  • Samuel Payton – 28 June 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing shirts, stockings and combs. He was a 20-year-old convict and stonemason.
  • Edward Corbett – 28 June 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for the theft of four cows.
  • James Daly – December 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of a handkerchief from a fellow convict using force and arms.
  • James Baker – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • James Brown – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Richard Lukes – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Thomas Jones – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Luke Haines/Haynes – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Richard Askew/Asky – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Ann/Anne Davis (alias Judith Jones) – 23 November 1789 – The first woman hanged in Australia. A First Fleet convict, she was found guilty of theft from a fellow convict at Sydney Cove. She claimed to be pregnant to avoid the noose and some old women were instructed to inspect her. One of the women told the court, “Gentlemen, she is as much with child as I am.”

Sydney

  • Thomas Sanderson – 10 January 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing with force of arms flour, beef, pork, associated chattels and goods from Thomas Steel and Joseph Bishop.
  • William Chafe – 20 April 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of James Sunnyhill in Sydney Cove.
  • Hugh Low – 24 August 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing. He had behaved with merit during the shipwreck of the Guardian[GR1] ; a letter of pardon arrived from His Majesty 12 months after his execution.
  • James Chapman – 28 July 1791 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking into the house of John Patree and stealing a shirt.
  • James Collington – 8 February 1792 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking into the hut of the baker John Campbell and stealing bread, flour and a check apron. At the hanging tree he addressed the assembled convicts before his execution, warning them to avoid the path he had pursued; but said that he was induced by hunger to commit the crime for which he suffered.
  • John Crowe/Crow – 10 December 1793 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • Archibald Macdonald – 14 July 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • John Hemming – 17 July 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Robert Spriggs.
  • John Bevan – 6 October 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Fielder.
  • John Hill – 16 October 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for murder in the course of robbery. He had fatally stabbed Simon Burn in the left side of the chest at Parramatta.
  • William Smith – 16 November 1795 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Parrish at Prospect Hill.
  • John Fenlow – 8 August 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his servant David Lane at Mulgrave, on the Hawkesbury.
  • Francis Morgan – 30 November 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Simon Raven. Following his execution his body was gibbeted on Pinchgut Island A picture containing outdoor, water, sky, day

Description automatically generatedin Sydney Harbour. His skeleton was still hanging there four years after his execution.
  • John Lawler/Lawor – 30 November 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the public stores.
  • Martin McEwan – 30 November 1796 – Soldier, hanged at Sydney for robbing the public stores.
  • John Rayner – 31 July 1797 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • Johnathan Boroughbridge – April 1798 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy after he and accomplices stole two boats with the intent of escaping the colony.
  • Michael Gibson – April 1798 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy after he and accomplices stole two boats with the intent of escaping the colony.
  • Samuel Wright – February 1799 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Simeon Lord in High St (Lower George St). Wright had been reprieved at the gallows in 1793, when previously sentenced to hang for burglary.
  • Thomas Jones – 6 July 1799 – Publicly hanged in Sydney on the site of the crime for the murder of missionary Samuel Clode in the brickfields. A soldier in the NSW Corps, he had owed the missionary money but when the man came to collect he was murdered by Jones with his wife and two neighbors as accomplices. Clode was stabbed, his throat cut and his skull fractured with an axe. The Jones house was pulled down and burned on orders of the governor, the gallows were erected on its spot and he and two of his accomplices were hanged. Jones’ corpse was later gibbeted.
  • Elizabeth Jones – 6 July 1799 – Wife of Thomas Jones. Hanged at Sydney for her part in the murder of missionary Samuel Clode at the brickfields in Sydney. After being hanged her body was handed over for surgical dissection.
  • William Elberry – 6 July 1799 – Hanged at Sydney for his part in the murder of Samuel Clode, executed where the murder took place then gibbeted.
  • William Meredeth – 4 July 1800 – Hanged at Sydney for escaping from custody.
  • Thomas Thompson – 4 July 1800 – A corporal in the New South Wales Corps. Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
  • James Riley – December 1800 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary. However another source indicates that he may not in fact have been executed.
  • Charles Davis – February 1801 – Hanged at Sydney
  • David Burton – 5 December 1801 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mary Hailey
  • Laughlan Doyle – 14 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • John Lynch – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • John Francis Morgan – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • Patrick Ross – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • Thomas Shanks – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • Michael Wollaghan – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • Laurence Dempsey – 19 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • Timothy Mulch/Mulcahy/Malahoy – 25 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • John Brown – 26 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • James Connors – 26 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
  • Charles Crump – 20 February 1804 – Hanged in Sydney for the theft of nine pieces of chintzes and printed calicoes from William Tough in Sydney Cove.
  • John Brannan – 10 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Sydney.
  • Timothy Hogan – 10 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Sydney.
  • James Bevan (known as ‘Warminster’) – 21 May 1804 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of eight-year-old Elizabeth Douglas.
  • John Green – 21 November 1804 – Hanged at Sydney for rape near Parramatta on 11 November 1804. Green was African-American, born in Pennsylvania.
  • William Miller – 30 September 1805 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Bridget Kean at Hawkesbury.
  • Herbert Keeling – 28 April 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for forging and uttering two promissory notes purporting to be drawn by Henry Kable.
  • James Dabbs – 16 May 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the home of Rowland Hassall at Parramatta.
  • Elias Davis – 4 September 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the dwelling house of Robert Broughton, Parramatta.
  • William Organ – 11 October 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing nine sheep from his employer John Palmer [GR2] between the Hawkesbury and Sydney.
  • Joseph Moreton – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of Henry Williams near Castle Hill.
  • William Mason – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the house of John Prosser and stealing a cart and an article of clothing.
  • John Murphey – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the house of Michael Connor at North Boundary.
  • James Halfpenny – 17 December 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for bushranging and theft of livestock, four muskets and a chest.
  • Stephen Halfpenny – 17 December 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for bushranging and theft of livestock, four muskets and a chest.
  • Joseph Eades – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
  • John Higgins – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
  • William Morgan – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
  • Robert Murray – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing from the property of James Larratts.
  • Benjamin Yeates – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing from the property of James Larratts.
  • John Brown – 30 May 1808 – Hanged at Sydney. A convict who escaped from custody and remained at large in the Van Diemen’s Land wilderness for some 20 months. During this time, with John Lemon (Lemon was shot dead while resisting capture) he was involved in the murder of three soldiers, Corporal John Curry, Private Robert Grindstone and Private James Daniels. For his involvement in the crimes Brown was transported from Van Diemen’s Land to Sydney to stand trial. His body was dissected and gibbeted.
  • Alexander Wilson (alias Charles Boyle) – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Moad.
  • John MacNeal – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery upon his master, having stolen two half casks and two quarter casks of gunpowder from the house of Robert Campbell.
  • Mary Grady – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Charles Stuart at Parramatta.
  • Richard Broughton – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing two head of horned cattle from John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
  • John Cheeseman – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing two head of horned cattle from John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
  • Charles Flynn – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing from on board the ship Hero, lying in Sydney Cove, two spy glasses valued at 40 shillings and a table cloth valued at 10 shillings.
  • Joseph Moreton – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for forging and uttering a promissory note thereby defrauding Benjamin South of Richmond Hill the sum of £21.
  • Thomas Doolan (Dowlan) – 26 August 1809 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of John Styles on the Hawkesbury.
  • John Campbell – June 1810 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Elizabeth Macarthur[GR3] .
  • James Hutchinson – 26 February 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from the shop of Thomas Abbott. Hutchinson was originally condemned to death in June 1810 for burglary however he escaped from custody, upon being recaptured his sentence was reduced to hard labour. In February 1811 he was convicted along with James Ratty of stealing from commercial premises and both were hanged together.
  • James Ratty – 26 February 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cloth, muslin etc. from the shop of Thomas Abbott.
  • Martin Egan – 10 May 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Cooney. After being executed his body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Thomas Clough – 13 May 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Cooney. After being executed his body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
  • John Gould – 9 March 1812 – A soldier of the 73rd Regiment of Foot. Hanged in Sydney for the murder of Margaret Finnie, the wife of a fellow soldier.
  • Peter Gory – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
  • John McCabe – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
  • John Townsend – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
  • Matthew Kearns – 24 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • John Kearns (the Elder) – 24 March 1813 – (Brother of Matthew Kearns). Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • John Kearns (the Younger) – 24 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Richard Berry – 31 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
  • John Mahony – 31 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing (brother of Thomas Mahony who was hanged on 24 March 1813 in Paramatta for a separate offence).
  • Angelo (Giuseppe) LeRose – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of Samuel Larkin on Parramatta Road, Iron Cove.
  • Francis Barry – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing three oxen that were the property of the crown.
  • Richard Dowling – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing three oxen that were the property of the crown.
  • Thomas John Turner – 12 July 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Elizabeth, whom he stabbed to death at Port Dalrymple, Van Diemen’s Land. His body was given up for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Bartholomew Foley – 14 July 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing at Launceston, Van Diemen’s Land.
  • John White – 22 July 1814 – Hanged for his part in the murders of Rowland Edwards and William Jenkins during a botched robbery of the house at the Parramatta Toll Gate. He was accompanied by Dennis Donovan (hanged for other offences on 12 July 1814); it was Donovan who fired the fatal shots. But for his part in the robbery John White was found equally guilty. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Patrick Collins – 20 December 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for his part in the murder of William Alder & Thomas White on the Hawkesbury. Body dissected and anatomised.
  • John Shepherd – 20 December 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mary Bryant in The Rocks, Sydney. His body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
  • John Styles – 7 July 1815 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Roberts at Botany Bay. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Colin Hunter – 4 November 1816 – Hanged in Sydney for the murder at Canterbury of John Miller who was shot during a burglary of his home. Body was dissected and anatomised pursuant to sentence.
  • Thomas Dooley – 4 November 1816 – Hanged in Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of John Miller. The prisoner’s body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation after he was executed.
  • Michael Ryan (real name John Mahony) – 4 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of John Miller. Body was dissected and anatomised pursuant to sentence.
  • James Flavell – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Thomas Reeds in Castlereagh St.
  • William Tripp – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Thomas Reeds in Castlereagh St.
  • John Palmer – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a bullock from the herd of Capt. Eber Bunker [GR4] at Liverpool.
  • Samuel Smith – 3 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Randall at George Town, Van Diemen’s Land
  • John Walker – 10 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Suddis at Wilberforce.
  • Ralph Pearson – 10 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Suddis at Wilberforce.
  • Thomas McGiff – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of John Parkes at Petersham.
  • Thomas Brown – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a mare, the property of Thomas Arkill.
  • Patrick Ducey – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a cow, the property of Patrick Devoy.
  • Bartholomew Roach – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing two heifers, the property of John Croker.
  • William Wallis – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery in the house of John Harris[GR5] .
  • Edward Haley – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a horse, cart and other sundries near Parramatta.
  • Samuel Pollock – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a horse, cart and other sundries near Parramatta.
  • James Fitzpatrick – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the house of John Brown at Portland Head.
  • Pedro Aldanoes (also called Peter Adams) – 7 December 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Joseph Yeates outside Parramatta.
  • Timothy Buckley – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of district constable William Cosgrove at South Creek.
  • David Brown – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of William Cosgrove.
  • Timothy Ford – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of William Cosgrove.
  • Thomas Ray – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
  • John Jones – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
  • Thomas Smith – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
  • John Green – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for housebreaking and attempted murder at Cockle Bay.
  • John Brennan – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for housebreaking and attempted murder at Cockle Bay.
  • John Petree (alias McIntosh) – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery outside Liverpool.
  • Matthew Dace – 31 December 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Dennis Guiney on the Parramatta Road.
  • Robert Parsons – 31 December 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Dennis Guiney on the Parramatta Road.
  • William Taylor – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in Castlereagh Street.
  • James Ingley – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in Castlereagh Street.
  • James Garland – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery of store receipts at Parramatta.
  • Thomas McGowran – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
  • Daniel (or David) Bell – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing. Originally transported on the Friendship (1800) for his role in the Irish Rebellion.
  • Annesley McGrath – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
  • George Rouse – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the residence of Lieutenant Hector Macquarie.
  • Dennis Malloy – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle.
  • Thomas Ford (alias Ward) – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the residence of Anne Robinson on the Parramatta Road.
  • John Kirby – 18 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Burragong, also called Jack, an indigenous tracker, in the Newcastle district.
  • George Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
  • James Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
  • Solomon Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
  • James Clancy (Clency) – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from a house and violent robbery of a child.
  • John Bagnell – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for house-breaking and highway robbery.
  • Nicholas Cooke – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from the house of James Seville near Constitution Hill, and assaulting Constable Edward Dillon with a stone.
  • Edward Luffin – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle duffing.
  • Michael Tracey – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at the house of John Waite.
  • John Sullivan – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • Daniel O’Brien – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery.
  • John O’Brien – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle duffing.
  • William Swift – 17 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Maria Minton at Richmond.
  • James Robinson – 17 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer Charles Linton. Robinson was from Angola.
  • Francis Pascoe – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Michael Donnelly.
  • John Ryan – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
  • Miles Jordan – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in the Hawkesbury district.
  • Pasco Haddycott – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Michael Donnelly.
  • William McGeary (Geary) – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for a string of highway robberies on the Windsor Road.
  • Thomas Smith – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
  • John Whiteman – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
  • William Kennedy – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary & theft of a hat, comb and razor from Henry McAlister near Prospect.
  • John Mills – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
  • Charles Young – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
  • John Cochrane – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
  • Francis Murphy – 6 April 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Nicholas Devine[GR6]  (former Superintendent of Convicts) at what is now Erskineville.
  • William Harris – 6 April 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of James Cribb on the Parramatta Road.
  • John Maloney – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
  • William Varley – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
  • Thomas Roach – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
  • George Young – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of a cart belonging to John Blaxland at South Creek.
  • James Dowden – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of John Sunderland, south of Parramatta.
  • Joseph Knowles – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from John Price’s residence at the Parramatta Toll-House.
  • George Barke – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from John Price’s residence at the Parramatta Toll-House.
  • Thomas Barry – 14 October 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel and Esther Bradley at Birchgrove.
  • Valentine Wood – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing Sergeant Barlow on the Prospect Road.
  • William Baxter – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of Robert Hawkins on the Dog Trap Road.
  • Thomas Till – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a boat at Port Macquarie.
  • William Poole – 22 May 1823 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally sentenced to death for leading a party of convicts in escape into the hinterland, in the hope they could walk to Timor.
  • Edward Gorman – 13 October 1823 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Wells during a robbery at Minto. Gorman was recognizable for his “remarkable tooth”.
  • Robert Grant – 15 January 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally condemned to death in 1822 for horse theft.
  • Thomas Harley – 4 March 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally sentenced to death in 1822 for burglary from the house of Robert Campbell [GR7] in George St.
  • Cornelius Fitzpatrick – 28 June 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Bentley outside Newcastle.
  • John Donovan – 23 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Tom Brown at Emu Plains.
  • John Hand – 30 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Minton at Richmond.
  • James Stack – 30 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Minton at Richmond.
  • Martin Benson – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek near Windsor.
  • Eliza Campbell – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of her master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
  • James Coogan – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
  • Anthony Rodney – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
  • John Sprole – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
  • Jeremiah Buckley – 4 April 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Canterbury.
  • Edmond Bates – 11 April 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for beating his wife Julia to death during a Christmas Day drunken rage at Kissing Point.
  • James Wright – 30 May 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe murder of his wife Mary Ann at the Hawkesbury.
  • James Webb – 19 August 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Robert Collett at Toongabbie.
  • Patrick Moloney – 12 September 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Elliott at Port Macquarie.
  • Daniel Leary – 12 December 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for rape of Mary Grainger at Wallis Plains.
  • John Burke – 6 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Cogan at Mulgoa.
  • William Corbett – 6 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Great Western Road.
  • Duncan McCallum – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
  • Peter Roberts – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
  • William Patient – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
  • William Morrison – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
  • Andrew White – 1 May 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Taggart at Grant’s Creek, outside Bathurst.
  • William Cusack – 3 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Campbelltown.
  • John Hossle – 3 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of John Blackman at Bathurst.
  • Bridget Fairless – 12 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in what is now the Leichhardt section of Parramatta Road.
  • John Connolly (Collins) – 12 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in what is now the Leichhardt section of Parramatta Road.
  • Charles Butler – 3 August 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Kitty Carman (Catherine Collins) at Portland Head.
  • Joseph Lockett – 7 August 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road near Cabramatta.
  • Isaac Smith – 11 September 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable William Green at Captain John Brabyn’s estate, Clifton, Windsor.
  • George Worrall (Fisher’s Ghost Murder[GR8] ) – 5 February 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Frederick Fisher at Campbelltown.
  • William Leddington – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
  • James Smith – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
  • John Edwards – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
  • Richard Johnson – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
  • Edward Coulthurst – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington A ship in the water

Description automatically generated with low confidenceat Norfolk Island
  • William Ward – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of Michael Foley at Bringelly
  • Thomas Power – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of Michael Foley at Bringelly
  • John Curry – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joseph Cox on the road between Liverpool and Parramatta
  • William Webb – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery and putting in fear of the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill
  • John Lynch – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the burglary of the house of Thomas Parnell at Richmond. Lynch was also involved in the Wellington mutiny.
  • Michael Coogan – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery. Coogan was an American who had also attempted piracy of a ship called The Liberty
  • Thomas Quinn – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill. Before the noose was fastened Quinn kicked off his boots “and they fell with a hollow sound on his coffin, which lay directly under”.
  • Patrick Geary – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill
  • John Goff – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
  • Edward Moore – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
  • William Watson – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
  • Black Tommy – 31 December 1827 – (sometimes called Jackey-Jackey) Wiradjuri man from Bathurst district, hanged at Sydney for the murder of Geoffrey Connell at Reedy Swamp, near Bathurst.
  • William Lee – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
  • Jon Carrington – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
  • James Charlton – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
  • William (or Michael) Pearce – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery in the house of Francis Forbes at Liverpool.
  • Charles Connor – 13 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of James Mackenzie at Windsor.
  • Lot McNamara – 17 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Janet Mackellar at Minto.
  • William Johnson – 24 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for the murder of Morris Morgan at Moreton Bay.
  • George Kilroy (Kildray, Gilroy, Kilray) – 24 March 1828 – An associate of Jack Donahue. Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Plomer on the Richmond Road.
  • William Smith – 24 March 1828 – An associate of Jack Donahue[GR9] . Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Plomer on the Richmond road. On the first attempt the rope snapped and Smith fell to the ground. He was taken away until Kilroy and Johnson were declared dead and their corpses removed, then he was hanged again.
  • William Regan – 5 May 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Davis in Castlereagh St.
  • John Timmins – 11 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
  • Thomas Ford – 11 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
  • John Curtis – 16 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a cow from the herd of William Wentworth,[GR10]  at Bringelly.
  • James (or Joseph) Johnson (also called Philip Macauley, Phillip Gawley) – 16 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of George Tills outside Liverpool.
  • John Welsh – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and attempted murder of George Barber at Picton.
  • Joseph Bradley – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
  • Patrick Troy – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
  • Patrick Kegney (sometimes Stegney) – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
  • Joseph (John) Spicer – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
  • John (James) Tomlins – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
  • James Henry – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a cow at Stone Quarry Creek.
  • Samuel Clarke – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
  • Thomas Quigley – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
  • Alexander Browne – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for sodomy with William Lyster on the whaler Royal Sovereign.
  • John Welch – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and the armed assault of Constable William Wade at Bong Bong. Welch was about sixteen at the time of his execution. “He cried bitterly”.
  • William Bayne – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and armed assault of Constable Wade at Bong Bong.
  • Thomas Whisken (or Wiscott) – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
  • William Owens – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
  • James Holmes – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
  • John Iron – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery of John Browne at Botany.
  • Thomas Ryan – 29 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James McGrath just north of Richmond.
  • Michael Green – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
  • John Payne (sometimes Paid) – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill.
  • Edward Whelan – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill.
  • George Skinner – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
  • John Price – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
  • Michael Lynch – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Thomas Kendall at Pitt Town.
  • Florence (or Henry) Driscoll – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Isaac Cornwall at Richmond.
  • Lot Molds – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Thomas Kendall at Pitt Town.
  • William Riddell – 23 March 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Heley in the Muswellbrook district. Riddell apparently desired Heley’s wife; Heley was found dismembered in a stump hole. Riddell was an atheist, republican, radical, autodidact. He ran up the steps to the gallows, took snuff and said “I prefer death to living in chains and fetters in such a country as this”.
  • Charles White – 8 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Murphy at Luskintyre.
  • John Brunger (also called Brugan/Burgen) – 18 Apr 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Perfoot (also called Parfitt) at Moreton Bay.
  • Thomas Matthews – 18 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Connolly, a fellow work-gang member, at Moreton Bay.
  • Thomas Allen – 18 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Connolly, a fellow work-gang member, at Moreton Bay.
  • Patrick Sullivan – 20 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Condron at Moreton Bay.
  • William Bowen – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Leslie Duguid at Wallis Plains (East Maitland).
  • Peter Reilly – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Ellis Hall at Wallis Plains.
  • James Smart – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the home of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
  • James Gallagher – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
  • John Crowther – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
  • Thomas Slater – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for assault on Betty Griffiths with a tomahawk in Cumberland St. Sydney.
  • William Yemms (Jems) – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the government stores at Port Macquarie.
  • James Gardiner – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the government stores at Port Macquarie.
  • William Davison – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
  • John Whelan – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
  • John Shorter – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
  • George Smith – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Illawarra district.
  • John Allwright – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Illawarra district.
  • George McDonald – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Illawarra district.
  • James Naughton – 25 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Elizabeth Watson. He was previously charged, with Edward Gorman, with murder in 1823.
  • Timothy Murphy – 1 June 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow-convict John Monaghan at Mt York while they were working on the road to Bathurst.
  • John Slack (alias York) – 22 June 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary at the house of Timothy Beard at Cabramatta.
  • George Groves – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Richard Brooks at Denham Court.
  • James McColville – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Richard Brooks at Denham Court.[GR11] 
  • John Salt – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
  • Richard Peacock – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
  • William Pitts – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
  • John Neilson – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Windsor.
  • James Barnes – 13 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joshua Moore on the Liverpool Road.
  • Joseph Stephenson – 13 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joshua Moore on the Liverpool Road.
  • Daniel Grier – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • Charles Penson (Tinson, Tinsal) – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary
  • Joseph Parker – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John “Kangaroo Jack” Hazeldine at Gibraltar Creek in the Cox’s River district.
  • George Williams – 22 October 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery, assault and battery of William Hickey
  • John Sly – 28 December 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery
  • Thomas Finley – 11 January 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of overseer Edward Walsh at Bathurst.
  • Stephen Smith – 5 April 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow convict William Davis at Moreton Bay
  • John Hawes – 5 April 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow convict William Davis at Moreton Bay
  • Henry Muggleton – 31 May 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mark King at Moreton Bay
  • Daniel Kirwan (Curwen) – 7 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of a constable on the Windsor Road
  • John Martin – 7 June 1830 – Known as ‘Jack the Drummer’. Hanged at Sydney for the rape of seven-year-old Eliza Deering in a yard off George Street
  • Michael Toole – 7 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear at Pitt Water
  • Thomas McCormick – 21 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting the occupants in fear
  • Jack Field – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Toongabbie
  • Henry O’Neil – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Toongabbie
  • Harry Cade – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Prospect. Cade was transported at the age of fourteen and executed after he turned sixteen
  • William Dalton – 28 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Ellison near Parramatta
  • William Coleman – 13 December 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing his master Samuel Terry[GR12] . Coleman stole money and buried it in a bottle in Terry’s garden.

Rose Hill

  • George Mitton – 1788 – Hanged at Rose Hill (Parramatta) for robbery.
  • William Harris – 28 October 1790 – Broke into a house in Rose Hill and assaulted one of the occupants, stole three pounds of beef and one pound of flour, a frock and a book. He was publicly hanged at Rose Hill.
  • Edward Wildblood – 28 October 1790 – A co-offender with the aforementioned William Harris, he was convicted of breaking into a house in Rose Hill, assaulting one of the occupants and stealing three pounds of beef and one pound of flour, a frock and a book. He was publicly hanged at Rose Hill.

(Rose Hill was officially renamed Parramatta in June 1791)

Parramatta

  • James Derry – 19 September 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
  • Matthew McNally – 1 December 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
  • Thomas Doyle – 1 December 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
  • Simon Taylor – 20 May 1799 – Hanged at Parramatta for the murder of his wife Anne Taylor.
  • Richard Weston – May or June 1800 – Hanged at Parramatta for vagrancy and theft.
  • Charles Hill – 8 March 1804 – Freeman who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Parramatta
  • Samuel Humes/Hughes – 8 March 1804 – Convict, a principal and informant who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Executed at Parramatta, then gibbeted.
  • John Place – 8 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Parramatta.
  • Patrick McDermot – 19 May 1806 – Hanged at Parramatta for burglary from the house of Matthew Pearce at Seven Hills and theft of clothing items.
  • John Kenny – 24 January 1807 – Hanged and gibbetted at the scene of the crime in Parramatta for the murder of Mary Smith.
  • Michael Bagan – 20 June 1808 – Entered the house of Jane Codd near Parramatta, assaulted her and stole items from her home. Hanged at the Parramatta brickfields.
  • Felix Donnelly – 20 June 1808 – Entered the house of Jane Codd near Parramatta, assaulted her and stole items from her home. Hanged at the Parramatta brickfields.
  • John Dunn – 25 August 1811 – Hanged at Parramatta for the murder of Mary Rowe, his body was handed over to the medical officer at Parramatta General Hospital for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Pearce Conden – 24 March 1813 – Publicly hanged at the site of the crime in George St Parramatta for the murder of Joseph Sutton. Body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Thomas Mahony – 24 March 1813 – Publicly hanged at the site of the crime in George St Parramatta for the murder of Joseph Sutton. Body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
  • Matthew Craven – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged outside Parramatta for ‘divers robberies’.
  • Thomas Cavanaugh – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged outside Parramatta for armed robberies.
  • Thomas (John) Ashton – 2 December 1829 – Hanged at Parramatta for rape of ten-year-old Elizabeth Price.

Castle Hill

  • Patrick Gannon – 23 March 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for rape, attempted murder and robbery.
  • Francis Simpson – 23 March 1803 – Hanged along with Patrick Gannon at Castle Hill for robbery.
  • John Lynch – 27 September 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for the assault and robbery of Samuel Phelps at Hawkesbury.
  • James Tracey – 27 September 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for the assault and robbery of Samuel Phelps at Hawkesbury.
  • William Johnston – 9 March 1804 – Convict, a principal along with Phillip Cunningham in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Executed at Castle Hill, then gibbeted.
  • John Neal – 9 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at the Government Farm, Castle Hill.
  • George Harrington – 9 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at the Government Farm, Castle Hill.

Hawkesbury & Windsor

  • Thomas McLaughlane (the elder) – 7 October 1803 – Hanged at Hawkesbury, for robbery with violence at the house of John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
  • Phillip Cunningham – 5 March 1804 – Convict, leader of the Castle Hill Rebellion.[GR13]  Summarily hanged on the steps of the government storehouse at Greenhills (present day Windsor).
  • James Davis – 19 June 1810 – Hanged at Portland Head (Hawkesbury) for burglary from the house of John Cox.
  • Thomas Begley – 31 August 1829 – Hanged at Windsor for burglary at Mulgoa.
  • Michael Rafter – 29 January 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for a litany of burglaries in the Portland Head district.
  • John Smith – 29 January 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for rape of his seven-year-old daughter.
  • John Tiernan – 25 August 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for highway robbery, horse theft and stealing. Aged seventeen, Tiernan objected to being interrupted in his prayers on the scaffold and wrestled the executioner over the edge of the platform.

Newcastle

  • John Pagan – 7 January 1820 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of James White.
  • William Smith – 7 January 1820 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of James White.

Burwood

  • Daniel Watkins – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for the armed robbery of Thomas Bartie Clay at Burwood.
  • Thomas Mustin (Muston) – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for robbery and putting in fear at the house of Richard Morgan on the Liverpool Road.
  • John Brown – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for robbery and putting in fear at the house of Richard Morgan on the Liverpool Road.

Bankstown

  • Patrick Sullivan – 18 October 1826 – Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown (‘Irish Town’, now Bass Hill) for bushranging[GR14] .
  • James Moran – 18 October 1826 – Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown (‘Irish Town’, now Bass Hill) for bushranging.

Campbelltown

  • John Holmes – 21 August 1829 – Hanged at Campbelltown for setting fire to a barn belonging to James Bean at Campbelltown.
  • Richard McCann – 6 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for theft, assault and putting in fear in the Goulburn district
  • Thomas Beasley – 8 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary with assault in the Airds district
  • Joseph Moorbee (Mowerby, alias Nuttall) – 8 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary with assault in the Airds district
  • Mark Byfield – 8 March 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a silver watch
  • Broger – 30 August 1830 – Indigenous. Publicly hanged at Campbelltown for the murder of John Rivett at Kangaroo Valley
  • Peter Dew (alias Saunders) – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary and putting in fear at Goulburn
  • William Haggerty – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for cattle theft from Francis Lawless in the Liverpool district
  • John Spellary – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for cattle theft from Francis Lawless in the Liverpool district
  • James Welsh – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary from the house of David Reece at Burra Burra, near Taralga.

Maitland

  • Michael Brown – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
  • Patrick Corcoran – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
  • Andrew Cullen – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
  • Richard Turnstyle – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
  • William Chandler – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for horse theft from Peter Cunningham at Merton (near Denman).

Liverpool

  • Jean Herman Maas – 1 September 1830 – Hanged at Liverpool for forgery.
  • James McGibbon – 1 September 1830 – Hanged at Liverpool for forgery.

Bathurst

  • Ralph Entwistle (“The Ribbon Gang”[GR15] ) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood near present-day Georges Plains, bushranging and horse theft
  • Thomas Dunne (“The Ribbon Gang”)- 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
  • Dominic Daley (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
  • James Driver (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
  • William Gahan (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
  • Patrick Gleeson (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
  • Michael Kearney (“The Ribbon Gang”)- 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
  • John Kenny (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
  • John Shepherd (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
  • Robert Webster (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft.

1831-1839

  • William Bubb – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island.
  • John Cook – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island.
  • James Murphy – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island
  • John Mason – 15 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for armed robberies at Kingdon Ponds (near Scone) and Liverpool Plains
  • Edward Bowen – 15 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the house of John Town, Upper Hunter (Goulburn River).
  • Hugh Duffy – 15 January 1831 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear at the house of John Town.
  • Patrick Feeney – 15 January 1831 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear at the house of John Town.
  • Lawrence Moore – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
  • Thomas Kite – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
  • Dennis Kelly – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
  • Anthony Connor – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong.
  • David O’Hara – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the house of James Raymond.
  • Thomas Woolley – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the house of James Raymond.
  • John Welch – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for attempted murder at Norfolk Island.
  • Joseph Crampton – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for highway robbery with violence of George Cubitt at Parramatta.
  • Charles McManus – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of John Norman at Moreton Bay.
  • John Thomas – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing in the Menangle Park area.
  • James Ready – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Annandale.
  • William Webber – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the road from South Creek to Parramatta.
  • John Roberts – 5 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James McIlroy (James Michael Roy) at Patterson’s Plains. Roberts was Welsh and spoke little English. His corpse was sent for dissection but the remains were crudely discarded and were found scattered in the Domain.
  • John Leadbeater (alias Onions) – 23 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Maxwell at Patterson’s Plains.
  • Thomas Lucas – 23 September 1831 – Hanged for the murder of Constable Robert “Long Bob” Watersworth in the West Pennant Hills area.
  • David Pegg – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Hunter Valley.
  • Richard Anscombe – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Hunter Valley.
  • Hugh Carberry – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for theft of a horse and cattle.

Skeleton and chains used to gibbet a man (William Mooney or John White) convicted of murder and hung at Goulburn in 1831 William Mooney – 16 November 1831 – Publicly hanged on the outskirts of Goulburn for the murder of his overseer Maurice Roach near Crookwell. Body hung in gibbet until ordered buried by Governor Bourne in 1833.

  • John White – 16 November 1831 – Publicly hanged on the outskirts of Goulburn for the murder of his overseer Maurice Roach near Crookwell. Body hung in gibbet until ordered buried by Governor Bourne in 1833.
  • Edward Slingsby – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for the murder of William Payne at Dunn’s Plains, outside Rockley.
  • Michael Lynch – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for aiding and abetting the murder of William Payne.
  • Denis O’Brien – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for aiding and abetting the murder of William Payne.
  • Charles Smithwick – 27 February 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of George Miller at Razorback.
  • Patrick McGuire – 5 March 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of fellow convict Matthew Gallagher at Moreton Bay.
  • Thomas Wood (alias Carberry) – 8 March 1832 – Hanged for highway robbery outside Parramatta.
  • Patrick Burke – 14 March 1832 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at the scene of his crime for highway robbery at Appin.
  • Thomas Brennan – 6 April 1832 – Shot by military firing squad at Dawes Battery, Sydney. A private soldier of His Majesty’s 39th Regiment of Foot, Brennan had fired at his sergeant with the intent of killing him.
  • John Hammell – 7 May 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer George Williamson with a spade at Grose Farm (today Sydney University).
  • John Fitzsimmons – 14 June 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for arson. (Fitzsimmons set ablaze a stack of wheat at Penrith).
  • John Troy – 18 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and burglary at Canterbury.
  • Thomas Smith – 18 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and burglary at Canterbury.
  • Edward Kennedy – 23 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for divers highway robberies at Parramatta and Cabramatta.
  • Edward Fordham – 5 November 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Bradford at Lower Minto.
  • Russell Crawford – 8 December 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Suttor[GR16]  on the Windsor Road.
  • James Lockhard – 4 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Murdoch Campbell in the Narellan area.
  • Patrick Brady – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Daniel Stewart at Webb’s Creek, Windsor.
  • John Walsh – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Henry Kenyon at Bathurst.
  • James Dwyer – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Henry Dawkins at Bathurst.
  • John Bowen – 7 March 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear at Inverary.
  • Joseph Coleman – 18 March 1833 – Hanged at Old Banks, Paterson Plains for the attempted murder of Edward Cory.
  • William Carney – 20 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Keith at Penrith.
  • William Jones – 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road.
  • Robert Mullins – 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road.
  • Patrick Neagle (Nangle, Naigle)– 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road
  • Edward Green – 27 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Edwards at a shop in Pitt St.
  • Richard Long – 11 July 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Dog Trap Road.
  • Henry Cook – 11 July 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Dog Trap Road.
  • John Richardson – 5 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Maitland.
  • Henry Beard – 5 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Maitland.
  • William Johnstone – 6 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Prospect Hill.
  • Joseph Clifford – 6 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Prospect Hill.
  • Terence Byrne – 12 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Ann Davis at Lane Cove.
  • Edward Giles – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at Sutton Forest.
  • Jonathan Jones – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of an elderly lady, Mary Larkin, of silver, handkerchiefs and jewlery on the Liverpool Road.
  • John (“Flash Kiddy”) Elliott – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of a butcher named Mason in Liverpool St.
  • George Giddons – 28 November 1833 – Hanged for attempted murder of Thomas Millbourne at Port Macquarie.
  • Anthony Hitchcock (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Castle Forbes for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach at Patrick’s Plains, Hunter Valley.
  • John Poole (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Castle Forbes for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach at Patrick’s Plains, Hunter Valley.
  • James Riley (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach
  • John Perry (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach
  • James Ryan (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach.
  • Michael Kearns – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault on the person of James Podman at Bathurst.
  • Bryant Kyne – 13 January 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Gavarin (Gevan, Gavan, Gavanagh, Govarin) at the Balmain residence of the solicitor-general, John Plunkett.
  • Patrick Gallagher – 23 January 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Ellen Walsh in the vicinity of St Mary’s Rd, Domain.
  • William Elliott – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of police corporal James McNally on Parramatta Road near Concord.
  • William Gills – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Donald McIntyre[GR17]  at Invermein, near Scone.
  • William “Blue Stockings” Johnson – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of David Ramsay at Fish River in the Bathurst district.
  • John Elliott – 14 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Frances Cunningham at Sutton Forest
  • Michael Carey – 19 May 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for sexual assault on ten-year-old Michael Minton (son of Michael Minton, murdered in the Richmond district in 1824) on the Parramatta Rd. Minton and his younger friend (who was witness to the crime) were ordered by the magistrate to attend the hanging.
  • William Chapman – 18 August 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel Chapman (alias Priest) at Snails Bay in 1831
  • Henry Mills – 18 August 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel Chapman (alias Priest) at Snails Bay in 1831
  • Thomas Tattersdale – 10 November 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dr Robert Wardell in the Marrickville-Petersham area.
  • John Jenkins – 19 November 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dr Robert Wardell[GR18] .
  • Michael Gallagher – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of John Hinton in the Bargo Brush.
  • John Edwards – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of Corporal John Cock of the Mounted Police in the Lake Bathurst area.
  • John Walton – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the attempted murder of Corporal Cock.
  • Edward McManus – 9 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of sly-grog providore Alice Cooper (Bunton) at Emu Plains.
  • William Weatherwick – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Smith on the North Shore.
  • William Phineas Bowles – 16 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Sarah in Bathurst St.
  • Charles Norford – 20 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Patrick Lynch. Norford was shaving Lynch when he suddenly cut his throat.
  • Mickey Mickey – 28 February 1835 – Indigenous. Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Margaret Hanswall at Watagan.
  • John McCarthy – 4 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable Duncan Kennedy near Carcoar.
  • Patrick Kilmartin – 11 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Hamilton on the Botany Road.
  • Henry Barlow – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
  • John Carter – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
  • John Bryant – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
  • James Barton – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool coach at Penrith.
  • William Scannell (alias Daniel Hughes) – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
  • John Molloy – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of Alexander Paine.
  • John Stocking – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of Alexander Paine.
  • Lawrence Whelahan – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for assault on Mary Kelly at Canterbury.
  • Joseph Keys – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Charles Fisher Shepherd at Long Flats, Monaro.
  • James Masterman – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo (Stonemason’s Arms).
  • William Salter (Sawder, Solder) – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo.
  • James Thompson – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo.
  • James Green – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting at Constable James Brown in the Braidwood district.
  • John Gould (Joseph Gold) – 24 August 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife at Bar Point. “One of the children of this unfortunate man was carried on the shoulders of a spectator, to witness the dying struggles of his parent.”
  • Charley – 4 September 1835 – Gringai[GR19]  man, actual name not recorded. Hanged at Dungog for his involvement in the murder of five white settlers at Rawdon Vale as part of the frontier conflict in the Barrington River district (“The Mackenzie Murders”). In Charley’s case, he was named specifically for being responsible for the death of Fred Simmons.
  • George Bagley – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Newcastle for the attempted murder of Hugh McIntyre near Maitland.
  • Patrick Cassidy – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Newcastle for the attempted murder of Hugh McIntyre near Maitland.
  • William O’Neill – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery.
  • Thomas Solder – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • Hugh Caffey – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
  • Peter Doyle – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of William Akers outside Bathurst.
  • Martin Byrne – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of William Akers outside Bathurst.
  • William Jeffries – 9 November 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Richard Somerville at Port Macquarie.
  • Richard Bayliss – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
  • John Williams – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
  • Thomas Connolly – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
  • John Maher – 8 December 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Peter Robinson at Maitland.
  • Thomas Arundell – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Margaret Fitzpatrick at Lewis Ponds, near Bathurst.
  • Edward Jones – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Margaret Fitzpatrick at Lewis Ponds, near Bathurst.
  • William Doyle – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Molloy near Mount York.
  • William Baker – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Mary at Penrith.
  • Robert Duffy – 15 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the stabbing murder of his wife Mary Duffy in Phillip St.
  • John Whitehead – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Lane Cove.
  • John Hare – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Major William Elrington at Bathurst.
  • John Treish (Frisk, Fish, Trish, Frish) – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Lane Cove.
  • John Smith – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Hunter Valley.
  • William Kitchen – 9 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Ann in Harrington St.
  • John Wales (also called Watt) – 10 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and putting in bodily fear of Constable Daniel Riley near Bong Bong.
  • Timothy Pickering – 10 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and putting in bodily fear of Daniel Riley near Bong Bong.
  • Joseph Free – 11 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Brown at Invermein.
  • James Tobin – 16 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fox at Marks’ Farm, Illawarra.
  • Michael Maloney – 17 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Richard Hamlyn at Goulburn.
  • James Hare – 17 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Richard Hamlyn at Goulburn.
  • Terence Lavell – 21 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Honora Davey at Williams River.
  • James Sproule (alias Fraser) – 21 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Honora Davey at Williams River.
  • John Gore – 10 August 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Thomas Wood at Cassilis.
  • William Walker – 10 August 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Wood at Cassilis.
  • John Gregg – 2 September 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in the Penrith district.
  • James Smith – 14 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Jack Haydon between Marulan & Bungonia. Smith was the first non-Indigenous Australian-born person to be executed.
  • Thomas (or James) Walker – 18 November 1836 – Hanged for murder of fellow bushranger John Poole in the Hunter Valley.
  • John Mead – 29 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape and sodomy of Julius Rudder, aged ten, on the Old Botany Road.
  • William (or James or Thomas) Cook – 29 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Alice Kent in the Upper Hunter Valley.
  • Andrew Gillies – 15 February 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Kelly near Yass.
  • George Capsey – 7 March 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and assault of Henry Jarvis near Berrima.
  • John Jones – 8 May 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Private Thomas O’Brien, a soldier of the 50th Regiment, on the highway outside Berrima.
  • John Cooper – 9 June 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder on Dominic Gannon at Port Macquarie.
  • William Taylor – 9 June 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for aggravated highway robbery of Mr Thomas Hyacinth Macquoid on the road between Berrima and Mittagong.
  • Michael Cagney (or Cogner) – 1 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Hughes at Maitland.
  • Louis Williams – 1 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John McCormick at the Gwydir River.
  • Philip Hennessy – 5 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Alexander Hamilton in the Hunter Valley.
  • Dennis Broslughan (sometimes Brossley) – 5 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Alexander Hamilton in the Hunter Valley.
  • John Cary Willis – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dennis Maloney at Port Macquarie.
  • Edward Doyle – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and putting in fear at the house of James Wright, Bay of IslandsNew Zealand[GR20] .
  • George Woolf – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting and wounding with intent to kill Patrick Sheedy, a police corporal who was attempting to arrest him at Bathurst.
  • William Moore – 22 February 1838 – Publicly hanged in High St, Maitland for the murder of his master John Hoskyns.
  • Patrick Cuffy – 20 March 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and assault on William Vivers at Bureen.
  • John Toole – 20 March 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and assault on William Vivers at Bureen.
  • Edward Tufts – 29 April 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Jones at Taree.
  • George Comerford – 30 May 1838 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable Matthew Thompkins at Deep Creek, near Eganstown in the Port Phillip District. Comerford had murdered (or been involved in the murder of) at least seven men.
  • Bryant Flannigan – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Nagle, “Big Mary” Nagle and Patrick Riley at Bunbejong, near Mudgee.
  • Daniel Maloney – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Mahoney at Hassan’s Walls.
  • Dennis Haberlin (Haverden) – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at the house of John and Sarah Rawles and the attempted rape of Sarah Rawles, at Woodford Bay, Longueville.
  • Thomas Ribbands – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Ann Jones, at Taree. Ann’s husband John had been stabbed to death by one of their servants, Edward Tufts, earlier that year.
  • William Wilkins – 4 September 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for assault and robbery of Thomas Humphries near Maitland.
  • William Worthington (“Bumblefoot”) – 4 September 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe murder of Jack Swan at Port Macquarie.
  • William Hawkins – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • John Johnson – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • Edward Foley – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre[GR21] .
  • Jim Oates – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • James Parry – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • Charlie Kilmeister – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • John Russell – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • William Price – 21 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John “My Lord” Dunn in Sorrell Street Parramatta. The victim was well known in the district at the time; he was seventy years old, a convict who had been in the colony thirty years, “very deformed” and less than a metre tall.
  • Timothy O’Donnell – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Alexander McEdwards at Mt Campbell.
  • Michael Walsh – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Alexander McEdwards at Mt Campbell.
  • Edward Hall – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fitzpatrick at Currawang.
  • James Mayne – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fitzpatrick at Currawang
  • James Magee – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Catherine at Cowpastures (Camden)
  • Thomas Sumner – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
  • George Cooke – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
  • Ryder Gorman – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
  • Dennis Dacey – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
  • Thomas Finney – 20 August 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Elizabeth at Cockfighter’s Creek (Wollombi)
  • Patrick Quilken – 6 September 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William MacLaren at Barrington Tops
  • William Morris – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for murder of Thomas Renton at the Bargon River
  • Peter Scullion (Scallyen) – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and murder of Andrew Shanley at Sutton Forest
  • Joseph Saunders – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Andrew Shanley
  • George Carey – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for having stolen property in possession and abetting the murder of Shanley
  • George (John) Gorman – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Ann Daly at Maitland
  • James Davies – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Maher at Black Creek (Branxton)
  • Alexander Telford – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of James Maher
  • Archibald Taylor – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of James Maher
  • Llewellyn Powell – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Abraham Meares near Gilgandra
  • James Lynch – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding & abetting the Meares murder
  • Charles Clipp – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding & abetting the Meares murder.

1840s

  • John (or James) Hunt (“The Doctor”) – 10 March 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for murder of Dan McCarthy at Regentville
  • Thomas Whitton – 19 March 1840 – Publicly hanged at Goulburn for the murder of John Hawker and arson at Oak Park, Crookwell. Whitton had earlier murdered John Kennedy Hume, brother of the explorer Hamilton Hume
  • William Newman – 8 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Harry Hodgson at Rosemount station, Patrick’s Plains (Singleton).
  • James Martin – 8 December 1840 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Jack Johnston at Gammon Plains
  • James Mason – 8 December 1840 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for being an accessory to the murder of Jack Johnston
  • Michael Monaghan (sometimes recorded as Hinnigan, Minighan) – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer Robert Archer at Glendon
  • Enoch Bradley – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of George Woodman at Yass
  • John Francis Legge – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Sarah Brooks, his wife’s four-year-old child
  • John Shea (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Graham at Scone
  • Edward Davis[GR22]  (“Teddy the Jew Boy”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham. The “Jew Boy” Gang terrorised the Hunter River district with numerous robberies and murders.
  • Robert Chitty (“Jew Boy Gang“) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
  • James Everett (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
  • John Marshall (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
  • James Bryant (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
  • Richard Glanville (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
  • Michael Bradley – 5 April 1841 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Catherine Harrison near Morpeth
  • Charles Cannon – 25 May 1841 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Robert Bulmer at Cherry Tree Hill, near Carcoar
  • Michael Lynch – 4 June 1841 – Hanged for murder of Matthew Sullivan near Jamberoo. Lynch is assumed to be the last person hanged on the gallows at the Old Sydney Gaol, George Street
  • Patrick Curran – 21 October 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Berrima for attempted murder of constable Patrick McGuire at the Black Range, Molonglo, and rape of Mary Wilsmore at Bungendore
  • Robert Hudson – 29 October 1841 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering fellow convict Dean West at the hospital, Macquarie St
  • George Stroud (Stroode) – 29 October 1841 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering his wife Sarah at Concord. Stroud and Hudson were the first men executed at Darlinghurst Gaol
  • Thomas Horner – 5 April 1842 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of his overseer James Stone near Shannon Vale. Stone was the former wrestler known as “Little Elephant”
  • Patrick Kleighran (Clearehan, Clerehan, Clearham) – 22 April 1842 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of Timothy Murphy on the Murrumbidgee.
  • John Lynch [GR23] (alias Dunleavy) – 22 April 1842 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of Kearns Landregan near the Ironstone Bridge on the edge of Berrima. Confessed to ten murders.
  • John Walsh – 3 May 1842 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Catherine Collitt at Mt Victoria.
  • Henry Sears (Seen) – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
  • John Jones – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
  • Nicholas Lewis – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
  • George Beavers – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
  • Stephen Brennan – 9 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Pat Lynch on Norfolk Island.
  • George Wilson – 24 April 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for the malicious wounding of Francis Bigge at the Peel River.
  • Thomas Forrester (“Long Tom”) – 24 April 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for aiding and abetting the malicious wounding of Francis Bigge at the Peel River.
  • Matthew Whittle – 2 May 1843 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the attempted murder of Patrick Grady near Oberon.
  • Benjamin Harris – 17 October 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Constable John Rutledge near Denman.
  • Lucretia Dunkley – 22 October 1843 – Hanged at Berrima Gaol for the murder of her husband Henry Dunkley near Gunning.
  • Martin Beech – 22 October 1843 – Hanged at Berrima Gaol for the murder of Henry Dunkley near Gunning.
  • Therramitchie – 24 October 1843 – Indigenous. Confessed to at least two murders. Publicly hanged at Port Macquarie for the murder of John Pocock.
  • Harry – 8 November 1843 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of a baby named Michael Keoghue near Glendon.
  • Melville – 8 November 1843 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of a baby named Michael Keoghue near Glendon.
  • John Knatchbull – 13 February 1844 – Former Royal Navy captain, publicly hanged in front of Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of shopkeeper Ellen Jamieson with a tomahawk in Margaret Street.
  • Joseph Vale – 17 April 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of John Thornton near Mulbring.
  • Mary Thornton – 17 April 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of her husband John Thornton near Mulbring.
  • Frederick (or Abraham) Gasten (or Gaston) – 31 October 1844 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Elizabeth Price near Kanimbla.
  • George Vigors – 13 August 1844 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Noble in Clarence St.
  • Thomas Burdett – 13 August 1844 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Noble in Clarence St.
  • Henry Atkins – 8 October 1844 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of John Daly near Tumut.
  • Benjamin Stanley – 7 November 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Robert Campbell at Williams River.
  • John Vidall – 7 February 1845 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Thomas Warne in George St.
  • John Ahern – 12 August 1845 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his niece Mary-Anne Clark in the area that subsequently became Railway Square.
  • James Fitzpatrick – 24 October 1845 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Peter McCormick, a fellow-convict at the Newcastle Stockade.
  • William Shea – 17 April 1846 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Andrew Menzies at Hillsborough.
  • John Kean (Liddell) – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Ellen Hyndes near Campbelltown.
  • Peter Pigeon – 4 November 1847 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of William “Coachey” Taylor at Morpeth.
  • William Fyfe (Foyle in Prison Records) – 4 July 1848 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for murder of Robert Cox at Kangaroo Point, Moreton Bay.
  • Francis Dermott (or Diamond or Durham) – 22 September 1848 – African-American. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of Mary Green on the Shoalhaven.
  • Patrick Bryan – 1 November 1848 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Eliza Neilson at Clarence Town.
  • Charles Henry Mackie – 10 November 1848 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of a nine-year-old girl.
  • George Waters Ward – 19 March 1849 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Richard Connolly (or King) at Muswellbrook.
  • James Richardson – 7 May 1849 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Elizabeth Richardson at Campbelltown. He had also murdered Elizabeth’s daughter and nine-month-old grandchild and attempted to murder a four-year-old grandchild.
  • Owen Molloy – 18 September 1849 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of John Leonard at Moreton Bay.
  • Patrick Walsh – 2 November 1849 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Benjamin Fox on the Turon River.

1850s

  • Mogo Gar – 5 November 1850 – Bundjalung man, hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Daniel Page at the Bellinger River.
  • James Whelan – 5 November 1850 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Catherine Byrnes near Kent St.
  • William Hayes – 26 April 1851 – Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of Benjamin Cott near present-day Gillieston.
  • Michael Collihane (alias “Mickey Bad-English”) – 8 October 1851 – Publicly hanged at Maitland for the rape of Anne Milsom at Aberdeen
  • Patrick McNamara – 29 March 1852 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Rose McNamara at Aberglasslyn.
  • Thomas Wilmore – 14 April 1852 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of Phillip Alger in the Wellington District.
  • Francis Thomas Green – 21 September 1852 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of John Jones at Buckley’s Creek. This was the last public hanging in NSW.
  • Timothy Sullivan – 30 September 1852 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Daniel Harrington at King’s Plains, near Carcoar. This execution was badly botched.
  • John Newing – 30 September 1852 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Hing, another Chinese man, on 17 October 1851, at Brown’s Station on the Castlereagh
  • Paddy – 8 April 1853 – Wiradjuri man, hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Catherine Schmidt at Oakey Creek in the Mudgee district.
  • Patrick McCarthy – 8 April 1853 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Henry Williamson at Bookimbla.
  • Billy Palmer – 9 May 1854 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Jane Bradley near Obley.
  • James McLaughlan – 9 May 1854 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Sarah Atkins at Kikiamah, near Grenfell.
  • James Talbot – 30 May 1854 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of James Barry at Kangaloola Creek, near Yass.
  • Daniel Gardiner – 4 April 1854 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Catherine at Rocky River.
  • Christopher Walsh – 28 September 1854 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Mary Walsh at Lidney Park, near Millers Forest.
  • William Ryan – 28 February 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Catherine near the corner of Hay and Castlereagh Sts.
  • William Rodgers – 5 July 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Joseph Allsopp at Baulkham Hills.
  • Samuel Wilcox – 5 July 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Johanna Smith in Liverpool St, Sydney.
  • Mary-Ann Brownlow −11 November 1855 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of her husband George Moore Brownlow at Gundaroo.
  • Henry Curran – 12 May 1857 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape and violent assault of Bridget Watkins at Dirty Swamp (Locksley).
  • Addison Mitchell – 12 May 1857 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of William Ablett between Carcoar and Cowra.
  • Patrick Walsh – 4 November 1857 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of William Graham at Balranald.
  • James Moyes – 7 September 1858 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Alden on board the Oliver Jordan, berthed at Sydney.
  • John Arrow – 11 May 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Catherine Leary at Summer Hill Creek, Orange.
  • Thomas Ryan (alias William Martin) – 11 May 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Leah England in the Wellington Valley.
  • Harry – 18 May 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Goulburn for the rape and attempted murder of fifteen-year-old Margaret McMahon at Coolamatong near Berridale.
  • John Norris – 22 July 1859 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of six-year-old Harriet Curren near Prospect.
  • Robert Davis – 3 November 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Roger Flood (or Robert Quinn) at Dubbo.
  • William Ross – 22 November 1859 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Jack Hamilton at Walcha.
  • Jemmy – 22 November 1859 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Sam Pong at Gunnedah.

1860s

  • John Jones – 26 April 1860 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Rebecca Bailey outside Maitland.
  • Jim Crow – 26 April 1860 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the rape of Jane Delantry at Thalaba, outside Dungog.
  • Ellen Monks – 8 May 1860 – Hanged at Goulburn for the hammer murder of her husband Thomas Monks at Longnose Creek, near Crookwell.
  • Frederick Clarke – 8 May 1860 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Walter Angel in the Moppity Range, near Murringo.
  • William Goodson – 16 May 1860 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Mary Goodson at Kissing Point.
  • Black Harry (also called Sippey Shippy, Sippy, Sheepy, Lippy) – 6 November 1861 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Mary Mills at Hall’s Creek, near Merriwa.
  • William Johnson (Baldwin) – 3 December 1861 – Hanged at Goulburn for the rape of Alice Hutchings at Rossiville, outside Goulburn.
  • Jackey Bullfrog (alias “Flash Jack”) – 25 April 1862 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of William Clark near Condobolin.
  • John Peisley – 25 April 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder (fatal wounding) of William Benyon at Bigga. An associate of the Ben Hall[GR24]  – Frank Gardiner[GR25]  Gang.
  • Henry Keene – 5 May 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of James Lawrie on Billabong Creek.
  • Benjamin Allerton – 5 May 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Goulburn for the robbery and wounding with intent of David Elliott at Wakool.
  • John Smith (alias Regan) – 4 June 1862 – Hanged at Goulburn for attempted murder on Alfred Bishop at Tipperary Gully, near Young.
  • Jackey – 23 October 1862 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Louisa Brown at Winburndale.
  • Alexander Ross – 18 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of Harry Stephens at Caloola, near Blayney.
  • Charles Ross – 18 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of Harry Stephens at Caloola, near Blayney.
  • Henry Manns – 26 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for his part in the highway robbery of the gold escort at Eugowra Rocks. An associate of the Ben Hall – Frank Gardiner Gang.
  • Charles Robardy – 20 May 1863 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Daniel Crotty on the Boorowa-Murringo Road, near Willawong Creek.
  • Mahommed Cassim – 2 June 1863 – Circus Juggler, born in India. Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of a fellow juggler (name lost) at Sawpit Gully, near Queanbeyan.
  • Henry Wilson – 2 October 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Peter Clarke near Murrurundi.
  • Thomas McCann – 1 February 1864 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of William Saville near Cordeaux Creek, Berrima.
  • James Stewart – 22 November 1864 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Charles Verdhun near Bourke.
  • George Gibson (alias Paddy Tom) – 20 May 1865 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Alec Musson at Pyramul.
  • Sam Poo [GR26] – 19 September 1865 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Snr Constable John Ward at Barney’s Reef near Birriwa.
  • Ah Luan – 21 November 1865 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Nee Jack at Bald Hills Creek.
  • John Dunn – 19 March 1866 – Bushranger, member of the Ben Hall Gang. Hanged at Darlinghurst for robbery and the murder of Constable Sam Nelson at Collector
  • James Crookwell – 14 April 1866 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Constable William Raymond in the Bargo Brush.
  • Michael Green – 11 June 1866 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Andrew Shearer at Rushcutter’s Bay.
  • Spider – 26 November 1866 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Elizabeth Anderson at Canonbar, near Nyngan.
  • Michael Maher – 3 December 1866 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Richard Higgins at Garrawilla, near Coonabarabran.
  • Harry Suis – 10 December 1866 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Ah Wong at Goulburn.
  • William Henry Scott – 18 March 1867 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Anne Ramsden (Scott) in Sussex St.
  • Thomas Clarke – 25 June 1867 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable William Walsh at Jinden.
  • John Clarke – 25 June 1867 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable William Walsh at Jinden.
  • William Peters – 26 June 1867 – Hanged in Bathurst for the attempted murder of eight-year-old Faith Perkins at Orange.
  • Henry James O’Farrell – 21 April 1868 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted assassination of Prince Alfred Duke of Edinburgh on 12 March 1868 at Clontarf.
  • Albert Barnes – 26 May 1868 – Hanged in the old gaol at Bathurst for the murder of James Casey at Hassan’s Walls.
  • John McEvitt – 26 May 1868 – Hanged in the old gaol at Bathurst for the murder of a boy named Francis Evans at Clark’s Creek.
  • John Munday (alias Collins)- 2 June 1868 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of John Conroy, Bridget Conroy, Thomas Smith, a shepherd surnamed White and another shepherd, name not recorded, near Bowning.
  • Ah Sung – 24 November 1868 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Ralph Lee and Amelia Lee (aged five), near Avisford.

1870s

  • John Baker – 1871 – Bushranger hanged at Bathurst for murder and other crimes. A partner of Wiliam Bertam, who was hanged at Toowoomba on 29 August 1870. They stuck up Mount Murchison Station, Cobham’s station and a Poolamacca resident and stole horses, etc. Also committed other robberies on the road and entered homes; in Oct 1869 on the Barrier Ranges they bailed up a hawker, Charles Young, whom they murdered.
  • Robert Campbell (alias Palmer) – 10 January 1871 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of John and Louis Pohlman at Yanco.
  • Chong Gow – 6 June 1871 – Hanged at Deniliquin for the murder of Tommy Ah Gun at Hay.
  • Michael McMahon – 12 December 1871 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Jack Jones at Hall’s Creek.
  • Thomas Kelly – 2 January 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Superintendent William McLaren at Parramatta Gaol.
  • George Robert Nichols (The Parramatta River Murders) – 18 June 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Percy Walker (and John Bridger) in upper Sydney Harbour.
  • Alfred Lester (alias Froude)(The Parramatta River Murders) – 18 June 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Percy Walker (and John Bridger) in upper Sydney Harbour.
  • John Conn – 11 June 1872 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Aveline Littler near Wyndeyer.
  • William McCrow – 8 April 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Margaret Ward at a residence on the corner of Crown and Stanley streets, Woolloomooloo.
  • John Scource – 8 April 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Lee on Sydney Harbour.
  • Julius Krauss (also called William Cross) – 1 July 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Captain John Longmuir on board HMS Rifleman.
  • Henry Vincent Jarvis – 23 December 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of James Muggeridge on the Orange-Bathurst Road near Evans Plains Creek.
  • John Hawthorne (alias Perry, real name Sherrin) – 19 May 1874 – Bushranger. Believed to have committed at least four murders. Hanged at Goulburn for the robbery & attempted murder of James Slocombe near Wheeo.
  • John Glover – 19 May 1874 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of William Piety at Bolaro, near Adaminaby.
  • Gottlieb Eichhorn – 23 June 1874 – Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the rape of seventy-two-year-old Eliza Chapman at Saumarez Ponds. Mrs Chapman died from the injuries received. Eichhorn was sixteen at the time of the crime.
  • John McGrath – 10 September 1875 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for rape of Sarah Murfin at Warragubra, near Bega.
  • George Rope – 7 December 1875 – Hanged at Mudgee Gaol for the murder of his sister-in-law Hannah Rope at Lawson’s Creek.
  • Ah Chong – 18 April 1876 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Po Tie at Parramatta Gaol.
  • George Pitt – 21 June 1876 – Hanged at Mudgee for the murder of Ann Martin at Guntawang.
  • Michael Connelly – 28 June 1876 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Connelly at Carroll Gap.
  • Daniel Boon – 19 July 1876 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Alexander McMullan at North Wagga.
  • Thomas Newman – 29 May 1877 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of a child, Mary-Ann McGregor, near Coonabarabran.
  • Peter Murdoch (Murdick, alias Higgins) – 18 December 1877 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Henry Ford near Cartwright’s Hill.
  • Ing Chee – 28 May 1878 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of Li Dock in Goulburn.
  • Alfred – 10 June 1879 – Indigenous. Hanged at Mudgee for the rape of Jane Dowd at Three Mile Flat, near Wellington.

1880s

  • Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlite[GR27] ) – 20 January 1880 – (Bushranger) Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Constable Webb-Bowen at Wantabadgery.
  • Thomas Rogan – 20 January 1880 – (Bushranger) A member of the Moonlite Gang, hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Constable Webb-Bowen at Wantabadgery.
  • Albert – 26 May 1880 – Indigenous stockman, hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the shooting murders of Nugle Jack and Sally at a camp at Baradine.
  • Daniel King – 11 June 1880 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Lizzie Hart (alias Rolk, alias Betts) at Tamworth.
  • William Brown – 29 March 1881 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the rape of his twelve-year-old daughter Ann at Yappa Brush, The Bight, across the Manning from Wingham.
  • Henry Wilkinson – 1 June 1881 – Hanged at Albury Gaol for the murder of Mary Pumpa at Lyster’s Gap, near Jindera.
  • John McGuane – 22 November 1882 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Thomas Smith at Inverell.
  • Charles Cunningham – 29 November 1882 – Hanged at Goulburn for the attempted murder of his warder Walter Izard at Berrima Gaol. “His last moments were marked by the expression of undiminished hatred to authority, which he personified to Her Majesty the Queen.”
  • Henry Tester – 7 December 1882 – Hanged at Deniliquin for the murder of seven-year-old Louisa Preston at Moira.
  • George Ruxbourne – 23 May 1883 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Jimmy Young at Armidale.
  • William Rice- 23 April 1884 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Griffin at 51 Phelps St, Surry Hills.
  • Joseph Cordini – 13 June 1884 – Hanged at Deniliquin Gaol for the murder of George Mizon on the Hay road outside Deniliquin.
  • Charles Watson – 14 April 1885 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Matthews at Wyadra, near Hillston.
  • Frank Johns – 14 July 1885 – (Bushranger) A member of the Moonlite Gang, hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted murder of William Roberts at Parramatta Gaol.
  • Matthew Friske – 10 December 1885 – Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murder of Matt Matteson at Coffs Harbour.
  • William Liddiard – 8 June 1886 – Hanged at Grafton for the murder of Pat Noonan at Wardell.
  • Alfred Reynolds – 8 October 1886 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Rhoda at Gowrie St, Newtown.
  • Robert Read – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.[GR28] 
  • George Duffy – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
  • William Boyce – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
  • Joseph Martin – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
  • John Creighan (alias Grace) – 29 May 1888 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Jack Stapleton at Hillgrove.
  • Robert Hewart – 11 September 1888 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Thomas Park in a cell at the Central Police Court.
  • Louisa Collins[GR29]  – 22 January 1889 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the poisoning of her husband at Botany. She was the last woman hanged in New South Wales.
  • James Morrison – 19 July 1889 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Constable David Sutherland in Macleay St, Potts Point.
  • Thomas Reilly – 6 November 1889 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Christian Eppel on the Wagga Common. Reilly was a cousin of Ned Kelly.

1890s

  • Albert Schmidt – 18 November 1890 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of John Young Taylor near Old Junee. Believed to have committed at least two other murders.
  • Lars Peter Hansen – 2 June 1891 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of Charles Duncker on the Peak Hill road.
  • Maurice Dalton – 17 November 1891 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Catherine at 1 Foveaux St Surry Hills.
  • Harold Dutton Mallalieu – 26 November 1891 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of Jerome Casey on the Moonagee Road near Nyngan.
  • Jimmy Tong – 29 November 1892 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Harry Hing at Walcha.
  • Edward Smedley – 14 June 1893 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Phoebe at Qurindi.
  • George Archer – 11 July 1893 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Emma Harrison at a house on the corner of Burton and Bourke streets, Darlinghurst. This hanging was mishandled and Archer suffocated to death on the rope.
  • John Makin – 15 August 1893 – (“The Macdonaldtown Baby Farmer[GR30] “). Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of the infant Horace Murray.
  • Woy Hoy (Jimmy Ah Hoy) – 24 November 1893 – Hanged at Mudgee for the murder of Ah Fook in Lewis St, Mudgee.
  • Herbert Edward ‘Bertie’ Glasson (sometimes Edwin Hubert) – 29 November 1893 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John William Phillips and Frances Letitia ‘Fanny’ Cavanough at Carcoar on 23 September 1893. The first prisoner executed at Bathurst Gaol on its present site (opened 1888).
  • Charles Montgomery – 31 May 1894 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable Fred Bowden near the corner of Bridge and Macquarie streets.
  • Thomas Williams – 31 May 1894 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable Fred Bowden near the corner of Bridge and Macquarie streets.
  • Alexander Lee – 20 July 1894 – Hanged at Tamworth for the murder of William McKay at the CBC bank at Barraba.
  • John Cummins – 20 July 1894 – Hanged at Tamworth for the murder of William McKay at the CBC bank at Barraba.
  • Frederick Paton (alias Frederick Dennis) – 11 December 1894 – Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of John Hall at Fifield on 6 May 1894.
  • Alfred Grenon – 7 February 1895 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Thomas Heavey at Elizabeth Bay.
  • Thomas Meredith Sheridan – 7 January 1896 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Jessie Nicholls, who died at Castlereagh St from the effects of an illegal abortion.
  • Charles Hines – 21 May 1897 – Hanged at Maitland for the rape of his thirteen-year-old stepdaughter Mary Emily Hayne at Gundy
  • Thomas Moore – 24 June 1897 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Edward (or Edwin) Smith at Brennan’s Bend on the Darling River below Bourke in November, 1896.
  • Frank Butler – 17 July 1897 – (“The Glenbrook Murders”) Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Arthur Preston and Lee Weller at Penrith and Glenbrook.
  • Wong Min – 13 December 1898 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Joe Mong Jong (or Woung) at Warren, New South Wales on 16 August 1898. Also stabbed Alice Spong during same incident.
  • Stewart Wilson Christopher Briggs – 5 April 1899 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Margaret Miller and Margaret Dutt at 89 Douglas St Petersham (now Stanmore).

1900s

  • John Sleigh (alias Ward) – 6 December 1900 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Frank “Bones” Curran at Back Creek, near Bombala.
  • Jackie Underwood – 14 January 1901 – Indigenous. Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Percival Mawbey at Breelong. He and Jimmy Governor also killed Helen Josephine Kerz, Mrs Sarah Mawbey, Grace Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey in the same incident.
  • Jimmy Governor[GR31]  – 18 January 1901 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Helen Josephine Kerz at Breelong. In the same incident he and Jackie Underwood also killed Mrs. Sarah Mawbey, Grace Mawbey, Percival Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey. Jimmy and his brother Joe also killed Alexander McKay near Ulan, Elizabeth O’Brien and her baby son at Poggie, near Merriwa, and Keiran Fitzpatrick near Wollar.
  • Joseph Campbell – 20 December 1901 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of nine-year-old Violet Oldfield at Queanbeyan. He had also raped another nine-year-old at Ramsay’s Bush (Haberfield)
  • Thomas Moore – 14 April 1903 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape and murder of ten-year-old Janet Irene Smith at Ramsay’s Bush, Leichhardt (now Haberfield).
  • Digby Grand – 7 July 1903 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn.
  • Henry Jones – 7 July 1903 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn.
  • Ah Check – 28 June 1904 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of William Tregaskis at Peak Hill, NSW. He was the last person executed at Old Dubbo Gaol.
  • John Raymond Brown – 11 December 1906 – Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murders of Daniel O’Keefe, Margaret O’Keefe and Patrick Gillick at German Creek, near Ballina (now called Empire Vale).
  • Peter Sadeek – 11 June 1907 – Hanged at Broken Hill Gaol for the murder of Mary Cooney (or Jewson) at White Cliffs.
  • Nicholas Baxter – 29 October 1907 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Mary MacNamara at 2 Sarah St Enmore.
  • George Toffts – 26 November 1907 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Eliza Maud Fletcher at Quirindi.

1910s

  • William Frederick Ball – 17 June 1912 – Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the murder of Louisa Ball at Bingara.
  • ·       [GR32]  20 December 1916 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham.
  • Roland Nicholas Kennedy – 20 December 1916 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham.
  • James Wilson – 31 May 1917 – Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of George Pappageorgi at Haymarket, Sydney.
  • Christian William Benzing – 16 June 1917 – Hanged at Long Bay for the rape and murder of eleven-year-old Dorothy Myra Small at Rockdale.

1920 onwards

  • Edward Williams – 29 April 1924 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of his three children, five-year-old Rosalie, three-year-old Mary and two-year-old Cecillia at Underwood St Paddington.
  • William George Gordon Simpson – 10 December 1924 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murders of Guy Chalmers Clift and Police Constable James Flynn at Appin.
  • William Cyril Moxley – 17 August 1932 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murders of Dorothy Ruth Denzel and Frank Barnby Wilkinson at Moorebank.
  • Edwin John Hickey – 14 May 1936 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of former Conciliation Commissioner Montague Henwood on the train between Faulconbridge and Linden. Hickey was seventeen at the time of the crime.
  • James Leighton Massey – 15 June 1936 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of Norman Samuel McLaren Stead at Darlinghurst.
  • Alfred Spicer – 26 May 1938 – Hanged at Long Bay for the rape and murder of six-year-old Marcia Hayes at Windsor.

John Trevor Kelly – 24 August 1939 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of Marjorie Constance Sommerlad at Tenterfield. He was the last person to be judicially executed in the state of New South Wales


 [GR1]HMS Guardian was a 44-gun Roebuck-class fifth-rate two-decker of the Royal Navy, later converted to carry stores. She was completed too late to take part in the American War of Independence, and instead spent several years laid up in ordinary, before finally entering service as a store and convict transport to Australia, under Lieutenant Edward Riou. Riou sailed Guardian, loaded with provisions, animals, convicts and their overseers, to the Cape of Good Hope where he took on more supplies. Nearly two weeks after his departure on the second leg of the journey, an iceberg was sighted and Riou sent boats to collect ice to replenish his water supplies. Before he could complete the re-provisioning, a sudden change in the weather obscured the iceberg, and Guardian collided with it while trying to pull away. She was badly damaged and in immediate danger of sinking. The crew made frantic repair attempts but to no apparent avail. Riou eventually allowed most of the crew to take to Guardian‘s boats, but refused to leave his ship. Eventually through continuous work he and the remaining crew were able to navigate the ship, by now reduced to little more than a raft, back to the Cape, a nine-week voyage described as “almost unparalleled”. Riou ran Guardian aground to prevent her sinking, but shortly afterwards a hurricane struck the coast, wrecking her. The remains were sold in 1791.

 [GR2]John Palmer (17 June 1760 – 27 September 1833) was a commissary of New South Wales, responsible for the colony’s supplies. He arrived with the First Fleet in 1788, and was opposed to those who plotted against Governor William Bligh.

 [GR3]Elizabeth Macarthur was born in Bridgerule, Devon, England, the daughter of provincial farmers, Richard and Grace Veale of Cornish origin. Her father died when she was aged four years. Her mother remarried when she was 11, leaving Elizabeth in the care of her grandfather, John, and friends.

Elizabeth married Plymouth soldier John Macarthur in 1788. In 1790, with her newborn son Edward, she accompanied John and his regiment, the New South Wales Corps, to the recently established colony of New South Wales, travelling on the Second Fleet.

 [GR4]Eber Bunker (1761–1836) was a sea captain and pastoralist, and he was born on 7 March 1761 at Plymouth, Massachusetts. He commanded one of the first vessels to go whaling and sealing off the coast of Australia. His parents were James Bunker and his wife Hannah, née Shurtleff.

 [GR5]Harris arrived in New South Wales as a surgeon’s mate on the Surprize charter, one of the six ships arriving as a part of the second fleet in 1790. During his time in New South Wales, he played a very active role in his community by growing in his profession and purchasing land.

Due to the extent of the number of civil responsibilities Harris held, he became involved with traders and officers and was asked by Lieutenant Colonel William Patterson to be relieved of his duties that conflicted with his military duties. Harris actions as a Naval Officer included reporting private conversations from the King about his dissatisfaction of the military and this led to Harris being charged with ungentlemanlike conduct and faced an additional court martial six months later for supposedly disclosing voting actions. Harris was acquitted in both occasions and was debarred from the civil office and was not up until 1804 that Harris was reinstated as a Naval Officer and was later re-sworn as a magistrate and supervisor of the police force.

In 1807, Harris was dismissed as a Naval Officer and from the bench by Governor William Bligh which lead to Harris becoming a bitter opponent of Governor William Bligh, portraying him as “avaricious, dishonest and tyrannical” and his hostility towards Bligh won’t back the military officers who was espoused in the Rum Rebellion. However, Major George Johnston reinstated Harris as a magistrate in January 1808, however Johnston was quick to lose favour in Harris from his criticism of John Macarthur, a pioneer of the wool industry. Johnston dismissed Harris again in April 1808 and Harris was ordered to London to deliver the rebel case against the British government, however, Harris pleaded sick and in January 1809, he was appointed once again as a magistrate. Harris left for England and Ireland in April 1809 for two years and returned accompanied by his newly wedded wife, 25 year old Eliza Jones, which married at the Covent Garden’s.

In 1814, Harris resigned and returned to Port Jackson with his wife Eliza Jones and became a private settler. Harris kept his properties in control and devoted the final years of his life farming and stock raising while actively being involved in public affairs and served in many committees, including supporting the establishment of the Bank of New South Wales and became one of the first directors. In 1819, he participated on John Oxley‘s Bathurst expedition as a surgeon. Within the same year of participating in John Oxley‘s expedition, he was once again elected as a magistrate.

In 1830s, Harris developed a hip problem which confined him to a wheelchair and he dropped out of community activities and began managing his pastoral and agricultural holdings and worked until his death on 27 April 1838.

 [GR6]Nicholas Devine, also spelled Divine (1739? County Cavan, Ireland – May 29, 1830), was an Irish prison official who was superintendent of convicts for New South Wales, Australia, from 1790 to 1808.

Devine obtained land grants in what was to become Erskineville.

After Devine’s death, a legal battle occurred over his estate. This led to Doe dem Devine v. Wilson and Others, popularly known as the “Newtown Ejectment Case”.

 [GR7]Campbell was born in GreenockInverclydeScotland and at the age of 27 moved to India to join his older brother John. In India, he and his brother were partners in Campbell Clark & Co., merchants of Calcutta, which in July 1799 became Campbell & Co. when the Clarkes gave up their interest in the firm. In 1798, Robert Campbell, with a cargo from Calcutta, visited Sydney to develop a trading connexion there, and he also purchased some land at Dawes Point, near the western entrance of Sydney Cove. In February 1800, he returned to Sydney with another cargo to both settle in Sydney, and to establish a branch of Campbell & Co. In 1801 he married Commissary John Palmer‘s sister Sophia Palmer (1777–1833). After settling in Sydney he built the private Campbell’s wharf and warehouses on his land at Dawes Point, and developed a large business as a general merchant

 [GR8]On 17 June 1826 an English-born Australian farmer from Campbelltown named Frederick Fisher (born 28 August 1792 in London) suddenly disappeared. His friend and neighbour George Worrall claimed that Fisher had returned to his native England, and that before departing had given him power of attorney over his property and general affairs. Later, Worrall claimed that Fisher had written to him to advise that he was not intending to return to Australia, and giving his farm to Worrall.

Four months after Fisher’s disappearance a respectable local man named John Farley, ran into the local hotel in a very agitated state. He told the astonished patrons that he had seen the ghost of Fred Fisher sitting on the rail of a nearby bridge. Farley related that the ghost had not spoken, but had merely pointed to a paddock beyond the creek, before disappearing.

Initially Farley’s tale was dismissed, but the circumstances surrounding Fisher’s disappearance eventually aroused sufficient suspicion that a police search of the paddock to which the ghost had pointed was undertaken – during which the remains of the murdered Fisher were discovered buried by the side of a creek. George Worrall was arrested for the crime, confessed, and subsequently hanged. Fred Fisher, whose lands he had coveted, was buried in the cemetery at St. Peter’s Anglican Church in Campbelltown.

It has been suggested that Farley invented the ghost story as a way of concealing some other speculated source of his knowledge about the whereabouts of Fisher’s body, but this cannot be confirmed. Joe Nickell has written the ghost story may have originated from an anonymous poem in 1832 which fictionalised Fisher and Worrall. The poem, “The Sprite of the Creek!”, has since been identified as the work of James Riley (1795-ca.1860), who would republish it with explanatory footnotes in 1846 under the pseudonym “Felix”.

Contemporary police and court records do not mention the ghost story. The legend of Fisher’s ghost has since entered popular folklore and the creek beside which the body was discovered is known as Fisher’s Ghost Creek, although it has now, however, been converted into mostly a storm water drain.

 [GR9]Jack Donahue was born in Dublin, Ireland about 1806. An orphan, he began pick-pocketing and, after later involvement in a burglary, was convicted of intent to commit a felony in 1823. After being detained aboard Surprise, a convict hulk moored in Cork, in September 1824, he was transferred to Ann and Amelia and transported with 200 other prisoners to Australia, arriving in Sydney in January 1825. Upon being shown his cell at Carter’s barracks, Donahue remarked ‘A home for life’. During his early imprisonment, he was twice sentenced to fifty lashes as punishment.

 [GR10]William Charles Wentworth (13 August 1790 – 20 March 1872) was an Australian explorer, journalist, politician and author, and one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. He was the first native-born Australian to achieve a reputation overseas, and a leading advocate for self-government for the Australian colonies.

 [GR11]Denham Court is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South WalesAustralia located 44 kilometres (27 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government areas of the City of Campbelltown and City of Liverpool. It is part of the Macarthur region.

The suburb is one of the most affluent in south-west Sydney, with the median property price standing at $1.60 million in January 2015, over three times higher than the median of properties in surrounding suburbs. The median income also stands noticeably above the average of surrounding suburbs at over $1,900 per week, while the median of surrounding areas stands at $900 per week. Willowdale Estate which was developed by Stockland is one of the most noticeable settlement in Denham Court.  The area is most well known for its luxurious properties, including a colonial era compound from which the suburb takes its name

 [GR12]Samuel Terry (c. 1776 – 22 February 1838) was transported to Australia as a criminal, where he became a wealthy landowner, merchant and philanthropist. His extreme wealth made him by far the richest man in the colony with wealth comparable to the richer in England. Terry left a personal estate of £250,000, an income of over £10,000 a year from Sydney rentals, and landed property that defies assessment. At his death in 1838 he was worth 3.39% of the colony’s gross domestic product, the equivalent today of over $24 billion.

The year and circumstances of his birth are unknown. While working as a labourer in Manchester, England, on 22 January 1800 he was sentenced to transportation to the colony of Australia for the crime of stealing 400 pairs of stockings. He was taken to Sydney, Australia, where he served as a stone cutter. After working several jobs, he earned a farm in 1808.

On 27 March 1810 Terry married Rosetta (Rosata) Marsh or Madden, née Pracey, who had come free to the colony in 1799 on the ship, The Hillsborough. She was a widow (possibly of convict Edward Madden, and later of Henry Marsh), and she had three children when she married. She was an innkeeper, and on marriage Terry took over her Pitt Street property. He continued to prosper, becoming a trader and became a supplier of food to the government.

By 1820 he possessed significant amounts of property and was a large shareholder in the Bank of New South Wales. There is some controversy about the means he used to acquire his wealth, and he became accused of extortion by his enemies. It was alleged that he brought land owners to his inn, who would become intoxicated and sign away their property in payment of debts. By 1821 he also brought 28 actions to the Supreme Court.

In the 1820s he was wealthy and a public figure. He was also a philanthropist, contributing to local societies and schools. He also worked for the emancipists and, in 1826, became president of the Masonic Lodge. He died on 22 February 1838 following three years incapacitated as a result of a seizure

 [GR13]The Castle Hill rebellion of 1804 was a convict rebellion in the Castle Hill area of Sydney, against the colonial authorities of the British colony of New South Wales. The rebellion culminated in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia, on 5 March 1804 at Rouse Hill. It was dubbed the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill after the first Battle of Vinegar Hill, which had taken place in 1798 in Ireland. The incident was the first major convict uprising in Australian history to be suppressed under martial law.

On 4 March 1804, according to the official accounts, 233 convicts, led by Philip Cunningham (a veteran of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, as well as a mutiny on the convict transport ship Anne), escaped from a prison farm, intent on “capturing ships to sail to Ireland”. In response, martial law was quickly declared in the colony. The mostly Irish rebels, having gathered reinforcements, were hunted by the colonial forces until they were caught on a hillock nicknamed Vinegar Hill on 5 March 1804. While negotiating under a flag of truce, Cunningham was arrested. The troops then charged, and the rebellion was crushed. Nine of the rebel leaders were executed, and hundreds were punished, before martial law was finally revoked a week after the battle.

 [GR14]Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who used the bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term had evolved to refer to those who took up “robbery under arms” as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

Bushranging thrived during the gold rush years of the 1850s and 1860s when the likes of Ben HallBluecap, and Captain Thunderbolt roamed the country districts of New South Wales. These “Wild Colonial Boys“, mostly Australian-born sons of convicts, were roughly analogous to British “highwaymen” and outlaws of the American Old West, and their crimes typically included robbing small-town banks and coach services. In certain cases, such as that of Dan Morgan, the Clarke brothers, and Australia’s best-known bushranger, Ned Kelly, numerous policemen were murdered. The number of bushrangers declined due to better policing and improvements in rail transport and communication technology, such as telegraphy. Although bushrangers appeared sporadically into the early 20th century, most historians regard Kelly’s capture and execution in 1880 as effectively representing the end of the bushranging era.

Bushranging exerted a powerful influence in Australia, lasting for over a century and predominating in the eastern colonies. Its origins in a convict system bred a unique kind of desperado, most frequently with an Irish political background. Native-born bushrangers also expressed nascent Australian nationalist views and are recognised as “the first distinctively Australian characters to gain general recognition.” As such, a number of bushrangers became folk heroes and symbols of rebellion against the authorities, admired for their bravery, rough chivalry and colourful personalities. However, in stark contrast to romantic portrayals in the arts and popular culture, bushrangers tended to lead lives that were “nasty, brutish and short”, with some earning notoriety for their cruelty and bloodthirst. Australian attitudes toward bushrangers remain complex and ambivalent.

 [GR15]The Bathurst rebellion of 1830 was an outbreak of bushranging near Bathurst in the British penal colony (now the Australian state) of New South Wales.

The rebellion involved a group of escaped convicts who ransacked villages and engaged in shootouts over the course of two months. Led by 25-year-old English-born convict Ralph Entwistle, the group numbered up to 80 men at its peak, making it the largest convict uprising in New South Wales history since the Castle Hill rebellion of 1804. The rebels became known as the Ribbon gang on account of Entwistle wearing “a profusion of white streamers about his head”.

 [GR16]Suttor arrived at Sydney on 5 November 1800. In spite of the delays, Suttor managed to land some of his trees and vines still alive. He was given a grant of land, and settled at Chelsea Farm, Baulkham Hills. In a few years time he was sending oranges and lemons to Sydney, obtaining good prices for them, and had become a successful settler.

At the time of the William Bligh rebellion in 1808, Suttor was a firm supporter of the deposed governor. When Colonel Paterson arrived, Suttor’s was the first signature to an address presented to him promising to give him

every information and support in our power in order that full satisfaction and justice may be given to the governor (whom we highly revere) . . . we cannot but feel the most confidant reliance that you will take prompt and effectual means to secure the principals in this most unjustifiable transaction.

Suttor was, however, arrested and sentenced to be imprisoned for six months for failing to attend Lieutenant-Governor Joseph Foveaux’s general muster and for impugning his authority. The stand taken by Suttor was much to his honour; a full account of it will be found in the Historical Records of Australia, vol. VII, pp. 131–7. Suttor always spoke of Bligh as a “firm and kind-hearted English gentleman, no tyrant and no coward” (W. H. Suttor, Australian Stories Retold, p. 6). In 1810 Suttor was summoned to England as a witness on behalf of Bligh, and arrived in Australia again in May 1812. In August 1814 Suttor was given the position of superintendent of the lunatic asylum at Castle Hill with a salary of £50; in February 1819 he was dismissed from this position on charges he used lunatic labour on his farm.

Suttor again took up land, and in 1822 he moved to beyond the Blue Mountains to the newly settled lands on the Bathurst plains. There he established the 130 hectares (320 acres) ‘Brucedale Station’ at the junction of Winburndale and Clear Creeks, which turned out to be a successful landholding leading to great prosperity, and by the 1830s it had been expanded to 4,055 hectares (10,020 acres). During a time of great conflict with the Indigenous Australians of the Wiradjuri nation, who resisted the taking of their lands, Suttor and his family (in particular son William) established good relations with the aborigines. They were known to have been close to the Wiradjuri’s warrior leader Windradyne, and when Windradyne died he was buried at Brucedale.

 [GR17]McIntyre was born in 1789/1790 to Donald (Daniel) and Mary McIntyre from Perthshire, Scotland. McIntrye’s brother Peter established a property Blairmore, on the land of the Wanaruah people, near what is now Aberdeen. Donald emigrated to New South Wales and in 1827 established a property nearby, Kayuga. In 1834 he established another station Dalkeith at what is now Cassilis, on the land of the Wiradjuri people.

In November 1833 a shepherd that McIntyre employed, variously referred to as Edward Hills, Edward Giles or William Gills, hit him in the back of the head with a piece of iron. The shepherd was convicted of attempted murder, sentenced to death, and was hanged in March 1834

 [GR18]In 1824 Wardell sold his Statesman paper and formed a partnership with Wentworth. Printing materials were purchased as part of a plan to found an Australian newspaper, and they sailed for Australia, arriving about September. Soon afterwards they started The Australian, the first number appearing on 14 October 1824 and was to be published weekly at a cost of one shilling. It was the first independent paper to be published in Australia, and Governor Thomas Brisbane who was approaching the end of his term was inclined to welcome it. After the arrival of Governor Ralph Darling in December 1825, friction between the governor and the paper developed. Early in 1827 governor Darling was devising means to control its criticism of his actions; he brought in a newspaper tax of fourpence a copy, but chief justice Francis Forbes refused to sanction the act. In September 1827 Wardell who had referred to the governor in The Australian as “an ignorant and obstinate man” was charged with libel. Wardell conducted his own defence with great ability and the jury failed to agree. Wardell was again on trial for libel in December, and Wentworth who was defending him asserted that the jurors, who were members of the military, might lose their commissions if they did not return a verdict for Darling. The jury again disagreed.

Wardell was now editor and sole proprietor of The Australian and his practice as a barrister was increasing; early in 1831 the government was glad to brief him in an action for damages against it. Towards the end of 1831 Governor Darling was informed by Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich that his six-year term as governor would soon be expiring, and after the arrival of Governor Richard Bourke, Wardell’s writing became much more temperate in tone. In 1834, having made a moderate fortune, he was intending to go to England, but on 7 September 1834 when inspecting his estate on horseback at Petersham, New South Wales he came across three runaway convicts and tried to persuade them to give themselves up. The leader of the men, John Jenkins, however, picked up a gun and fatally shot Wardell. The men were arrested a few days later and two of them were subsequently hanged. Wardell was unmarried

 [GR19]Gringai otherwise known as Guringay, is the name for one of the Australian Aboriginal people who were recorded as inhabiting an area of the Hunter Valley in eastern New South Wales, north of Sydney. They were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups as a clan of the Worimi people

 [GR20]New Zealand (MāoriAotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New CaledoniaFiji, and Tonga. The country’s varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand’s capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Owing to their remoteness, the islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable lands to be settled by humans. Between about 1280 and 1350, Polynesians began to settle in the islands and then developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, and in 1907 it became a dominion; it gained full statutory independence in 1947, and the British monarch remained the head of state. Today, the majority of New Zealand’s population of 5 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand’s culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are EnglishMāori, and New Zealand Sign Language, with English being dominant.

developed country, New Zealand ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, government transparency, and economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. The service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, and agriculture; international tourism is a significant source of revenue. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister, currently Jacinda ArdernQueen Elizabeth II is the country’s monarch and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand’s territorial claim in Antarctica.

New Zealand is a member of the United NationsCommonwealth of NationsANZUSOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentASEAN Plus SixAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum.

 [GR21]Description of the massacre

A group of eleven stockmen, consisting of assigned convicts and former convicts, ten of them white Europeans, the 11th, John Johnstone, a black African, led by John Henry Fleming, who was from Mungie Bundie Run near Moree, arrived at Henry Dangar‘s Myall Creek station in New England on 9 June 1838. They rode up to the station huts beside which were camped a group of approximately thirty-five Aboriginal people. They were part of the Wirraayaraay (also spelled ‘Weraerai’) group who belonged to the Kamilaroi people. They had been camped at the station for a few weeks after being invited by one of the convict stockmen, Charles Kilmeister (or Kilminister), to come to their station for their safety and protection from the gangs of marauding stockmen who were roaming the district slaughtering any Aboriginal people they could find. These Aboriginal people had previously been camped peacefully at McIntyre’s station for a few months. They were therefore well known to the whites. Most of them had been given European names such as Daddy, King Sandy, Joey, Martha and Charley. Some of the children spoke a certain amount of English. When the stockmen rode into their camp they fled into the convict’s hut pleading for protection.

When asked by the station hut keeper, George Anderson, what they were going to do with the Aboriginal people, John Russell said they were going to “take them over the back of the range and frighten them”. The stockmen then entered the hut, tied them to a long tether rope and led them away. They took them to a gully on the side of the ridge about 800 metres to the west of the station huts. There they slaughtered them all except for one woman whom they kept with them for the next couple of days. The approximately 28 people they murdered were largely women, children and old men. Ten younger men were away on a neighbouring station cutting bark. Most of the people were slaughtered with swords as George Anderson, who refused to join the massacre, clearly heard there were just two shots. Unlike Anderson, Charles Kilmeister joined the slaughter.

Testimony was later given at trial that the children had been beheaded while the men and women were forced to run as far as they could between the stockyard fence and a line of sword-wielding stockmen who hacked at them as they passed. After the massacre, Fleming and his gang rode off looking to kill the remainder of the group, who they knew had gone to the neighbouring station. They failed to find the other Aboriginal people as they had returned to Myall that night and left after being warned the killers would be returning. On the party’s return to Myall two days later, they dismembered and burnt the bodies before resuming the search for the remaining people. The ten people had gone to MacIntyre’s station near Inverell, 40 kilometres to the east, where between 30 and 40 Aboriginal people were reportedly murdered with their bodies being cast onto a large fire. Many suspect this massacre was also committed by the same stockmen. After several days of heavy drinking the party dispersed.

When the manager of the station, William Hobbs, returned several days later and discovered the bodies, counting up to twenty-eight of them (as they were beheaded and dismembered he had difficulty determining the exact number) he decided to report the incident but Kilmeister initially talked him out of it. Hobbs discussed it with a neighbouring station overseer, Thomas Foster, who told squatter Frederick Foot who rode to Sydney to report it to the new Governor, George Gipps. Supported by the Attorney General, John Plunkett, Gipps ordered Police Magistrate Edward Denny Day at Muswellbrook to investigate the massacre.

They carried out a thorough investigation despite the bodies having been removed from the massacre site where only a few bone fragments remained. He arrested eleven of the twelve perpetrators. The only one to escape was the only free man involved, the leader, John Fleming. Anderson was crucial in identifying the arrested men. He had initially refused to name the men involved but after finding out that the massacre had been planned more than a week earlier to coincide with the absence of Hobbs he agreed to identify the killers to the magistrate

 [GR22]Edward Davis (1816–1841) was an Australia convict turned bushranger. His real name is not certain, but in April 1832 he was convicted under the name George Wilkinson for attempting to steal a wooden till and copper coins to the total value of 7 shillings. Sentenced to seven years transportation, he arrived in Sydney on the Camden in 1833 and was placed in the Hyde Park Barracks. Over the next few years he escaped four times: on 23 December 1833 from the Barracks, on 1 December 1835 from Penrith, on 10 January 1837 from the farmer he had been assigned to, and for a final time on 21 July 1838.

In the summer of 1839 he formed a bushranger gang of escaped convicts which roamed in New South Wales, from Maitland to the New England Highway, in the Hunter Region, and down to Brisbane Water near Gosford. They had a main hideout at Pilcher’s Mountain, near Dungog. The gang members gained a Robin Hood like reputation, for supposedly giving some of the plunder of the wealthy to their assigned convict servants, and for adopting a gallant air and flamboyant dress, and tying pink ribbons to their horses’ bridles. Davis instructed his gang that violence was only permissible in order to escape capture, but in December 1840 a store keeper’s clerk was killed by gang member John Shea in the course of a robbery at Scone (Davis was elsewhere in the town at the time). Davis immediately retreated with the gang to a hideout at Doughboy Hollow at Murrurundi, but they were surprised by a posse that had followed them. In the shootout, Davis was wounded in the shoulder. Davis, John Everett, John Shea, Robert Chitty, James Bryant and John Marshall were captured, Richard Glanvill escaped.

They stood trial in the Supreme Court in Sydney, Shea charged with murder and the others with aiding and abetting Shea. They were all found guilty by a jury and condemned to death by Chief Justice Sir James Rowling. There was public sympathy for Davis with many appealing for a reprieve, but the Executive Council confirmed the sentence. Davis was hanged on 16 March 1841. Davis was a Jew, and was referred to later as “Teddy the Jewboy”. He was assisted at his execution by the reader of the Sydney synagogue and buried in the Jewish portion of the Sydney Devonshire Street Cemetery

 [GR23]John Lynch (1813 – 22 April 1842) was an Irish-born Australian serial killer, convicted for the murder of Kearns Landregan, but is believed to have killed 10 people in the Berrima area of New South Wales from 1835 to 1841. Possibly the worst serial killer in Australian history, Lynch was a bushranger who murdered and robbed cattle and laborers in the trails around Berima.

Lynch was sentenced to death, and was executed in 1842.

 [GR24]Ben Hall (9 May 1837 – 5 May 1865) was an Australian bushranger and leading member of the Gardiner–Hall gang. He and his associates carried out many raids across New South Wales, from Bathurst to Forbes, south to Gundagai and east to Goulburn. Unlike many bushrangers of the era, Hall was not directly responsible for any deaths, although several of his associates were. He was shot dead by police in May 1865 at Goobang Creek. The police claimed that they were acting under the protection of the Felons Apprehension Act 1865 which allowed any bushranger who had been specifically named under the terms of the Act to be shot and killed by any person at any time without warning. At the time of Hall’s death, the Act had not come into force, resulting in considerable controversy over the legality of his killing

 [GR25]Frank Gardiner (1830 – c. 1882) was an Australian bushranger. He was born in Rosshire, Scotland in 1830, and migrated to Australia as a child with his parents in 1834. Also aboard was Henry Monro, a wealthy Scottish businessman who would soon form a relationship with his mother, Jane. His real name was Francis Christie, though he often used one of several other aliases including Gardiner, Clarke or Christie. In 1835 Monro appointed his father, Charles Christie as overseer on his property at Boro Creek, south of Goulburn. In 1837 Monro obtained the lease for a property on the Campaspe Plains, about 80 km northwest of Melbourne with Charles again the overseer. By 1840 Monro had the lease on another run near Hotspur, about 50 km north of Portland in western Victoria. Once again Charles was overseer and moved there with the young family

 [GR26]Poo (nicknamed ‘Cranky Sam’) was a Chinese emigrant to Australia during the Gold Rush, but instead of mining took to highway robbery on the road between Gulgong and Mudgee. A skilled and elusive bushman, he evaded capture from the authorities for several weeks. He often targeted solitary travellers on foot, both East Asians and Europeans, and was also responsible for the rape of a settler’s wife.

On 3 February 1865, Senior Constable John Ward of the New South Wales Police Force was returning to Coonabarabran from a prisoner escort to Mudgee. Near the locality known as Barney’s Reef he was informed that a Chinese man had been robbing passing travellers in the vicinity, and was nearby in the scrub. Following a short search, Ward located the offender’s camp and approached him. When the offender saw the constable he dived into the bush. A long foot chase ensued, during which the pursued shot the constable in the chest, mortally wounding him. The murderer was later identified as Poo.

Two weeks after the incident, Poo was finally tracked down. When confronted by police troops he attempted to escape, but was shot in the thigh. Continuing to fire from the ground, he was finally subdued, and taken to a prison hospital in Mudgee. When he recovered nine months later, he was taken to Bathurst, where he was tried by Judge Edward Hargreaves and hanged on 19 December 1865

 [GR27]On 8 May 1869, Scott was accused of disguising himself and forcing bank agent Ludwig Julius Wilhelm Bruun, a young man whom he had befriended, to open the safe. Bruun described being robbed by a fantastic black-crepe masked figure who forced him to sign a note absolving him of any role in the crime. The note read “I hereby certify that L.W. Bruun has done everything within his power to withstand this intrusion and the taking of money which was done with firearms, Captain Moonlite, Sworn.” After this he went to the Maitland district, near Newcastle and was there convicted on two charges of obtaining money by false pretences for which he was sentenced to twelve and eighteen months’ imprisonment. Of these concurrent terms, Scott served fifteen months, at the expiration of which time he returned to Sydney where, in March 1872, he was arrested on the charge of robbing the Egerton Bank and forwarded to Ballarat for examination and trial.

He succeeded in escaping gaol by cutting a hole through the wall of his cell and gained entrance into the cell adjoining, which was occupied by another prisoner, who was as desirous of escaping as himself. Together they seized the warder when he came on his rounds, gagged him and tied him up. Making use of his keys, they proceeded to other cells, liberating four other prisoners, and the six men succeeded in escaping over the wall by means of blankets cut into strips, which they used as a rope. Scott was subsequently re-captured, and held safely until he could be trialed. In July he was tried before judge Sir Redmond Barry at the Ballarat Circuit Court when, by a series of cross-examinations of unprecedented length conducted by himself after rejecting his counsel, he spread the case over no less than eight days, but was at last convicted, and sentenced to 10 years’ hard labour. Despite some evidence against him, Scott claimed innocence in this matter until his dying day.

 [GR28]The gang rape occurred on 9 September 1886. Sixteen-year-old Mary Jane Hicks had been educated at the Bathurst convent school, then worked as a domestic servant at Katoomba, and at a hotel and private houses in Sydney. While walking to a city employment registry, she was offered a lift by Charles Sweetman, the driver of a hansom cab, who instead drove her in his cab to what is now the Moore Park area, then an isolated piece of bushland in the suburb of Waterloo and called Mount Rennie. He attempted to molest her in the cab but she screamed for help. Two young men approached and took her out of the cab, purporting to save her from disgrace. At this point, Sweetman departed with his cab.

The young men walked Hicks to a different isolated location, where they were joined by several others, some of whom began to take turns in raping her. The girl’s screaming was heard by a passerby, William Stanley, who attempted to rescue her but was driven off by the gang with bricks, stones, and bottles. Stanley ran to distant Redfern police station, where he reported the crime at about 4 p.m. When the police arrived on the scene at 5 p.m., they interrupted the crime, which was still in progress, but were unable to apprehend any of the fleeing offenders. Following inquiries, twelve men were identified and eventually arrested, including Charles Sweetman, the cabman. At least one reporter formed the view that Sweetman had deliberately planned to deliver a girl to the Push members, who were assembled and waiting for the purpose.

The victim, Mary Jane Hicks, testified that she had fallen into and out of consciousness during the ordeal, but gave evidence that at least eight men held her down and took turns raping her, and that many others were present, including some who had not been apprehended

 [GR29]Louisa Collins (formerly Andrews nee Hall😉 11 August 1847 – 8 January 1889) was an Australian poisoner and convicted murderer. Collins, who was dubbed the “Borgia of Botany” by the press of the day, endured four trials in front of 48 men, after the first three juries failed to convict. Collins was hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol on the morning of 8 January 1889.

 [GR30]John Makin (14 February 1845 – 15 August 1893) and Sarah Jane Makin (20 December 1845 – 13 September 1918) were Australian baby farmers who were convicted in New South Wales (NSW) for the murder of infant Horace Murray. Both were tried and found guilty in March 1893 and were sentenced to death. John was hanged on 15 August 1893 but Sarah’s sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. On 29 April 1911, Sarah was paroled from the State Reformatory for Women at Long Bay in response to the petition of her daughters

 [GR31]Jimmy Governor (1875 – 1901) was an Indigenous Australian who was proclaimed an outlaw after committing a series of murders in 1900. His actions initiated a cycle of violence in which nine people were killed (either by Governor or his accomplices). Jimmy Governor and his brother Joe were on the run from the police for 14 weeks before Jimmy was captured and Joe was shot and killed.

In July 1900 Jimmy Governor and Jack Underwood murdered four members of the Mawbrey family and a school-teacher at Breelong near Gilgandra. Underwood was captured soon afterwards, but Governor and his younger brother Joe took to the bush. During the period they were at large, ranging over a large area of north-central New South Wales, the Governor brothers committed further murders and multiple robberies. A manhunt involving hundreds of police and volunteers was initiated, with the Governors occasionally taunting their pursuers and deriding the police.

In October 1900 Jimmy Governor was wounded and, a fortnight later, captured near Wingham. Four days after his brother’s capture Joe Governor was shot and killed north of Singleton. Jimmy Governor was tried for murder and hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol in January 1901

 [GR32]The Sydney Twelve were members of the Industrial Workers of the World arrested on 23 September 1916 in SydneyAustralia, and charged with treason under the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) which incorporated the Treason Felony Act 1848 (Imp). They were John Hamilton, Peter Larkin, Joseph Fagin, William Teen, Donald Grant, Benjamin King, Thomas Glynn, Donald McPherson, Thomas Moore, Charles Reeve, William Beattie, and Bob Besant. The treason charges were dropped prior to trial and replaced with three conspiracy charges: (1) conspiracy to commit arson (2) conspiracy to procure the release of Tom Barker from gaol by unlawful means and (3) conspiracy to excite sedition.

Some within the Australian labour movement claimed the men were framed for their strong anti-war views and their opposition to conscription during the First World War. Former Labor Prime Minister (and later Nationalist) Billy Hughes forced through the Unlawful Associations Act (1916) through Federal Parliament in five days during December 1916, then had the IWW declared an unlawful association.

The case against the Twelve was assisted by the Government hysteria against the IWW. This was typified in the Tottenham murder case involving three members of the IWW and the murder of a policeman at Tottenham, New South Wales, on 26 September 1916. The prosecution made every effort to connect the murder with the charges against the Sydney IWW men. Frank Franz and Roland Nicholas Kennedy were found guilty and executed on 20 December 1916 at Bathurst Gaol, the first executions in New South Wales after a decade. Herbert Kennedy was acquitted.

The case was tried in the Central Criminal Court before Justice Robert Pring and a jury. The jury found Glynn, McPherson, Teen, Beattie, Fagin, Grant and Hamilton guilty of all three charges while Reeve, Larkin, Besant and Moore guilty of the arson and sedition conspiracies and King was guilty of the sedition conspiracy. Justice Pring handed down sentences of fifteen years to Hilton, Beatty, Fagin, Grant, Teen, Glynn and McPherson; ten years to Moore, Besant, Larkin and Reeve; and five years to King. Grant remarked after his sentence was passed: “Fifteen years for fifteen words”. The actual words which were quoted in his trial were: “For every day that Tom Barker is in gaol it will cost the capitalist class £10,000.” The twelve lodged appeals against their convictions, however these met with limited success – the Court of Criminal Appeal quashed the convictions of Glynn and McPherson for the Barker conspiracy and reduced their sentences to ten years – however the majority of the convictions and sentences were confirmed.

There was an active campaign for the release of the Sydney Twelve and other IWW members held in prison. The Defence and Release Committee was established at the behest of Henry Boote, Editor of the Australian Workers’ Union weekly paper, The Worker, and of Ernie Judd, delegate from the Municipal Workers Union on Labor Council of New South Wales. Supporters included Percy Brookfield, the member for Sturt (Broken Hill) in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, and the poet Lesbia Harford. Unions such as the Ship Painters and Dockers Union were active in the campaign.

The Labor Council of New South Wales commissioned a report into the case in 1918, and an enquiry into the case was also conducted by Justice Philip Street. Both the trade union report and the judicial report found problems with the case, for example the chief witness, Scully, had concocted evidence which he gave at the trial.

After the Storey Labor Government was elected in New South Wales on 20 March 1920, Justice Norman Ewing was appointed to inquire into the trial and sentencing. The judge found that Grant, Beattie, Larkin and Glynn may have been involved in conspiracy of a seditious nature, but recommended that they be released. Six of the men, the judge found, were not “justly or rightly” convicted of sedition: Teen, Hamilton, McPherson, Moore, Besant and Fagin. King was considered rightly convicted of sedition, but recommended for immediate release. Reeve was found to have been rightly convicted of arson. However the judge also rejected any suggestion that the men had been framed. Ten of the men were released in August 1920, and King and Reeve slightly later.

Nicole Kidman

Nicole Kidman   AC
Kidman at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival
BornNicole Mary Kidman
20 June 1967 (age 53) HonoluluHawaii, U.S.
CitizenshipAustralia United States
Alma materAustralian Theatre for Young People
OccupationActress producer singer
Years active1981–present
WorksFull list
Net worth$183 million (2015)
Spouse(s)Tom Cruise ​ ​ (m. 1990; div. 2001)​ Keith Urban ​ ​ (m. 2006)​
Children4
Parent(s)Antony Kidman (father)
RelativesAntonia Kidman (sister)
AwardsFull list

Nicole Mary Kidman AC (born 20 June 1967) is an Australian actress, singer, and producer. She has received an Academy Award, two Primetime Emmy Awards, and five Golden Globe Awards. She was ranked among the world’s highest-paid actresses in 2006, 2018 and 2019. Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world [GR1] in 2004 and again in 2018. In 2020, The New York Times ranked her fifth on its list of the greatest actors of the 21st century up to that point.

Kidman began her acting career in Australia with the 1983 films Bush Christmas and BMX Bandits. Her breakthrough came in 1989 with the thriller film Dead Calm and the miniseries Bangkok Hilton. In 1990, she made her Hollywood debut in the racing film Days of Thunder, opposite Tom Cruise. She went on to achieve wider recognition with lead roles in Far and Away (1992), Batman Forever (1995), To Die For (1995) and Eyes Wide Shut (1999). Kidman won the Academy Award for Best Actress for portraying the writer Virginia Woolf in the drama The Hours (2002). Her other Oscar-nominated roles were as a courtesan in the musical Moulin Rouge! (2001) and emotionally troubled mothers in the dramas Rabbit Hole (2010) and Lion[GR2]  (2016).

Kidman’s other film credits include The Others (2001), Cold Mountain (2003), Dogville (2003), Birth (2004), Australia (2008), The Paperboy (2012), Paddington (2014), The Killing of a Sacred Deer (2017), Destroyer (2018), Aquaman (2018) and Bombshell (2019).

Kidman’s television roles include Hemingway & Gellhorn (2012), Big Little Lies (2017–2019), Top of the Lake: China Girl (2017), and The Undoing (2020). For Big Little Lies, she won two Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actress and Outstanding Limited Series (as executive producer).

Kidman has been a Goodwill ambassador for UNICEF[GR3]  since 1994 and for UNIFEM since 2006. In 2006, she was appointed Companion of the Order of Australia. Since she was born to Australian parents in Hawaii, Kidman holds dual citizenship of Australia and the United States. In 2010, she founded the production company Blossom Films. She was married to actor Tom Cruise[GR4]  from 1990 to 2001, and has been married to country music singer Keith Urban since 2006.

Early life.

Kidman was born on 20 June 1967,in Honolulu, Hawaii, while her Australian parents were temporarily in the United States on student visas. Her mother, Janelle Ann (née Glenny), is a nursing instructor who edited her husband’s books and was a member of the Women’s Electoral Lobby; her father, Antony Kidman[GR5] , was a biochemistclinical psychologist and author. Kidman’s ancestry includes Irish and Scottish heritage.

Being born in Hawaii, she was given the Hawaiian name “Hōkūlani”, meaning “heavenly star”. The inspiration came from a baby elephant born around the same time at the Honolulu Zoo.

At the time of Kidman’s birth, her father was a graduate student at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. He became a visiting fellow at the National Institute of Mental Health of the United States. Opposed to the war in Vietnam, Kidman’s parents participated in anti-war protests while living in Washington, D.C. The family returned to Australia when Kidman was four and her mother now lives on Sydney’s North Shore. Kidman has a younger sister, Antonia Kidman, a journalist and TV presenter.

Kidman grew up in Sydney and attended Lane Cove Public School and North Sydney Girls’ High School. She was enrolled in ballet at three and showed her natural talent for acting in her primary and high school years.[24] She says that she was first inspired to become an actress upon seeing Margaret Hamilton‘s performance as the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz. Kidman has revealed that she was timid as a child, saying, “I am very shy – really shy – I even had a stutter as a kid, which I slowly got over, but I still regress into that shyness. So I don’t like walking into a crowded restaurant by myself; I don’t like going to a party by myself.”

She initially studied at the Phillip Street Theatre in Sydney, alongside Naomi Watts who had attended the same high school. She also attended the Australian Theatre for Young People. Here she took up drama, mime and performing in her teens, finding acting to be a refuge. Owing to her fair skin and naturally red hair, the Australian sun forced the young Kidman to rehearse in halls of the theatre. A regular at the Phillip Street Theatre, she received praise and encouragement to pursue acting full-time.

Career

Beginnings (1983–1994)

In 1983, aged 16, Kidman made her film debut in a remake of the Australian holiday season favourite Bush Christmas. By the end of 1983, she had a supporting role in the television series Five Mile Creek. In 1984, her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer, which caused Kidman to halt her acting work temporarily while she studied massage so she could help her mother with physical therapy. She began gaining popularity in the mid-1980s after appearing in several film roles, including BMX Bandits (1983), Watch the Shadows Dance (1987 aka Nightmaster), and the romantic comedy Windrider (1986), which earned Kidman attention due to her racy scenes. Also during the decade, she appeared in several Australian productions, including the soap opera A Country Practice and the 1987 miniseries Vietnam. She also made guest appearances on Australian television programs and TV movies.

In 1988, Kidman appeared in Emerald City, based on the play of the same name. The Australian film earned her an Australian Film Institute award for Best Supporting Actress. Kidman next starred with Sam Neill in Dead Calm (1989) as Rae Ingram, playing the wife of a naval officer. The thriller brought Kidman to international recognition; Variety commented: “Throughout the film, Kidman is excellent. She gives the character of Rae real tenacity and energy.” Meanwhile, critic Roger Ebert noted the excellent chemistry between the leads, stating, “Kidman and Zane do generate real, palpable hatred in their scenes together.” She followed that up with the Australian miniseries Bangkok Hilton. She next moved on to star alongside her then-boyfriend and future husband, Tom Cruise, in the 1990 auto racing film Days of Thunder, as a young doctor who falls in love with a NASCAR driver. It is Kidman’s American debut and was among the highest-grossing films of the year.

In 1991, she co-starred with Thandie Newton and former classmate Naomi Watts in the Australian independent film Flirting. They portrayed high school girls in this coming of age story, which won the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Film. That same year, her work in the film Billy Bathgate earned Kidman her first Golden Globe Award nomination, for Best Supporting ActressThe New York Times, in its film review, called her “a beauty with, it seems, a sense of humor”. The following year, she and Cruise re-teamed for Ron Howard‘s Irish epic Far and Away (1992), which was a modest critical and commercial success. In 1993, she starred in the thriller Malice opposite Alec Baldwin and the drama My Life opposite Michael Keaton[GR6] .

Worldwide recognition (1995–2003)

In 1995, Kidman played Dr. Chase Meridian, the damsel in distress, in the superhero film Batman Forever, opposite Val Kilmer as the film’s title character. The same year, she starred in Gus Van Sant‘s critically acclaimed dark comedy To Die For, in which she played the murderous newscaster Suzanne Stone. Of Kidman’s Golden Globe Award-winning performance, Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle said “[she] brings to the role layers of meaning, intention and impulse. Telling her story in close-up – as she does throughout the film – Kidman lets you see the calculation, the wheels turning, the transparent efforts to charm that succeed in charming all the same.” Kidman next appeared, alongside Barbara Hershey and John Malkovich, in The Portrait of a Lady (1996), based on the novel of the same name, and starred in The Peacemaker (1997) as White House nuclear expert Dr. Julia Kelly, opposite George Clooney. The latter film grossed US$110 million worldwide. Kidman starred in comedy Practical Magic (1998) with Sandra Bullock as two witch sisters who face a curse which threatens to prevent them ever finding lasting love. While the film opened atop the chart on its North American opening weekend, it flopped at the box office. She returned to her work on stage the same year in the David Hare play The Blue Room[GR7] , which opened in London.

In 1999, Kidman reunited with then husband, Tom Cruise, to portray a Manhattan couple on a sexual odyssey, in Eyes Wide Shut, the final film of director Stanley Kubrick. It was subject to censorship controversies due to the explicit nature of its sex scenes. After a brief hiatus and a highly publicized divorce from Cruise, Kidman returned to the screen to play a mail-order bride in the British-American drama Birthday Girl. In 2001, Kidman played the cabaret actress and courtesan Satine in Baz Luhrmann‘s musical Moulin Rouge!, opposite Ewan McGregor. Her performance and her singing received positive reviews; Paul Clinton of CNN.com called it her best work since To Die For, and wrote “[she] is smoldering and stunning as Satine. She moves with total confidence throughout the film […] Kidman seems to specialize in ‘ice queen’ characters, but with Satine, she allows herself to thaw, just a bit.” Subsequently, Kidman received her second Golden Globe Award, for Best Actress in a Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, as well as many other acting awards and nominations. She also received her first Academy Award nomination, for Best Actress.

Kidman at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival premiere of Moulin Rouge!

Kidman also starred in Alejandro Amenábar‘s horror film The Others (2001), as Grace Stewart, a mother living in the Channel Islands during World War II who suspects her house is haunted. Grossing over US$210 million worldwide, the film also earned several Goya Award nominations, including a Best Actress nomination for Kidman. She received her second BAFTA Award and fifth Golden Globe Award nominations. Roger Ebert commented that “Alejandro Amenábar has the patience to create a languorous, dreamy atmosphere, and Nicole Kidman succeeds in convincing us that she is a normal person in a disturbing situation, and not just a standard-issue horror movie hysteric.” Kidman was named the World’s Most Beautiful Person by People magazine in 2002.

In 2002, Kidman won critical praise for her portrayal of Virginia Woolf in Stephen Daldry‘s The Hours, which stars Meryl Streep and Julianne Moore. Kidman famously wore prosthetics that were applied to her nose making her almost unrecognizable playing the author during her time in 1920s England, and her bouts with depression and mental illness while trying to write her novel, Mrs. Dalloway. The film earned positive notices and several nominations, including for an Academy Award for Best PictureThe New York Times wrote that, “Ms. Kidman, in a performance of astounding bravery, evokes the savage inner war waged by a brilliant mind against a system of faulty wiring that transmits a searing, crazy static into her brain”. Kidman won numerous critics’ awards, including her first BAFTA Award, third Golden Globe Award, and the Academy Award for Best Actress. As the first Australian actress to win an Academy Award, Kidman made a teary acceptance speech about the importance of art, even during times of war, saying, “Why do you come to the Academy Awards when the world is in such turmoil? Because art is important. And because you believe in what you do and you want to honour that, and it is a tradition that needs to be upheld.”

Following her Oscar win, Kidman appeared in three very different films in 2003. The first, a leading role in Dogville, by Danish director Lars von Trier, was an experimental film set on a bare soundstage. Though the film divided critics in the United States, Kidman still earned praise for her performance. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone magazine stated: “Kidman gives the most emotionally bruising performance of her career in Dogville, a movie that never met a cliche it didn’t stomp on.” The second was an adaptation of Philip Roth‘s novel The Human Stain, opposite Anthony Hopkins. [GR8] Her third film was Anthony Minghella‘s war drama Cold Mountain. Kidman appeared opposite Jude Law and Renée Zellweger, playing Southerner Ada Monroe, who is in love with Law’s character and separated by the Civil WarTIME magazine wrote, “Kidman takes strength from Ada’s plight and grows steadily, literally luminous. Her sculptural pallor gives way to warm radiance in the firelight”. The film garnered several award nominations and wins for its actors; Kidman received her sixth Golden Globe Award nomination at the 61st Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress.

Continued success (2004–2009)

Kidman in 2004

In 2004 she starred in the film Birth, which sparked controversy over a scene in which Kidman shares a bath with her co-star Cameron Bright, then aged ten. At a press conference at the Venice Film Festival, she addressed the controversy saying, “It wasn’t that I wanted to make a film where I kiss a 10-year-old boy. I wanted to make a film where you understand love”. Kidman received her seventh Golden Globe nomination, for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama. That same year, she appeared as a successful producer in the black comedy-science-fiction film The Stepford Wives, a remake of the 1975 film of the same name, directed by Frank Oz. In 2005, Kidman appeared opposite Sean Penn in the Sydney Pollack thriller The Interpreter, playing UN translator Silvia Broome, and with Will Ferrell in the romantic comedy Bewitched, based on the 1960s TV sitcom of the same name. While neither film fared well in the United States, both were international successes. Kidman and Ferrell earned the Razzie Award [GR9] for Worst Screen Couple.

In conjunction with her success within the film industry, Kidman became the face of the Chanel No. 5 perfume brand. She starred in a campaign of television and print ads with Rodrigo Santoro, directed by Moulin Rouge! director Baz Luhrmann, to promote the fragrance during the holiday seasons of 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2008. The three-minute commercial produced for Chanel No. 5 made Kidman the record holder for the most money paid per minute to an actor after she reportedly earned US$12 million for the three-minute advert. During this time, Kidman was also featured as the 45th Most Powerful Celebrity on the 2005 Forbes Celebrity 100 List. She made a reported US$14.5 million in 2004–2005. On People magazine’s list of 2005’s highest-paid actresses, Kidman was second behind Julia Roberts, with US$16–17 million per-film price tag. Nintendo in 2007 announced that Kidman would be the new face of Nintendo’s advertising campaign for the Nintendo DS game More Brain Training in its European market.

In 2006, Kidman portrayed photographer Diane Arbus in the biographical film Fur, opposite Robert Downey Jr., and lent her voice to the animated film Happy Feet, which grossed over US$384 million worldwide. In 2007, she starred in the science-fiction film The Invasion directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel, a remake of the 1956 Invasion of the Body Snatchers, and starred opposite Jennifer Jason Leigh and Jack Black in Noah Baumbach‘s comedy-drama Margot at the Wedding, which earned her a Satellite Award nomination for Best Actress – Musical or Comedy. She also starred in the fantasy-adventure, The Golden Compass (2007), playing the villainous Marisa Coulter.

In 2008, she reunited with Moulin Rouge! director Baz Luhrmann in the Australian period film Australia, set in the remote Northern Territory during the Japanese attack on Darwin during World War II. Kidman starred opposite Hugh Jackman as an Englishwoman feeling overwhelmed by the continent. The acting was praised and the movie was a box office success worldwide. Kidman appeared in the 2009 Rob Marshall musical Nine, portraying the Federico Fellini-like character’s muse, Claudia Jenssen, with fellow Oscar winners Daniel Day-LewisJudi DenchMarion CotillardPenélope Cruz and Sophia Loren. Kidman, whose screen time was brief in comparison to the other actresses, performed the musical number “Unusual Way”, alongside Day-Lewis. The film received several Golden Globe Award and Academy Award nominations, and earned Kidman a fourth Screen Actors Guild Award nomination, as part of the Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture.[GR10] 

Biographical and independent films (2010–2015)

In 2010, Kidman starred with Aaron Eckhart in the film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play Rabbit Hole, for which she vacated her role in the Woody Allen picture You Will Meet a Tall Dark Stranger. Her portrayal as a grieving mother in the film earned her critical acclaim, and received nominations for the Academy AwardsGolden Globe Awards, and Screen Actors Guild Awards. She lent her voice to a promotional video that Australia used to support its bid to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup. In 2011, she starred alongside Nicolas Cage in director Joel Schumacher‘s action-thriller Trespass, with the stars playing a married couple taken hostage, and appeared with Adam Sandler and Jennifer Aniston in Dennis Dugan‘s romantic comedy Just Go with It,[GR11]  as a trophy wife.

Kidman at the 2012 Tropfest

In 2012, Kidman and Clive Owen starred in the HBO film Hemingway & Gellhorn, and about Ernest Hemingway and his relationship with Martha Gellhorn. In Lee Daniels‘ adaptation of the Pete Dexter novel, The Paperboy (2012), she portrayed death row groupie Charlotte Bless, and performed sex scenes that she claims not to have remembered until seeing the finished film. The film competed in the 2012 Cannes Film Festival, and Kidman’s performance drew nominations for the SAG and the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress, gave Kidman her second Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress and her tenth nomination overall. In 2012, Kidman’s audiobook recording of Virginia Woolf‘s To the Lighthouse was released at Audible.com. Kidman starred as an unstable mother in Park Chan-wook‘s Stoker (2013), to a positive response and a Saturn Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress. In April 2013 she was selected as a member of the main competition jury at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival.

In 2014, Kidman starred in the biographical film Grace of Monaco in the title role that chronicles the 1962 crisis, in which Charles de Gaulle blockaded the tiny principality, angered by Monaco’s status as a tax haven for wealthy French subjects and Kelly’s contemplating a Hollywood return to star in Alfred Hitchcock‘s Marnie. Opening out of competition at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival, the film received largely negative reviews. Kidman also starred in two films with Colin Firth that year, the first being the British-Australian historical drama The Railway Man, in which Kidman played an officer’s wife. Katherine Monk of the Montreal Gazette said of Kidman’s performance, “It’s a truly masterful piece of acting that transcends Teplitzky’s store-bought framing, but it’s Kidman who delivers the biggest surprise: For the first time since her eyebrows turned into solid marble arches, the Australian Oscar winner is truly terrific”. Her second film with Firth was the British thriller film Before I Go To Sleep, portraying a car crash survivor with brain damage. She also appeared in the family film Paddington (2014) as a villain.

In 2015, Kidman starred in the drama Strangerland, which opened at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival, and the Jason Bateman-directed The Family Fang, produced by Kidman’s production company, Blossom Films, which premiered at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival. In her other 2015 film release, the biographical drama Queen of the Desert, she portrayed writer, traveler, political officer, administrator, and archaeologist Gertrude Bell. Kidman played a district attorney, opposite Julia Roberts and Chiwetel Ejiofor, in the little-seen film Secret in Their Eyes (also 2015), a remake of the 2009 Argentine film of the same name, both based on the novel La pregunta de sus ojos by author Eduardo Sacheri. After more than 15 years, Kidman returned to the West End in the UK premiere of Photograph 51 at the Noël Coward Theatre. She starred as British scientist Rosalind Franklin, working for the discovery of the structure of DNA, in the production from 5 September to 21 November 2015, directed by Michael Grandage[GR12] . Her return to the West End was hailed a success, especially after having won an acting award for her portrayal in the play.

Resurgence and television career (2016–present)

In 2016’s Lion, Kidman portrayed Sue, the adoptive mother of Saroo Brierley, an Indian boy who was separated from his birth family, a role she felt connected to as she herself is the mother of adopted children. She garnered rave reviews for her performance, as well as nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, her fourth nomination overall, and her eleventh Golden Globe Award nomination, among others. Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times thought that “Kidman gives a powerful and moving performance as Saroo’s adoptive mother, who loves her son with every molecule of her being, but comes to understand his quest. It’s as good as anything she’s done in the last decade.” Budgeted at US$12 million, Lion earned over US$140 million globally. She also gave a voice-over performance for the English version of the animated film The Guardian Brothers.

Kidman at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival

In 2017, Kidman returned to television for Big Little Lies, a drama series based on Liane Moriarty‘s novel, which premiered on HBO. She also served as executive producer alongside her co-star, Reese Witherspoon, and the show’s director, Jean-Marc Vallée. She played Celeste Wright, a former lawyer and housewife, who is concealing her abusive relationship with her husband, played by Alexander Skarsgård. Matthew Jacobs of The Huffington Post considered that she “delivered a career-defining performance”, while Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post wrote that “Kidman belongs in the pantheon of great actresses”. She won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie[GR13]  for her performance, as well as winning the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Limited Series as a producer. She also won a Critics’ Choice Television AwardGolden Globe Award, and Screen Actors Guild Award.

Kidman next played Martha Farnsworth, the headmistress of an all-girls school during the American Civil War, in Sofia Coppola[GR14] ‘s drama The Beguiled, a remake of a 1971 film of the same name, which premiered at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, competing for the Palme d’Or. Both films were adaptations of a novel by Thomas P. Cullinan, The film was an arthouse success, and Katie Walsh of Tribune News Service found Kidman “particularly, unsurprisingly excellent in her performance as the steely Miss Martha. She is controlled and in control, unflappable. Her genteel manners and femininity co-exist easily with her toughness.” Kidman had two other films premiere at the festival, the science-fiction romantic comedy How to Talk to Girls at Parties, reuniting her with director John Cameron Mitchell, and the psychological thriller The Killing of a Sacred Deer, directed by Yorgos Lanthimos, which also competed for the Palme d’Or. Also in 2017, Kidman played supporting roles in the BBC Two television series Top of the Lake: China Girl and in the comedy-drama The Upside, a remake of the 2011 French comedy The Intouchables, starring Bryan Cranston and Kevin Hart.

Kidman starred in two 2018 dramas —Destroyer and Boy Erased. In the former, she played a detective troubled by a case for two decades. Peter Debruge of Variety and Brooke Marine of W both found her “unrecognizable” in the role and Debruge added that “she disappears into an entirely new skin, rearranging her insides to fit the character’s tough hide”, whereas Marine highlighted Kidman’s method acting. The latter film is based on Garrard Conley’s Boy Erased: A Memoir, and features Russell Crowe [GR15] and Kidman as socially conservative parents who send their son (played by Lucas Hedges) to a gay conversion program. Richard Lawson of Vanity Fair credited all three performers for “elevating the fairly standard-issue material to poignant highs”. Also that year, Kidman played Queen Atlanna, the mother of the title character, in the DC Extended Universe superhero film Aquaman. Nicole was interviewed for BAFTA A Life in Pictures in November 2018, where she reflected on her extensive career in film.

Forbes ranked her as the fourth highest-paid actress in the world in 2019, with an annual income of $34 million. She took on the supporting part of a rich socialite in John Crowley‘s drama The Goldfinch, an adaptation of the novel of the same name by Donna Tartt, starring Ansel Elgort. Although it was poorly received, Owen Gleiberman commended Kidman for playing her part with “elegant affection”. She next starred alongside Charlize Theron and Margot Robbie in the drama Bombshell,[GR16]  about sexual harassment at Fox News, in which she portrayed Gretchen CarlsonManohla Dargis of The New York Times opined that despite lesser screen time than her two co-protagonists, Kidman successfully made Carlson “ever-so-slightly ridiculous, adding a sharp sliver of comedy that underscores how self-serving and futile her rebellious gestures at the network are”. For her performance in Bombshell, Kidman received another Screen Actor Guild nomination.

Kidman currently portrays Grace Fraser, a successful therapist in New York, in the HBO psychological thriller miniseries The Undoing, based on the novel You Should Have Known by Jean Hanff Korelitz. Kidman serves as executive producer alongside the show’s director, Susanne Bier, and David E. Kelley. Kelley previously adapted and produced Big Little Lies for television and also adapted The Undoing for television.

Kidman’s only film release of 2020 is the musical comedy film The Prom based on the Broadway musical of the same name. Kidman will star in the film alongside Meryl StreepJames Corden and Andrew RannellsThe Prom was released on Netflix on 11 December 2020.

Upcoming projects

Kidman will star in and serve as executive producer on three television series. She will first star in the Hulu miniseries Nine Perfect Strangers based on the novel of the same name by Liane Moriarty which is currently in production in Australia. Furthermore, Kidman will star in the Amazon Prime Video thriller miniseries Pretty Things based on the upcoming novel of the same name by Janelle Brown as well as the Amazon Prime Video family drama series Things I Know To Be True based on the Australian play of the same name. Unlike Nine Perfect Strangers and Pretty ThingsThings I Know To Be True is envisioned as an ongoing series with multiple seasons rather than a miniseries.

Kidman will also serve as an executive producer for the television series The Expatriates [GR17] for Amazon Prime Video.

Media image

Several media publications consider Kidman to be among the finest actresses of her generation. She is noted for taking on risky roles in films helmed by auteurs. In 2020, The New York Times ranked her as one of the greatest actors of the 21st century.

Kidman has also been described as a fashion icon. The chartreuse Dior gown she wore to the 1997 Academy Awards is regarded as one of the greatest dresses in Oscar history and The Daily Telegraph credit it with changing red carpet fashion forever. She was the recipient of the 2003 Fashion Icon Award by the Council of Fashion Designers of America. “Nicole Kidman’s style, both on and off the screen, has had an undeniable impact on fashion,” said Peter Arnold, executive director of CFDA. 

Personal life

Relationships and children

Kidman has been married twice: first to actor Tom Cruise, and later to country singer Keith Urban. Kidman met Cruise in November 1989, while filming Days of Thunder; [GR18] they were married on Christmas Eve in Telluride, Colorado. The couple adopted a daughter, Isabella Jane Cruise (born 1992), and a son, Connor Antony Cruise (born 1995). On 5 February 2001, the couple’s spokesperson announced their separation. Cruise filed for divorce two days later, and the marriage was dissolved in August of that year, with Cruise citing irreconcilable differences. In a 2007 interview with Marie Claire, Kidman noted the incorrect reporting of the ectopic pregnancy early in her marriage. “It was wrongly reported as miscarriage, by everyone who picked up the story.” “So it’s huge news, and it didn’t happen.”

Kidman with husband Keith Urban in 2011

In the June 2006 issue of Ladies’ Home Journal, she said she still loved Cruise: “He was huge; still is. To me, he was just Tom, but to everybody else, he is huge. But he was lovely to me and I loved him. I still love him.” In addition, she has expressed shock about their divorce. In 2015, former Church of Scientology executive Mark Rathbun claimed in a documentary film that he was instructed to “facilitate [Cruise’s] break-up with Nicole Kidman”. Cruise’s auditor further claimed Kidman had been wiretapped on Cruise’s suggestion.

Prior to marrying Cruise, Kidman had been involved in relationships with Australian actor Marcus Graham and Windrider (1986) co-star Tom Burlinson. She was also said to be involved with Adrien Brody. The film Cold Mountain brought rumours that an affair between Kidman and co-star Jude Law was responsible for the break-up of his marriage. Both denied the allegations, and Kidman won an undisclosed sum from the British tabloids that published the story. She met musician Lenny Kravitz in 2003, and dated him into 2004. Kidman was also romantically linked to rapper Q-TipRobbie Williams claims he had a short romance with Kidman on her yacht in summer 2004.

In a 2007 Vanity Fair interview, Kidman revealed that she had been secretly engaged to someone prior to her present relationship with New Zealand-Australian country singer Keith Urban, whom she met at G’Day LA, an event honouring Australians, in January 2005. Kidman married Urban on 25 June 2006, at Cardinal Cerretti Memorial Chapel on the grounds of St Patrick’s Estate, Manly in Sydney. In an interview in 2015, Kidman said, “We didn’t really know each other – we got to know each other during our marriage.” They maintain homes in Sydney, Sutton Forest (New South Wales, Australia); Los Angeles; Nashville (Tennessee, U.S.); and a condominium in Manhattan purchased for US$10 million. The couple’s first daughter, Sunday Rose, was born in 2008, in Nashville. In 2010, Kidman and Urban had their second daughter, Faith Margaret, via gestational surrogacy at Nashville’s Centennial Women’s Hospital. In an interview by Tina Brown at the 2015 Women in the World [GR19] conference, she stated that her attention turned to her career after her divorce from Cruise: “Out of my divorce came work that was applauded so that was an interesting thing for me”, leading to her Academy Award in 2003.

Religious and political views

Kidman was brought up in an Irish Catholic family and remains practicing. She attended Mary Mackillop Chapel in North Sydney. Following criticism of The Golden Compass by Catholic leaders as anti-Catholic, Kidman told Entertainment Weekly that the Catholic Church is part of her “essence”, and that her religious beliefs would prevent her from taking a role in a film she perceived as anti-Catholic. During her divorce from Tom Cruise, she stated that she did not want their children raised as Scientologists. She has been reluctant to discuss Scientology since her divorce.

A supporter of women’s rights, Kidman testified before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs to support the International Violence Against Women Act in 2009. In January 2017, she stated her support for the legalization of same-sex marriage in Australia. Kidman has also donated to U.S. Democratic party candidates.

Wealth, philanthropy, and honours

In 2002, Kidman first appeared on the Australian rich list published annually in the Business Review Weekly with an estimated net worth of A$122 million. In the 2011 published list, Kidman’s wealth was estimated at A$304 million, down from A$329 million in 2010. Kidman has raised money for, and drawn attention to, disadvantaged children around the world. In 1994, she was appointed a goodwill ambassador for UNICEF, and in 2004, she was honoured as a “Citizen of the World” by the United Nations. Kidman joined the Little Tee Campaign for breast cancer care to design T-shirts or vests to raise money to fight the disease; motivated by her mother’s own battle with breast cancer in 1984.

Kidman (right), Nancy Pelosi (left) and Esta Soler (center) breaking ground on the International Center to End Violence in San Francisco

In the 2006 Australia Day Honours, Kidman was appointed Companion of Order of Australia (AC) for “service to the performing arts as an acclaimed motion picture performer, to health care through contributions to improve medical treatment for women and children and advocacy for cancer research, to youth as a principal supporter of young performing artists, and to humanitarian causes in Australia and internationally”. However, due to film commitments and her wedding to Urban, it wasn’t until 13 April 2007 that she was presented with the honour. It was presented by the Governor-General of Australia, Major General Michael Jeffery, in a ceremony at Government House, Canberra.

Kidman was appointed goodwill ambassador of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in 2006. She visited Kosovo in 2006 to learn about women’s experiences of conflict and UNIFEM’s support efforts. She is also the international spokesperson for UNIFEM’s Say NO – UNiTE to End Violence against Women initiative. Kidman and the UNIFEM executive director presented over five million signatures collected during the first phase of this to the UN Secretary-General on 25 November 2008. In 2016, Kidman donated $50,000 to UN Women.

In the beginning of 2009, Kidman appeared in a series of postage stamps featuring Australian actors. She, Geoffrey RushRussell Crowe and Cate Blanchett each appear twice in the series: once as themselves and once as their Academy Award-nominated character; Kidman’s second stamp showed her as Satine from Moulin Rouge!. On 8 January 2010, alongside Nancy PelosiJoan Chen and Joe Torre, Kidman attended the ceremony to help the Family Violence Prevention Fund break ground on a new international centre located in the Presidio of San Francisco. In 2015, Kidman became the brand ambassador for Etihad Airways.

Kidman supports the Nashville Predators, being seen and photographed almost nightly throughout the season. Additionally, she supports the Sydney Swans[GR20]  in the Australian Football League and once served as a club ambassador.

Her hobby is collecting ancient Judean coins. She frequently visits specialized auctions in order to acquire rare ancient coins from Ancient Judea.

Filmography

Discography

Kidman’s discography consists of one spoken word album, one extended play, three singles, three music videos, ten other appearances, a number of unreleased tracks and two tribute songs recorded by various artists. Kidman, primarily known in the field of acting, entered the music industry in the 2000s after recording a number of tracks for the soundtrack album to Baz Luhrmann‘s 2001 motion picture Moulin Rouge!, which she starred in. Her duet with Ewan McGregor entitled “Come What May” was released as her debut and the second single of the OST through Interscope on 24 September 2001. The composition became the eighth-highest selling single by an Australian artist for that year, being certified Gold by Australian Recording Industry Association[GR21] , while reaching on the UK Singles Chart at number twenty-seven. In addition, the song received a nomination at the 59th Golden Globe Awards as the Best Original Song, and has been listed as the eighty-fifth within AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs by American Film Institute.

Somethin’ Stupid“, a cover version of Frank and Nancy Sinatra followed soon. The track, recorded as a duet with English singer-songwriter Robbie Williams, was issued on 14 December 2001 by Chrysalis Records as the lead single of his fourth studio album, Swing When You’re Winning. Kidman’s second single topped the official music charts in Italy, New ZealandPortugal, and England, as well as scored top ten placings all over Europe, including Australia, AustriaBelgiumDenmark, Germany, NetherlandsNorway, and Switzerland. Apart from being certified either Gold or Silver in a number of countries, it was classified as the eleventh best-selling single of 2002 in Italy, thirtieth in the UK, the fifty-ninth in Australia, and the ninety-third in France, respectively. The song peaked at No. 8 in the Australian ARIAnet Singles Chart and at No. 1, for three weeks, in the UK.

On 5 April 2002, Kidman released, through Interscope, her third single, a cover of Randy Crawford‘s “One Day I’ll Fly Away“. The song, a Tony Philips remix, was promoted as the pilot single of a follow-up to the original soundtrack of the same name, Moulin Rouge! Vol. 2. In 2006, she contributed with her vocal for the OST Happy Feet on a rendition of the Prince song “Kiss“. In 2009, she was featured on the soundtrack of Rob Marshall‘s 2009 movie musical Nine, singing the song “Unusual Way”.

Her name was later been credited on a track called “What’s the Procedure”, issued on 14 March 2013, on the compilation album[GR22]  I Know Why They Call It Pop: Volume 2 by Rok Lok Records. Among others, Kidman also narrated an audiobook in 2012.

In 2017, she and Nicolle Gaylon sang backing vocals on her husband, country music singer Keith Urban‘s song “Female“.

Awards

Kidman at the 83rd Academy Awards in 2011

In 2003, Kidman received a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In addition to her 2003 Academy Award for Best Actress, Kidman has received Best Actress awards from the following critics’ groups or award-granting organizations: the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (Golden Globe Awards), Australian Film InstituteBlockbuster Entertainment AwardsEmpire Awards[GR23] , Hollywood Film FestivalLondon Film Critics’ CircleRussian Guild of Film CriticsSatellite Awards, and Southeastern Film Critics Association.

Kidman also received recognition from the National Association of Theatre Owners at the ShoWest Convention in 1992 as the Female Star of Tomorrow, and in 2002 for a Distinguished Decade of Achievement in Film. In 2003, she was given the American Cinematheque Award


 [GR1]Time 100 (often stylized as TIME 100) is an annual listicle of the 100 most influential people in the world, assembled by the American news magazine Time. First published in 1999 as the result of a debate among American academics, politicians, and journalists, the list is now a highly publicized annual event. Appearing on the list is often seen as an honor, and Time makes it clear that entrants are recognized for changing the world, regardless of the consequences of their actions. The final list of influential individuals is exclusively chosen by Time editors, with nominations coming from the Time 100 alumni and the magazine’s international writing staff. Only the winner of the Reader’s Poll, conducted days before the official list is revealed, is chosen by the general public. The corresponding commemorative gala is held annually in ManhattanNew York.

In 2019, Time began publishing the Time 100 Next list, which “spotlights 100 rising stars who are shaping the future of business, entertainment, sports, politics, science, health and more.

 [GR2]Lion is a 2016 Australian biographical drama film directed by Garth Davis (in his feature directorial debut) from a screenplay by Luke Davies based on the 2013 non-fiction book A Long Way Home by Saroo Brierley. The film stars Dev PatelSunny PawarRooney MaraDavid Wenham and Nicole Kidman, as well as Abhishek Bharate, Divian LadwaPriyanka BoseDeepti NavalTannishtha Chatterjee and Nawazuddin Siddiqui. It tells the true story of how Brierley, 25 years after being separated from his family in India, sets out to find them. It is a joint production between Australia and the United Kingdom.

The film, which had its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival on 10 October 2016, was given a limited release in the United States on 25 November 2016, by The Weinstein Company before opening generally on 6 January 2017. It was released in Australia on 19 January 2017 and in the United Kingdom on 20 January 2017.

Lion was well-received by critics, with praise for the acting (particularly from Patel and Kidman), emotion, cinematography and screenplay; it received six Oscar nominations at the 89th Academy Awards, including Best PictureBest Supporting Actor (Patel), Best Supporting Actress (Kidman), and Best Adapted Screenplay. It won two BAFTA Awards for Best Supporting Actor (Patel) and Best Adapted Screenplay. The film was also commercially successful making $140 million worldwide, becoming one of the highest-grossing Australian films of all time.

 [GR3]UNICEF, also known as the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund, is a United Nations agency responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide. The agency is among the most widespread and recognizable social welfare organizations in the world, with a presence in 192 countries and territories. UNICEF’s activities include providing immunizations and disease prevention, administering treatment for children and mothers with HIV, enhancing childhood and maternal nutrition, improving sanitation, promoting education, and providing emergency relief in response to disasters

 [GR4]Thomas Cruise Mapother IV (born July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer. He has received various accolades for his work, including three Golden Globe Awards and three nominations for Academy Awards. He is one of the highest-paid actors in the world. His films have grossed over $4 billion in North America and over $10.1 billion worldwide, making him one of the highest-grossing box office stars of all time.

Cruise began acting in the early 1980s and made his breakthrough with leading roles in the comedy film Risky Business (1983) and action drama film Top Gun (1986). Critical acclaim came with his roles in the drama films The Color of Money (1986), Rain Man (1988), and Born on the Fourth of July (1989). For his portrayal of Ron Kovic in the latter, he won a Golden Globe Award and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. As a leading Hollywood star in the 1990s, he starred in several commercially successful films, including the drama A Few Good Men (1992), the thriller The Firm (1993), the horror film Interview with the Vampire (1994), and the romance Jerry Maguire (1996). For his role in the latter, he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor and received his second Academy Award nomination.

Cruise’s performance as a motivational speaker in the drama film Magnolia (1999) earned him another Golden Globe Award and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. As an action star, he has played Ethan Hunt in all six of the Mission: Impossible films from 1996 to 2018. He also starred in science fiction and action films, including Vanilla Sky (2001), Minority Report (2002), The Last Samurai (2003), Collateral (2004), War of the Worlds (2005), Knight and Day (2010), Jack Reacher (2012), Oblivion (2013), Edge of Tomorrow (2014), and The Mummy (2017).

 [GR5]Kidman was born in Randwick and grew up in North Sydney, the oldest of four children to Arthur David Kidman and Margaret Emily Mary Callachor. He was of Scottish descent.

Kidman attended St Aloysius’ College and then completed a Bachelor of Science at the University of Sydney and a Master of Science at the University of New South Wales. He accepted an American Cancer Society Scholarship and undertook a PhD in biochemistry at the University of Hawaii at Manoa

 [GR6]Michael John Douglas (born September 5, 1951), known professionally as Michael Keaton, is an American actor. He first rose to fame for his roles on the CBS sitcoms All’s Fair and The Mary Tyler Moore Hour and his comedic film roles in Night Shift (1982), Mr. Mom (1983), Johnny Dangerously (1984), and Beetlejuice (1988). He earned further acclaim for his dramatic portrayal of the title character in Tim Burton‘s Batman (1989) and Batman Returns (1992).

Since then, he has appeared in a variety of films ranging from dramas and romantic comedies to thriller and action films, such as Clean and Sober (1988), Much Ado About Nothing (1993), My Life (1993), The Paper (1994), Multiplicity (1996), Jackie Brown (1997), Herbie: Fully Loaded (2005), The Other Guys (2010), Spotlight (2015), The Founder (2016), Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), and The Trial of the Chicago 7 (2020). He has also provided voices for characters in animated films such as Porco Rosso (1992), Cars (2006), Toy Story 3 (2010), and Minions (2015).

In 2014, Keaton garnered critical acclaim for his performance in the black comedy film Birdman, winning a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy and receiving a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. He previously received a Golden Globe Award nomination for his performance in Live from Baghdad (2002) and a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination for The Company (2007). Keaton was awarded a Career Achievement Award from the Hollywood Film Festival.

On January 18, 2016, he was named Officer of Order of Arts and Letters in France. He is also a visiting scholar at Carnegie Mellon University.

 [GR7]Schnitzler completed the play in 1900, but did not intend it to be performed, even calling the series of scenes ‘unprintable’, he intended them to be read by friends. The play was too sexually explicit to be performed at the time. Subsequently, it was read and then performed in private. Its first public performance in 1921, under the now accepted title Reigen, was closed down by the Vienna police—Schnitzler was prosecuted for obscenity.

Reigen was meant as a dramatic expose of the decadence of the Austrian society. Schnitzler, being a doctor approached the decadence of society from a medical point of view, studying the journey of Syphilis through all classes of society. The title Reigen would be best translated as ’round-dance’ or ’roundelay’. This refers to the daisy chain of sexual encounters, which also determines the format of the play. It is divided into ten scenes and each scene holds two characters (always male and female) and their sexual encounter. The following scene contains one character of the previous scene and a new one. A has sex with B, B has sex with C and so on; until in the tenth scene the circle closes with J having sex with A.

 [GR8]Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins CBE (born 31 December 1937) is a Welsh actor, composer, director and film producer. He is the recipient of multiple accolades, including an Academy Award, three BAFTAs, two Emmys and the Cecil B. DeMille Award. In 1993, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the arts. Hopkins received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2003, and in 2008 he received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.

After graduating from the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in 1957, he trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and was then spotted by Laurence Olivier who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre in 1965. Productions at the National included King Lear, his favourite Shakespeare play. His last stage play was a West End production of M. Butterfly in 1989.

In 1968, Hopkins achieved recognition in film, playing Richard the Lionheart in The Lion in Winter. In the mid-1970s, Richard Attenborough, who would direct five Hopkins films, called him “the greatest actor of his generation.” In 1991, he portrayed Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs, winning the Academy Award for Best Actor. He reprised the role in its sequel Hannibal and the prequel Red Dragon. Other notable films include: The Elephant Man (1980), 84 Charing Cross Road (1987), Howards End (1992), Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992), Shadowlands (1993), Legends of the Fall (1994), Meet Joe Black (1998), The Mask of Zorro (1998), as well as Thor (2011) and its 2013 and 2017 sequels. Hopkins has since been nominated for four other Academy Awards for the films The Remains of the Day (1993), Nixon (1995), Amistad (1997) and The Two Popes (2019). In 2020, Hopkins starred in The Father alongside Olivia Colman.

 [GR9]The Golden Raspberry Awards (also known in short terms as Razzies and Razzie Awards) is a parody award show honouring the worst of cinematic under-achievements. Co-founded by UCLA film graduates and film industry veterans John J. B. Wilson and Mo Murphy, the Razzie Awards’ satirical annual ceremony has preceded its polar opposite, the coveted Academy Awards, for four decades. The term raspberry is used in its irreverent sense, as in “blowing a raspberry“. The statuette itself is a golf ball-sized raspberry atop a mangled Super 8mm film reel spray-painted gold, with an estimated street value of $4.97. The Golden Raspberry Foundation have claimed that the award “encourages well-known filmmakers and top notch performers to own their bad.”

The first Golden Raspberry Awards ceremony was held on March 31, 1981, in John J. B. Wilson’s living-room alcove in Hollywood, to honor the worst films of the 1980 film season. To this day, Sylvester Stallone is the most awarded actor ever with 10 awards won while Madonna is the most awarded actress with 9 awards.

 [GR10]The Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast (or Ensemblein a Motion Picture is an award given by the Screen Actors Guild to honor the finest acting achievements in film.

 [GR11]Just Go with It is a 2011 American romantic comedy film directed by Dennis Dugan, written by Allan Loeb and Timothy Dowling and starring Adam Sandler (who also co-produced the film), Jennifer AnistonNicole KidmanNick Swardson and Brooklyn Decker. It is based on the 1969 film Cactus Flower, along with the 2005 Bollywood movie, Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya?, which are themselves an adaptation of the 1965 Broadway stage play written by Abe Burrows, which in turn was based upon the French play Fleur de cactus.

Production of the film began on March 2, 2010. The film was released on February 11, 2011, by Columbia Pictures in North America. The film grossed over $214 million, making it a box office success. However, it received negative reviews from critics and won two Golden Raspberry Awards for Worst Actor and Worst Director.

 [GR12]Michael Grandage CBE (born 2 May 1962) is a British theatre director and producer. He is currently Artistic Director of the Michael Grandage Company. From 2002 to 2012 he was Artistic Director of the Donmar Warehouse in London  and from 2000 to 2005 he was Artistic Director of Sheffield Theatres.

 [GR13]The Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie is an award presented annually by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role on a television limited series or television movie for the primetime network season.

The award was first presented at the 7th Primetime Emmy Awards on March 7, 1955, to Judith Anderson, for her performance as Lady Macbeth on the Hallmark Hall of Fame episode “Macbeth“. It has undergone several name changes, with the category split into two categories at the 25th Primetime Emmy Awards: Outstanding Lead Actress in a Special Program – Drama or Comedy; and Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series. By the 31st Primetime Emmy Awards, the categories were merged into one, and it has since undergone several name changes, leading to its current title.

Since its inception, the award has been given to 54 actresses. Regina King is the current recipient of the award, for her portrayal of Angela Abar / Sister Night on WatchmenHelen Mirren has won the most awards in this category, with four, and has received the most nominations for the award, on ten occasions.

 [GR14]Sofia Carmina Coppola (/ˈkɒpələ/, Italian: [ˈkɔppola]; born May 14, 1971) is an American screenwriter, director, producer, and actress. The daughter of filmmakers Eleanor and Francis Ford Coppola, she made her film debut as an infant in her father’s acclaimed crime drama film, The Godfather (1972). Coppola later appeared in a supporting role in Peggy Sue Got Married (1986) and portrayed Mary Corleone, the daughter of Michael Corleone, in The Godfather Part III (1990). Her performance in the latter film was severely criticized, and she turned her attention to filmmaking.

Coppola made her feature-length directorial debut with the coming-of-age drama The Virgin Suicides (1999). It was the first of her collaborations with actress Kirsten Dunst. In 2004, Coppola received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the comedy-drama Lost in Translation and became the third woman to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director. In 2006, Coppola directed the historical drama Marie Antoinette, starring Dunst as the title character. In 2010, with the drama Somewhere, Coppola became the first American woman (and fourth American filmmaker) to win the Golden Lion, the top prize at the Venice Film Festival. In 2013, she directed the satirical crime film The Bling Ring, based on the crime ring of the same name which premiered at the Cannes Film Festival.

At the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, Coppola became the second woman in the festival’s history to win the Best Director award; she won the award for her work on the drama film The Beguiled

 [GR15]Russell Ira Crowe (born 7 April 1964) is an actor, film producer, director and musician. Although a New Zealand citizen, he has lived most of his life in Australia. He came to international attention for his role as the Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius in the epic historical film Gladiator (2000), directed by Ridley Scott, for which Crowe won an Academy Award, a Broadcast Film Critics Association Award, an Empire Award, and a London Film Critics Circle Award for Best Leading Actor, along with ten other nominations in the same category. Crowe’s other award-winning performances include portrayals of tobacco firm whistle-blower Jeffrey Wigand in the drama film The Insider (1999) and John F. Nash in the biopic A Beautiful Mind (2001).

Crowe’s other films include the drama Romper Stomper (1992), the mystery-detective thriller L.A. Confidential (1997), the epic war film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003), the boxing drama Cinderella Man (2005), the Western 3:10 to Yuma (2007) which was a remake to the film of the same name, the crime drama American Gangster (2007), the thriller-drama State of Play (2009), he later collaborated with Ridley Scott for the third time with Robin Hood (2010).

Crowe later starred in the musical drama Les Misérables (2012), he starred as Jor-El in the superhero epic Man of Steel (2013), the biblical fantasy drama Noah (2014), and the action comedy The Nice Guys (2016).

In 2014, Crowe made his directorial debut with the drama The Water Diviner, in which he also starred. Crowe’s work has earned him several accolades during his career, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, two Golden Globe Awards, one BAFTA and one Academy Award out of three consecutive nominations (1999, 2000, and 2001). Crowe has also been the co-owner of the National Rugby League (NRL) team South Sydney Rabbitohs since 2006.

 [GR16]Bombshell is a 2019 American drama film directed by Jay Roach and written by Charles Randolph. The film stars Charlize TheronNicole Kidman, and Margot Robbie, and is based upon the accounts of the women at Fox News who set out to expose CEO Roger Ailes for sexual harassmentJohn LithgowKate McKinnonConnie BrittonMalcolm McDowell, and Allison Janney appear in supporting roles.

The project was first announced in May 2017 following Ailes’s death, with Roach confirmed as director the following year. Much of the cast joined that summer and filming began in October 2018 in Los Angeles. It entered into a limited release in the United States on December 13, 2019, before a wide release on December 20, by Lionsgate.

Bombshell‘s box office results were seen as disappointing but the film received mostly favourable reviews, with critics praising its acting (mostly for Theron and Robbie) as well as the makeup and hair but some criticized the screenplay and inaccuracies. At the 92nd Academy Awards, it earned three nominations: Best Actress (Theron), Best Supporting Actress (Robbie), and Best Makeup and Hairstyling, winning the latter. The film also received two nominations at the 77th Golden Globe Awards (for Theron and Robbie), four at the 26th Screen Actors Guild Awards (Theron, Robbie, and Kidman, as well as Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture) and three at the 73rd British Academy Film Awards (Theron, Robbie, and Best Makeup and Hair). The theme song, “One Little Soldier”, performed by Regina Spektor, won the 2020 “Best Song Written or Recorded for a Film” from the Guild of Music Supervisors Awards.

 [GR17]On February 7, 2017, it was reported that Blossom Films had optioned the screen rights to Janice Y.K. Lee’s novel The Expatriates with the intention of developing it into a television series. Alice Bell was attached to write the adaptation. Executive producers were expected to consist of Nicole Kidman, Per Saari, and Theresa Park with Lee set to serve as a consulting producer. Alongside Blossom Films, production companies involved with the production were slated to include POW! Productions. On July 28, 2018, it was announced that Amazon had given the production a series order. On January 11, 2019, it was announced that Melanie Marnich had joined Bell as co-showrunner and executive producer for the series. In December 2019, it was announced Lulu Wang would serve as an executive producer on the series, as well as serve as a writer and direct multiple episodes

 [GR18]Days of Thunder is a 1990 American sports action drama film released by Paramount Pictures, produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer and directed by Tony Scott. The cast includes Tom CruiseNicole KidmanRobert DuvallRandy QuaidCary ElwesCaroline Williams, and Michael Rooker. The film also features appearances by real life NASCAR racers, such as Rusty WallaceNeil Bonnett, and Harry Gant. Commentator Dr. Jerry Punch, of ESPN, has a cameo appearance, as does co-producer Don Simpson.

This is the first of three films to star both Cruise and Kidman (the other two being Far and Away and Eyes Wide Shut). The film received mixed reviews, with criticism aimed at its unrealistic special effects, characters, screenplay, acting, dialogue and similarities to Top Gun, but was widely praised for its action sequences, Hans Zimmer’s musical score, fast pace, and the performances of Cruise and Kidman.

 [GR19]Women in the World is an annual summit launched in 2010 by Tina Brown, the British-born former editor in chief of TatlerVanity FairThe New YorkerTalkNewsweek and The Daily Beast and author of The Diana Chronicles, a biography of Diana, Princess of Wales. First held at New York’s Hudson Theater, the summit now takes place at Lincoln Center’s David Koch Theater, convening women leaders, activists and political change-makers from around the world to share their stories, and offer solutions to building a better life for women and girls. Former ABC news producer Kyle Gibson is senior executive producer and managing editor of the event.

The inaugural summit took place from March 12–14, 2010 and included appearances by Queen Rania of JordanMeryl StreepValerie JarrettChristine LagardeHillary ClintonMadeleine K. AlbrightNora Ephron, and Katie Couric. At the second summit, held from March 10–12, 2011, participants included President Bill Clinton and Hillary ClintonDr. Hawa AbdiCondoleezza RiceSheryl Sandberg, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-IwealaDiane Von FurstenbergMelinda GatesAshley Judd and more.

 [GR20]The Sydney Swans are a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League (AFL). Established in Melbourne as the South Melbourne Football Club in 1874, the Swans relocated to Sydney in 1982, thus making it the first club in the competition to be based outside Victoria.

Initially playing in the Victorian Football Association (VFA), the Swans joined seven other clubs in founding the breakaway Victorian Football League (now known as the AFL) in 1896. It won premierships in 19091918 and 1933 before experiencing a 72-year premiership drought—the longest in the competition’s history. The club broke the drought in 2005 and won another premiership in 2012.

The club has proven to be one of the most consistent teams in the AFL era, failing to make the finals in only five seasons since 1995, playing the most number of finals matches and winning the second-most matches overall (only behind Geelong) since 2000 and boasting a finals winning record of over 50% in the same time period. According to Roy Morgan Research, they have also been the most supported club among all AFL supporters in every year since 2004.

The Swans’ headquarters and training facilities are located at the Sydney Cricket Ground, the club’s playing home ground since 1982.

 [GR21]The Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry which was established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMIFestivalCBSRCAWEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers (AARM) which was formed in 1956. It oversees the collection, administration and distribution of music licenses and royalties.

The association has more than 100 members, including small labels typically run by one to five people, medium size organisations and very large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small. As of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin (chair, CEO of Sony Music), George Ash (Universal Music), Mark Poston (EMI), Sebastian Chase (MGM Distribution), David Vodica (Rubber Records/Music) and Tony Harlow (WAR)

 [GR22]compilation album comprises tracks, which may be previously released or unreleased, usually from several separate recordings by either one or several performers. If by one artist, then generally the tracks were not originally intended for release together as a single work, but may be collected together as a greatest hits album or box set. If from several performers, there may be a theme, topic, time period, or genre which links the tracks, or they may have been intended for release as a single work—such as a tribute album. When the tracks are by the same recording artist, the album may be referred to as a retrospective album or an anthology

 [GR23]The Empire Awards was an annual British awards ceremony honouring cinematic achievements in the local and global film industry. Winners were awarded the Empire Award statuette. The awards, first presented in 1996, were presented by the British film magazine Empire with the winners voted by the readers of the magazine.

The 23rd Empire Awards is the final ceremony, honouring films in 2017, was held on 18 March 2018 in LondonEngland. The awards were sponsored by Jameson Irish Whiskey from the 14th Empire Awards and were thenceforth officially called the Jameson Empire Awards. The official sponsor of the Awards changed to Rakuten TV for the 23rd Empire Awards. Since 2018, the Empire Awards have discontinued for unknown reasons.

Pyramids In The Pacific

The Unwritten History Of Australia

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder


Footprints From The Dreamtime Australia’s Unknown Stone-Age Past

“When Giant fellas alive, them big animals still bin

walkabout this country, Ground shake when he

walk. He eat peoples”

Wullagun

Tribal Elder of the Yabuduruwa people

of Arnhem Land,

concerning the Nagarun, a race of giant people

that once roamed the region.


Above some of the Bathurst NSW Stone-Megatools

Recovered by Rex Gilroy

One day in 1931 on a windswept sandhill, the remains of the shoreline a long-vanished lake about 100km south of the Murray River, at Glenloth, Victoria, John Gibbs, a 10 year old local boy, was playing in the shell grit of an ancient Aboriginal midden. In a basin of the sandhill amid the debris of broken shells, he picked up a large fragmenting football-size lump of petrified mud. Protruding from one of the fragments, he found a small bronze coin. Years later a Melbourne Museum numismatist would identify it as Greek, and that it had been minted in Egypt during the reign of the Greek Ptolemy Philometor the 6th in the 2nd century B.C.

There will be more to say about this coin in a future chapter. The suggestion as to how the coin turned up where it was found is of course that it had been left behind by ancient visitors; Greek explorers perhaps, or even Arabs, Indians or Malayans with whom the Greeks traded.

Similarly, in 1961 a family picnicking on the Daly River, west of Katherine in the Northern territory, found a gold scarab, an object of worship of the ancient Egyptians. How did this valuable ornament find its way to such a remote location? One might ask the same question of a carved stone head of the ancient Chinese Goddess Shao Lin {protectress of mariners at sea} removed from a beachfront hillside at Milton, on the New South Wales far south coast in 1983.

The many ancient rock inscriptions of Phoenician, Libyan, Egyptian, Celtic, Scandinavian and other origins that have turned up across Australia. Relics, rock inscriptions and megalithic ruins left here by seafaring adventurers who came here from civilizations now long turned to dust. They sailed in search of new lands rich in gold, silver, copper and tin, precious stones and pearls, using the worlds’ oceans as watery highways.

It is one of the objectives of this book to demonstrate that these people not only discovered and mined the mysterious “great south land” and its neighbours, but established colonies {some of which may have survived for generations} and were large and important enough to establish a local ruling class. By the time they vanished they had influenced the cultures of the native peoples of the region, leaving behind them ghostly megalithic ruins of temples, tombs and pyramids and rock scripts in a host of ancient tongues; relics that continue to perplex conservative historians and question the dogma that the peoples of the ancient world lacked the ability to construct and navigate oceangoing water craft.

The fact is that people were putting to sea centuries before the invention of a written language, and that the water craft they sailed in were far from flimsy. Although my book concerns the ‘unknown’ history of Australia’s discovery and exploration, it also is to some degree a history of ancient mining activities throughout the Australian-West Pacific region. In forthcoming chapters, I shall demonstrate that, at various times in antiquity, and during the Copper and Bronze ages in particular, Australia’s coastline saw the sails of mineral-seeking peoples from many ancient exotic lands.

Giant Hominid FootprintThe “King Kong” of KanangraGiant Hominid Footprint
Dawn of The God Kings -Uru- The Lost Megalithic Civilisation of Australia

“And on this point he {Poseidonius} does well to cite the

statement of Plato that it is possible that the story

about the island of Atlantis is not fiction. Concerning

Atlantis….an island no smaller in size than a continent”.

Rex and Stone-Head

What is it like to suddenly realise that you are the discoverer of an hitherto unknown ‘lost’ civilisation? Words cannot describe the feeling at the moment I realised I had made such a discovery, and the enormous importance it had for Australian and World History.

I suppose the nearest description one could give of my feelings, would compare them with the excitement of Heinrich Schliemann, when he discovered the ‘mythical’ lost city of Troy in 1873. Schliemann [1822-1890} influenced more by his interpretation of the writings of the ancients, than by the negative scholarship of his day, scorned by protests of ‘learned’ university professors, who said he was wasting his time and money searching for a city that was nothing more than a myth born in the mind of Homer. Schliemann, as every history student knows, proved them all wrong.

Many other important discoveries were made by this great amateur archaeologist, all of which earned him the animosity of the university establishment, who argued his findings were questionable because of his lack of academic qualifications. The charge that he was not a qualified scholar stemmed from the academic conceit, which rates university degrees, even if secured by the most mediocre minds, above genius. Genius Schliemann[GR1]  truly was. Today he is regarded as one of the greatest archaeologists who ever lived.

Scattered across the Australian landscape stand great grey stones weathered with age, arranged in a variety of formations; circles, alignments, single standing stones, tombs and temples; granduous monolithic structures forming great cultural centres of religious and astronomical importance, whose construction would have demanded architectural planning on a grand scale, and the participation of thousands of labourers.

They are megaliths, the monuments of along-vanished race that once spread its advanced stone-age culture across the Earth, from the Australian/West Pacific islands northwards to the furthest reaches of Asia and westward across Europe.

They were the work of the earliest civilisation known to mankind. Who the builders were, their achievements, and why they vanished are mysteries that have long perplexed scholars. No official systematic census has yet been carried out on these monuments, but at least 50,000 of them are known throughout western Europe alone. Thousands more stand across mainland and island south-east Asia and still more in Australia.

The Serpent Altar Discovered 1965 by Rex GilroyThe EagleThe Serpent Altar Frontal View

‘Australantis’ Did Civilisation Spread From Australia?

“They who build in granite,

who set a hall inside their pyramid,

and wrought beauty with their fine work…

Thier altar stones also are empty as those of the weary ones,

the ones who die upon the embankment leaving no mourners”.

Ancient Egyptian Saying


Western End of the 234.3m Stone Alignment

Found by Rex Gilroy[GR2] 

Deep in the Glen Innes hills in 1976, Heather {my wife] and I investigated a granite-covered property. Scattered over an area of about 12 square acres we identified a number of huge menhirs, altars and other stone arrangements; the most impressive of these being a lengthy alignment of huge boulders, a megalithic temple and three circles, as being the largest we have found to date.

The largest circle is actually pear-shaped, and stands on an open flat upon an east-west axis. The western end is marked by a larger pointer stone, from where the sun could be sighted rising in the east through a wide gap in the stones. The ‘pointer ‘ actually forms the apex of the ‘pear’ as well as a triangular formation which makes up the western end of the pear-circle. Thirty four stones form the ‘pear-circle’, which measures 120m in length by 60m width. The triangular formation being 15.2m across its north-south base by 57.1m and 80.1m on its north and south sides respectively.

The exact purpose of this crude ‘triangle’ is still uncertain. 157.2m to the east lies the second circle formed of ten massive boulders 30.9m from east to west by 28.4m from north to south with a large 4.6m by 1.8m wide altar near the southern edge, and an alignment of three small rocks spaced 6.7m and 8m, apart on an south east-north west axis within the structure point beyond a 16.5m wide gap between two monoliths.

The third circle,{actually ‘horseshoe’ shaped}, measures 96.8m circumference by 34.3m width east-west, and 32.4m from north-south. Constructed of mostly huge boulders, the centre is marked by one of these, and a large pine tree now growing beside it obscures the view. There is a 4.2m wide entrance between the two boulders on the north-west side, and a 10.6m wide gap on the south-west side allowed the ancient astronomers to observe the sunset in the winter months from the large central boulder. Other stones on the eastern side were employed to mark the Winter Solstice [GR3] {June 22nd}

Some of the stones forming this circle average 3.7m or more in height by 12.4m and more in circumference, weighing 30 to 40 tonnes. The stone alignment consists of seven standing stones {one being a massive 40 tonne boulder}, erected on an east-west axis to a length of 97.3m. There is a 137m gap toward the east until a 3m tall boulder. Behind this facing west, lying broken in two is an obelisk-like menhir {standing stone}. Upon its exposed surface, which faced the east when erected upright, are nine deeply carved grooves several centimetres apart.

The broken base measures 4.6m square and when intact and upright this huge menhir stood 15.3m tall. The purpose of the grooves, it is thought, was to catch and in some way calculate, the receding shadow of the rising sun. This menhir towered over the alignment, which has a total length of 328.7m. An observer standing some metres beyond the westernmost stone would have been able to line up the rising sun with the ‘obelisk’ menhir at the Summer Solstice[GR4] . South of the third circle stand massive stone blocks in a square formation measuring 30.8m by 16m; the remains of a temple.

A corridor extends between the blocks along the structures’ southern side. Two large altars are found here. One measures 4m long by 2.1m wide and 90cm tall, with a 1.6m length and 36cm wide ‘pathway’ cut up the left side of the stone to a flat surface.

Stone Head


Sumerian God-Kings and the land of Uru.

‘In the distant sea 100 beru of water {away]..

The ground of Arali {is}

It is where the Blue Stones cause ill,

Where the craftsman of Anu *

The Silver Axe carries, which shines

as the day

{*Anu-King of the Gods}

Ancient Sumerian text


Sumerian Galley

The ancient folklores of the Indus Valley and Sumer speak of their culture-bearing ancestors arriving from out of the Indian ocean {or as it is called in ancient Brahman Sanscrit [GR5] ‘Sumundra’} at the dawn of history. India’s sacred book ‘the Rig Veda’ written between 5000-4000 BC, speaks of these culture-bearers as having arrived from a great land far across the {Indian} Ocean called Aryanam Veijo. Veijo means ‘seed’ and Aryanam ‘Aryan’s’, thus “Seed of the Aryans”. It was to them the land of origin of the Ayrans. Similarly, the Persians called it “Azer-baijan”, or the “seed place of the Azar people”, the people who worship fire, locating it in the Southern Hemisphere. Azar-baijan survives as the name of modern Armenia.

According to Babylonian mythology, the deity Ea, [GR6] the god of fertilizing and creative waters produced a son, Marduk, who created the {southern} Paradise by laying a reed upon the face of the waters. He then formed dust and poured it out beside the reed to create the first humans. The water-worshippers of Eridu believed that the Sun and the Moon which rose from the primordial deep, had their origins in the everlasting fire in Ea’s domain at the bottom of the sea; ie the ‘Underworld’ Paradise of Uru. It was from this Paradise that a mysterious child came across the {Indian} Ocean to inaugurate a new era of civilisation and instruct the people how to grow corn and become warriors.

Berosus of Caldea {270-230 BC} described a race of monster beings, half-men and half-fish who, led by a great culture-bearer, Oannes, arrived on the shores of the Persian Gulf, to introduce the arts of writing, architecture and agriculture to Mesopotamia. In other words, they were skilled mariners; Gods who introduced civilisation into Mesopotamia[GR7]  and the rest of mankind.

The spread of Uruan culture by water craft to Mesopotamia and India could be called the first great maritime expansion; and if so, then the rise of Sumer saw another which spread Sumerian influences to the Indus Valley and Persia, to Egypt and Greece. Their vessels eventually penetrating beyond south-east Asia into the west Pacific to ‘rediscover ‘ their ‘land of origin’, {the mysterious land of Uru} and sail on across the Pacific to the Americas. Sumerian influence upon the biblical world was considerable, and they provided the first ruling classes of Indus and Egyptian civilisations. The Sumerians first came to prominence around 3500BC.

The land of Sumer at first developed into a collection of fifteen or twenty small states, situated at the head of the Persian Gulf in lower Babylonia, where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have their mouths. From here the large ocean-going reed boats of Sumer ventured forth on trade and mineral-seeking expeditions to Asia and the Middle-East. The cities, including Ur and kish, were situated far inland, but they were within trading distance with the Mediterranean lands. Archaeologists estimate that, at their height these cities supported considerable populations.

For example, Ur may have held as many as 500,000 people. The Sumerian ports of the Persian Gulf, which date from as early as the 4th millennium BC, were ideally located for trade between India and the Middle-East, although Sumerian trade was mostly directed eastwards.  

Ancient Mining In Australia Found

by Rex Gilroy 


Sons of fire and Dwellers of darkness. Indians explore the Pacific.

“Sons of the Sea, mighty to save

discoverers of riches, ye Gods with deep

thought who find out wealth”

Hymn 136, 10th book of the Rig Veda.


Ayres Rock / Uluru Photographed

by Rex Gilroy

After Uru and Sumer, India became the home of one of the world’s most ancient civilisations, with a written history which scholars date back 4,000 years. As previously discussed India’s earliest known civilised society began in the Valley of the Indus River, which lies between Pakistan and north-west India. Now largely arid, in Antiquity it was a jungle and marsh covered region.

Migrating dark-skinned people from the mountainous area of Iran, who had contact with the people of Mesopotamia, entered the region around 4000 BC to establish farming communities which grew into cities. The Indus Valley people made mud bricks with which they constructed better dwellings that resisted the yearly floods. They also developed many other skills in soil cultivation, tanning leather, garment weaving and the manufacturing of pottery and furniture.

By 2000 BC their cities had grown around the coast of the Arabian Sea, extending from the Iranian border eastwards and southwards to the region of modern Bombay, and in a broad area stretching far northwards across the flood plain of the Indus Valley. The people of the Indus civilisation developed well-organised governments and a form of picture writing {yet to be deciphered}.

Their civilizations possessed many Mesopotamia features with an organised religion. They manufactured copper tools and shared the wheeled cart with Mesopotamia, and made Jewlery equal to any elsewhere at the time. These people and their culture are identified as the Harappan Civilisation[GR8] , 100 sites are known to archaeologists, two of these were large cities–Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Several other sites were large towns, and the rest were small villages. It is estimated that Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro each supported populations of up to 40,000 people with a busy commercial life. Many materials had to be imported, particularly metals.

There nearest source of silver, lead and gold came from Afghanistan, where they also obtained lapis lazuli. Here they also obtained copper, as well as from Rajasthan not far from the Indus Valley. They obtained Jadeite from northern Burma and Tibet, and from Iran {via northern India} and further west, turquoise and tin. They produced bronze tools and weapons and traded with Mesopotamia, especially Ur. Their large single-sailed wooden ships ventured farther afield than often claimed, for there is evidence that Indus crews reached remote lands beyond the Indian Ocean.

Comparisons have been drawn between the Indus and the mysterious script of Easter Island and other similar inscriptions found upon rocks in Brazil and Australia. Their ships returned home with copper, ivory and wood from Oman on the Persian Gulf. But Indus crews must have reached Ceylon {Sri Lanka} and other south-east Asian islands on their way into the Pacific Ocean {as suggested by the Australian rock inscriptions} and vessels sailing between the Indus and south-east Asian ports, might have occasionally been blown off course to find our shores, as were Phoenicians, Egyptians and others throughout the ages.

As the name ‘Uru’ was known throughout the Indian sub-continent and Mesopotamia, the Harappans must already have had knowledge of Australia. The Harappans were worshippers of a horned fertility god that resembled Shiva, one of the most prominent of all Hindu deities, figurines of the gods and goddesses recovered from their ancient settlements show close similarities with those of Hindu deities today; thus the Harappans had an influence upon the Hindu religion.

Siddhartha


 [GR1]Heinrich Schliemann, in full Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann, (born January 6, 1822, Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Germany]—died December 26, 1890, Naples, Italy), German archaeologist and excavator of TroyMycenae, and Tiryns. He is sometimes considered to be the modern discoverer of prehistoric Greece, though scholarship in the late 20th and early 21st centuries revealed that much self-mythologizing was involved in establishing his reputation.

 [GR2]Rex Gilroy is an Australian who has written articles and self-published books on cryptids and unexplained or speculative phenomena. His work has focused on yowie reports, ‘out of place’ animals, UFOs, and propositions regarding a ‘lost’ Australian civilization. He has contributed to, or been the subject of, several articles, in speculative media such as Nexus magazine and in Australian newspapers. He is the author and publisher of several books, the first of which appeared in 1986. He has documented over 3000 reports relating to yowies. His eclectic career has seen field research into butterflies and anthropology, but he remains most notable for his controversial searches for the recently extinct Thylacine, Moas, alien big cats or the source of the yowie legend.

  •  [GR3]Also called: the Longest Night
  • Celebrations: Festivals, spending time with loved ones, feasting, singing, dancing, fires
  • Observed by: Various cultures
  • Significance: Astronomically marks the beginning of lengthening days and shortening nights
  • Related to: Winter festivals and the solstice
  • Frequency: Twice a year (once in the northern hemisphere, once in the southern hemisphere, six months apart)

 [GR4]The summer solstice, also known as estival solstice or midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth’s poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere. For that hemisphere, the summer solstice is when the Sun reaches its highest position in the sky and is the day with the longest period of daylight. Within the Arctic circle or Antarctic circle, there is continuous daylight around the summer solstice. On the summer solstice, Earth’s maximum axial tilt toward the Sun is 23.44°. Likewise, the Sun’s declination from the celestial equator is 23.44°.

t Brahman (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मन्, Hindi: ब्रह्म) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept refers to the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the “creative principle which lies realized in the whole world”. Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) as well as having a form (Sakar) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Sanskrit: आत्मन्), (self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being. In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.

 [GR6]Ea, (Akkadian), Sumerian Enki, Mesopotamian god of water and a member of the triad of deities completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Enlil. From a local deity worshiped in the city of Eridu, Ea evolved into a major god, Lord of Apsu (also spelled Abzu), the fresh waters beneath the earth (although Enki means literally “lord of the earth”).

 [GR7]Mesopotamia (Arabic: بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن‎ Bilād ar-RāfidaynAncient Greek: Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām-Nahrīn or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Bēṯ Nahrīn) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent. It occupies the area of present-day Iraq, and parts of IranTurkeySyria and Kuwait.

The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Later the Arameans dominated major parts of Mesopotamia (c. 900 BC – 270 AD)

Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, the eastern regions of Mesopotamia fell to the Sassanid Persians. The division of Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. A number of primarily neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century BC, including AdiabeneOsroene, and Hatra.

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having “inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops, and the development of cursive script, mathematicsastronomy, and agriculture“. It has been known as one of the earliest civilizations to ever exist in the world

 [GR8]Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km (0.62 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the British Raj period, it is a small crossroads town of 15,000 people today.

The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilisation centred in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay brick houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600 BC – 1900 BC), which is considered large for its time. Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilisation by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilisation is also called the Harappan Civilisation.

The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore–Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artefacts during the early stages of building work.

My Golden Cage

By George W Rehder

So why do I call it “My golden cage”? Well I am 81 years old and disabled and so I finished up living in a Nursing Home in a town in Western Australia. To me it is a golden cage that I live in because this would be the lovelies Nursing home that anyone could wish to live in. So now let me tell you about my life here and my thoughts & dreams. I live in a modest small room with an ensuite. I have added some extras to make my life a bit more like home. I have added a small desk, a bar-fridge and a small cupboard. For entertainment I have my computer, TV, Samsung Tablet & Phone. So why, golden cage? Golden; because I have everything that a person could desire. A perfect diagonal controlled bed, where the sheets get changed whenever I desire.

 As soon as I take off my clothes, they get picked up by one of the many carers to be washed and returned by the next day. I have morning, afternoon and evening Tea and snacks brought to me three times a day. The main meals are either delivered to your room or you can eat in the dining room. We are lucky to have excellent cooks tha provide us with restaurant quality meals with deserts twice a day. A nurse is there 24/7 to look after your medical needs. We also have two physios and an Occupational Therapist present. But more about the staff later. Now why do I think that I am in a cage? Apart from myself there are 30 odd other residents (They don’t call us patients anymore) living here and most of them are incapacitated and all of us are here for the same reason, we are waiting to die! Sounds terrible, doesn’t it?

 But it is true and the staff here make the transition as lovely as possible. So there is my cage! As I am still to a certain degree ambulant, I will go to the shopping centre a couple of times a week on my mobility scooter. I am the only resident that is cable to do so. Sometimes I bring back items from the shops for other residents. At no extra cost we can have things like fresh fruit, Ice-creams, potato chips and even non-alcoholic wines, of which I get 2 bottles per week. The management does not take away your independency or freedom. Except we are somewhat restricted with covid-19 being around.

let’s go back a bit.

Sitting in my big leather chair back at my old home, wondering what to do!

I have just been told that I got one week to get into the Nursing home or loser my place.

I am afraid of the unknown. I have heard so many bad things about nursing homes and how the treat their clients.

My friends encourage me to go, also my doctor wants me to go and so reluctantly I give in and let Juniper know of my decision.

Next, I sell all my furniture, but you never get anyway near what it cost you. Plus, there are so many memories attached to each piece.

My Chair

I pack 15 boxes full of memorabilia that I don’t wish to lose, these will go to my daughter in Fremantle. Until she can pick them up, they will be stored at the Juniper office. The co-ordinator from Juniper was kind enough to offer to keep them at their office until my daughter can pick them up.

Even so I have lived here for the past 11 years I did not make any real friends that I could rely on to help me in this time of need. But all the carers from Juniper who had been looking after me for the past few years were fantastic.

I had never seen so much care in one person until I met the team from Juniper.

But back to my predicament, I asked my neighbours to help themselves to anything that was in my unit. Which they reluctantly did, I think that they were embarrassed as we had been good neighbours for several years.

This still left me with a terrible lot of stuff, all the electrical items in the kitchen were still there, bedsheets, blankets, towels and lots of other things that you use in your daily life.

Then I had a brilliant Idea, I would donate everything to a Opp-shop and so I rang the Opp-shop and told them of my problem. They, of course were thrilled to be given so much stuff and came around the next day to pick everything up. I still had a lot off office equipment which I had been using over the years, also a bag full of First Aid Items. So, one of my carers told me that I should donate these items to the nursing home that I was about to enter that morning. 9.30am came and we had to be at the nursing home by ten o’clock.

Nursing Home

One of the Juniper carer’s had volunteered to take me there in her car as I had no transport of my own except for my “Gopher” another word for my mobility scooter. When my carer took me inside the Nursing home, we were greeted by lots of smiling faces, which made me feel less apprehensive. We were first checked out at their COVID-19 station after which the senior staff made me very welcome and kept remining me that if I had any concerns or needed something that I should just use the call-bell in my room, and someone would come and see me.

Well, we got to room 8, which was going to be my home for the next umpteen years. I thought it was a very nice room. Spotless clean with welcome flowers and card on my bed. Apart from my bed there were build-in wardrobes and a bedside cupboard. After my carer left, I closed the door to my room, sat on my bed and for the first time in many years I cried. I felt so hopelessly alone and forgotten. All I wanted to do was leave and go back to my old life. Shortly after there was a knock on my door and a young lady came in and brought me a cup of coffee and some cake. She saw my tear-stained face and reassured me that I would eventually love my new life in the nursing home. The next day I realised that I had not made any arrangements to have my unit cleaned and so I rang around trying to find someone to do the cleaning. After a couple of frustrating days, I gave up. Nobody I knew could do it as they were too busy living their own lives and I could not afford to get professional cleaners in. As a after thought I should have paid the professionals as 4 weeks later, I got a $1600-00 bill from Homeswest which I am still trying to pay off. So, beware if you are living in government accommodation you can expect a big bill whether you left your place clean or not.

My Room

After settling into my new home, I made some enquiries to see if I could get a small desk so that I could set – up my Computer which I can not live without. Next day the maintenance men brought me a small desk that he had found in his shed. (fantastic) In time I also bought myself a small bar-fridge and my daughter bought me another bedside table.

Yawn! 7am and I am waking up, but just enough so that I go back to sleep. I am thinking “just a half an hour” and so I wake up at 8am. I carefully get my feet out of bed onto the floor and after a drink of stale coffee I grab hold of my walking frame and step into the corridor where about 5 meters from my door is the linen & towel trolly situated. I grab some towels and a face washer, and it is back to my room. Into my ensuite and I turn the water on, lousy pressure! Normally one of the carers must be with you to help you with your shower and getting dressed, but in my case, I told them not to worry about me. So, with being short on staff and having lots of other residents to look after, I now have a shower by myself.

I feel the same then when I was a child and my mum finally let me have a shower by myself. Lol. After getting dressed I check my Email and do a few things on my computer. After this done, I am off to the dining room. There are still a few people sitting there. I sit down at my usual table and observe one of the pretty carers coming over to me. We pass the time for a moment and then she is of to the kitchen to get me my coffee. She knows how I like my coffee and so after a few minutes she comes back with my own cup filled with hot coffee. She also knows that I never have breakfast, a habit that I developed a few years ago.

Every Nursing Home has it’s good and bad and after 3 month here I have not really found any bad. Maybe the one thing is at no fault of the management and that is that we are short on staff. But so are most of the other Care Institutions.

 I just heard that in a Wanneroo Age-Care Unit a resident passed away and the relatives were not told about it for 5 days. How awful and sad, this should never happen and there are NO excuses for this. So sad!

The Nurse

First thing in the morning you will find one of our nurses making her round dispensing tablets and medication. I don’t mind the tablets, but I hate the Movicol.

Next the dayshift carers come around to help with your hygiene (showers etc.) and then make up your beds. Some of the residents will need their hair done and a bit of make-up put on. (makes you feel much more alive)

After this is done breakfast is brought around to the residents that can not go to the dining room. Usually you have a choice of Porridge, scrambled eggs or toast with a drink of your choice (Coffee, Tea, Milo etc.).

Anyone who can not feed themselves has a loving carer assigned to them who will feed them after which they will be moved into the activity lounge where they can rest or watch television on the big screen. Usually after a while they will be joined by other residents.

After breakfast everyone does their own thing or joins in at the games in the Activity room. Today we had Bingo!

Our non walking residents here get moved about in wheelchairs and in princess chairs (see enclosed Picture)

These Chairs fold right back and are so comfortable that a resident can stay in there for most of the day and also be brought into the dining room to eat with the rest of us.

About ten o’clock we have morning-tea served at our room or to where ever we might be. It usually consist of Coffee, Tea etc. and some sort of a snack (Sandwich, Biscuit or Cake) At one time the Chef came around and served everybody with freshly made pancakes and topping!

Lunch is usually a substantial meal of (Today we are having – baked salmon with lemon-pepper sauce and vegetables) also a desert of Fresh Fruits with Ice cream. Yummy!! Also again drinks of your choice!

I must mention that at anytime you can get the following from the Kitchen; Fresh Fruit, Ice cream in Cones, or on a stick, Fruit Drinks etc. and even the occasional Bottle of non-alcoholic wine.

In the Afternoon we have word games, sport games (Cricket etc.) or Movies which we have over a 100 to choose from. At this time I usually have an hour laydown. I forgot to mention that every morning I print-out the daily Northam weather report and the thought for the day, which I put up on 2 notice boards. In time to come I will hope that I can also write a monthly newsletter.

Activity Room

Afternoon tea is usually the same as in the morning, again served with a smiling face.

Five o’clock is dinner. Which begins with a soup being served. I love the mushroom soup! The main meal consist of Italian Meatloaf with Italian sauce. For the dessert we have Mango Mousse with topping and then of course drinks are being served. The kitchen usually have a staff of 2 – 4 persons and have extra helpers to take meals to the Residents that do not eat in the dinning room.

Whiles being here the afternoon Nurse comes around with our (my) tablets

Dinning Room

Well, it is now time for me to watch a movie on Netflix. About nine o’clock I get my sleeping pill and then at 9.30pm it is of to sleep for me.

Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History)

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

Guest Editor (s): Damir Huremović

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Abstract

Intermittent outbreaks of infectious diseases have had profound and lasting effects on societies throughout history. Those events have powerfully shaped the economic, political, and social aspects of human civilization, with their effects often lasting for centuries. Epidemic outbreaks have defined some of the basic tenets of modern medicine, pushing the scientific community to develop principles of epidemiology, prevention, immunization, and antimicrobial treatments. This chapter outlines some of the most notable outbreaks that took place in human history and are relevant for a better understanding of the rest of the material. Starting with religious texts, which heavily reference plagues, this chapter establishes the fundamentals for our understanding of the scope, social, medical, and psychological impact that some pandemics effected on civilization, including the Black Death (a plague outbreak from the fourteenth century), the Spanish Flu of 1918, and the more recent outbreaks in the twenty-first century, including SARS, Ebola, and Zika.

Keywords: Pandemic outbreaks, History of pandemics, Plague, Spanish influenza, SARS, Ebola, Zika, Disease X

Very few phenomena throughout human history have shaped our societies and cultures the way outbreaks of infectious diseases have; yet, remarkably little attention has been given to these phenomena in behavioural social science and in branches of medicine that are, at least in part, founded in social studies (e.g., psychiatry).

This lack of attention is intriguing, as one of the greatest catastrophes ever, if not the greatest one in the entire history of humankind, was an outbreak of a pandemic . In a long succession throughout history, pandemic outbreaks have decimated societies, determined outcomes of wars, wiped out entire populations, but also, paradoxically, cleared the way for innovations and advances in sciences (including medicine and public health), economy, and political systems . Pandemic outbreaks, or plagues, as they are often referred to, have been closely examined through the lens of humanities in the realm of history, including the history of medicine . In the era of modern humanities, however, fairly little attention has been given to ways plagues affected the individual and group psychology of afflicted societies. This includes the unexamined ways pandemic outbreaks might have shaped the specialty of psychiatry; psychoanalysis was gaining recognition as an established treatment within medical community at the time the last great pandemic was making global rounds a century ago.

There is a single word that can serve as a fitting point of departure for our brief journey through the history of pandemics – that word is the plague. Stemming from Doric Greek word plaga (strike, blow), the word plague is a polyseme, used interchangeably to describe a particular, virulent contagious febrile disease caused by Yersinia pestis, as a general term for any epidemic disease causing a high rate of mortality, or more widely, as a metaphor for any sudden outbreak of a disastrous evil or affliction . This term in Greek can refer to any kind of sickness; in Latin, the terms are plaga and pestis (Fig. 2.1).

Figure 2.1

Plagues of Egypt depicted in Sarajevo Haggadah, Spain, cca. 1350, on display at National Museum of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sarajevo

Perhaps the best-known examples of plagues ever recorded are those referred to in the religious scriptures that serve as foundations to Abrahamic religions, starting with the Old Testament. Book of Exodus, Chapters 7 through 11, mentions a series of ten plagues to strike the Egyptians before the Israelites, held in captivity by the Pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, are finally released. Some of those loosely defined plagues are likely occurrences of elements, but at least a few of them are clearly of infectious nature. Lice, diseased livestock, boils, and possible deaths of firstborn likely describe a variety of infectious diseases, zoonoses, and parasitosis . Similar plagues were described and referred to in Islamic tradition in Chapter 7 of the Qur’an (Surat Al-A’raf, v. 133) .

Throughout the Biblical context, pandemic outbreaks are the bookends of human existence, considered both a part of nascent human societies, and a part of the very ending of humanity. In the Apocalypse or The Book of Revelation, Chapter 16, seven bowls of God’s wrath will be poured on the Earth by angels, again some of the bowls containing plagues likely infectious in nature: “So the first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth, and harmful and painful sores came upon the people who bore the mark of the beast” (Revelation 16:2).

Those events, regardless of factual evidence, deeply shaped human history, and continue to be commemorated in religious practices throughout the world. As we will see, the beliefs associated with those fundamental accounts have been rooted in societal responses to pandemics in Western societies and continue to shape public sentiment and perception of current and future outbreaks. Examined through the lens of Abrahamic spiritual context, serious infectious outbreaks can often be interpreted as a “Divine punishment for sins” (of the entire society or its outcast segments) or, in its eschatological iteration, as events heralding the “End of Days” (i.e., the end of the world).

Throughout known, predominantly Western history, there have been recorded processions of pandemics that each shaped our history and our society, inclusive of shaping the very basic principles of modern health sciences. What follows is an outline of major pandemic outbreaks throughout recorded history extending into the twenty-first century.

The Athenian Plague of 430 B.C.

The Athenian plague is a historically documented event that occurred in 430–26 B.C. during the Peloponnesian War, fought between city-states of Athens and Sparta. The historic account of the Athenian plague is provided by Thucydides, who survived the plague himself and described it in his History of the Peloponnesian War . The Athenian plague originated in Ethiopia, and from there, it spread throughout Egypt and Greece. Initial symptoms of the plague included headaches, conjunctivitis, a rash covering the body, and fever. The victims would then cough up blood, and suffer from extremely painful stomach cramping, followed by vomiting and attacks of “ineffectual retching” . Infected individuals would generally die by the seventh or eighth day. Those who survived this stage might suffer from partial paralysis, amnesia, or blindness for the rest of their lives. Doctors and other caregivers frequently caught the disease, and died with those whom they had been attempting to heal. The despair caused by the plague within the city led the people to be indifferent to the laws of men and gods, and many cast themselves into self-indulgence . Because of wartime overcrowding in the city of Athens, the plague spread quickly, killing tens of thousands, including Pericles, Athens’ beloved leader. With the fall of civic duty and religion, superstition reigned, especially in the recollection of old oracles .

The plague of Athens affected a majority of the inhabitants of the overcrowded city-state and claimed lives of more than 25% of the population [9]. The cause of the Athenian plague of 430 B.C. has not been clearly determined, but many diseases, including bubonic plague, have been ruled out as possibilities [10]. While typhoid fever figures prominently as a probable culprit, a recent theory, postulated by Olson and some other epidemiologists and classicists, considers the cause of the Athenian plague to be Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever .

The Antonine Plague

While Hippocrates is thought to have been a contemporary of the plague of Athens, even possibly treating the afflicted as a young physician, he had not left known accounts of the outbreak . It was another outbreak that occurred a couple of centuries later that was documented and recorded by contemporary physicians of the time. The outbreak was known as the Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD and the physician documenting it was Galen; this outbreak is also known as the Plague of Galen .

The Antonine plague occurred in the Roman Empire during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161–180 A.D.) and its cause is thought to be smallpox . It was brought into the Empire by soldiers returning from Seleucia, and before it abated, it had affected Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece, and Italy. Unlike the plague of Athens, which affected a geographically limited region, the Antonine plague spread across the vast territory of the entire Roman Empire, because the Empire was an economically and politically integrated, cohesive society occupying wide swaths of the territory . The plague destroyed as much as one-third of the population in some areas, and decimated the Roman army, claiming the life of Marcus Aurelius himself .

The impact of the plague on the Roman Empire was severe, weakening its military and economic supremacy. The Antonine plague affected ancient Roman traditions, leading to a renewal of spirituality and religiousness, creating the conditions for spreading of new religions, including Christianity. The Antonine Plague may well have created the conditions for the decline of the Roman Empire and, afterwards, for its fall in the West in the fifth century AD .

The Justinian Plague

The Justinian plague was a “real plague” pandemic (i.e., caused by Yersinia Pestis) that originated in mid-sixth century AD either in Ethiopia, moving through Egypt, or in the Central Asian steppes, where it then travelled along the caravan trading routes. From one of these two locations, the pestilence quickly spread throughout the Roman world and beyond. Like most pandemics, the Justinian plague generally followed trading routes providing an “exchange of infections as well as of goods,” and therefore, was especially brutal to coastal cities. Military movement at the time also contributed to spreading the disease from Asia Minor to Africa and Italy, and further to Western Europe. Described in detail by Procopius, John of Ephesus, and Evagrius, the Justinian epidemic is the earliest clearly documented example of the actual (bubonic) plague outbreak .

During the plague, many victims experienced hallucinations prior to the outbreak of illness. The first symptoms of the plague followed closely behind; they included fever and fatigue. Soon afterwards, buboes appeared in the groin area or armpits, or occasionally beside the ears. From this point, the disease progressed rapidly; infected individuals usually died within days. Infected individuals would enter a delirious, lethargic state, and would not wish to eat or drink. Following this stage, the victims would be “seized by madness,” causing great difficulties to those who attempted to care for them . Many people died painfully when their buboes gangrened; others died vomiting blood. There were also cases, however, in which the buboes grew to great size, and then ruptured and suppurated. In such cases, the patient would usually recover, having to live with withered thighs and tongues, classic aftereffects of the plague. Doctors, noticing this trend and not knowing how else to fight the disease, sometimes lanced the buboes of those infected to discover that carbuncles had formed. Those individuals who did survive infection usually had to live with ‘‘withered thighs and tongues’’, the stigmata of survivors. Emperor Justinian contracted the plague himself, but did not succumb .

Within a short time, all gravesites were beyond capacity, and the living resorted to throwing the bodies of victims out into the streets or piling them along the seashore to rot. The empire addressed this problem by digging huge pits and collecting the corpses there. Although those pits reportedly held 70,000 corpses each, they soon overflowed . Bodies were then placed inside the towers in the walls, causing a stench pervading the entire city.

Streets were deserted, and all trade was abandoned. Staple foods became scarce and people died of starvation as well as of the disease itself . The Byzantine Empire was a sophisticated society in its time and many of the advanced public policies and institutions that existed at that time were also greatly affected. As the tax base shrank and the economic output decreased, the Empire forced the survivors to shoulder the tax burden . Byzantine army suffered in particular, being unable to fill its ranks and carry out military campaigns, and ultimately failing to retake Rome for the Empire. After the initial outbreak in 541, repetitions of the plague established permanent cycles of infection. By 600, it is possible that the population of the Empire had been reduced by 40%. In the city of Constantinople itself, it is possible that this figure exceeded 50 % .

At this point in history, Christian tradition enters the realm of interpreting and understanding the events of this nature . Drawing on the eschatological narrative of the Book of Revelations, plague and other misfortunes are seen and explained as a “punishment for sins,” or retribution for the induction of “God’s wrath” . This interpretation of the plague will reappear during the Black Death and play a much more central role throughout affected societies in Europe. Meanwhile, as the well-established Byzantine Empire experienced major challenges and weakening of its physical, economic, and cultural infrastructure during this outbreak, the nomadic Arab tribes, moving through sparsely populated areas and practicing a form of protective isolation, were setting a stage for the rapid expansion of Islam .

The Black Death

“The Plague” was a global outbreak of bubonic plague that originated in China in 1334, arrived in Europe in 1347, following the Silk Road. Within 50 years of its reign, by 1400, it reduced the global population from 450 million to below 350 million, possibly below 300 million, with the pandemic killing as many as 150 million. Some estimates claim that the Black Death claimed up to 60% of lives in Europe at that time .

Starting in China, it spread through central Asia and northern India following the established trading route known as the Silk Road. The plague reached Europe in Sicily in 1347. Within 5 years, it had spread to the virtually entire continent, moving onto Russia and the Middle East. In its first wave, it claimed 25 million lives .

The course and symptoms of the bubonic plague were dramatic and terrifying. Boccaccio, one of the many artistic contemporaries of the plague, described it as follows:

In men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumours in the groin or armpits, some of which grew as large as a common apple, others as an egg…From the two said parts of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous. As the gavocciolo had been and still was an infallible token of approaching death, such also were these spots on whomsoever they showed themselves .

Indeed, the mortality of untreated bubonic plague is close to 70%, usually within 8 days, while the mortality of untreated pneumonic plague approaches 95%. Treated with antibiotics, mortality drops to around 11% .

At the time, scientific authorities were at a loss regarding the cause of the affliction. The first official report blamed an alignment of three planets from 1345 for causing a “great pestilence in the air” . It was followed by a more generally accepted miasma theory, an interpretation that blamed bad air. It was not until the late XIX century that the Black Death was understood for what it was – a massive Yersinia Pestis pandemic .

This strain of Yersinia tends to infect and overflow the guts of oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) forcing them to regurgitate concentrated bacteria into the host while feeding. Such infected hosts then transmit the disease further and can infect humans – bubonic plague . Humans can transmit the disease by droplets, leading to pneumonic plague.

The mortality of the Black Death varied between regions, sometimes skipping sparsely populated rural areas, but then exacting its toll from the densely populated urban areas, where population perished in excess of 50, sometimes 60% .

In the vacuum of a reasonable explanation for a catastrophe of such proportions, people turned to religion, invoking patron saints, the Virgin Mary, or joining the processions of flagellants whipping themselves with nail embedded scourges and incanting hymns and prayers as they passed from town to town . The general interpretation in predominantly Catholic Europe, as in the case of Justinian plague, centered on the divine “punishment for sins.” It then sought to identify those individuals and groups who were the “gravest sinners against God,” frequently singling out minorities or women. Jews in Europe were commonly targeted, accused of “poisoning the wells” and entire communities persecuted and killed. Non-Catholic Christians (e.g., Cathars) were also blamed as “heretics” and experienced a similar fate . In other, non-Christian parts of the world affected by the plague, a similar sentiment prevailed. In Cairo, the sultan put in place a law prohibiting women from making public appearances as they may tempt men into sin .

For bewildered and terrified societies, the only remedies were inhalation of aromatic vapours from flowers or camphor. Soon, there was a shortage of doctors which led to a proliferation of quacks selling useless cures and amulets and other adornments that claimed to offer magical protection .

Entire neighbourhoods, sometimes entire towns, were wiped out or settlements abandoned. Crops could not be harvested, traveling and trade became curtailed, and food and manufactured goods became short. The plague broke down the normal divisions between the upper and lower classes and led to the emergence of a new middle class. The shortage of labour in the long run encouraged innovation of labour-saving technologies, leading to higher productivity .

The effects of such a large-scale shared experience on the population of Europe influenced all forms of art throughout the period, as evidenced by works by renowned artists, such as Chaucer, Boccaccio, or Petrarch. The deep, lingering wake of the plague is evidenced in the rise of Danse Macabre (Dance of the death) in visual arts and religious scripts , its horrors perhaps most chillingly depicted by paintings titled the Triumph of Death (Fig. 2.2) .

Figure 2.2

The Triumph of Death (Trionfo Della Morte), fresco, author unknown, cca. 1446, on display at Palazzo Abatellis, Palermo, Italy

The plague made several encore rounds through Europe in the following centuries, occasionally decimating towns and entire societies, but never with the same intensity as the Black Death .

The Plague Doctor

With the breakdown of societal structure and its infrastructures, many professions, notably that of medical doctors, were severely affected. Many towns throughout Europe lost their providers to plague or to fear thereof. In order to address this shortage in times of austere need, many municipalities contracted young doctors from whatever ranks were available to perform the duty of the plague doctor (medico della peste) . Venice was among the first city-states to establish dedicated practitioners to deal with the issue of plague in 1348. Their principal task, besides taking care of people with the plague, was to record in public records the deaths due to the plague . In certain European cities like Florence and Perugia, plague doctors were the only ones allowed to perform autopsies to help determine the cause of death and managed to learn a lot about human anatomy. Among the most notable plague doctors of their time were Nostradamus, Paracelsus, and Ambrois Pare . The character of the plague doctor was immortalized by a later invention (from the seventeenth century) of a plague doctor costume by Charles De l’Orme (Fig. 2.3) .

Figure 2.3

Doctor Beak (Doctor Schnabel), copper engraving by Paulus Fürst, cca. 1656, from Die Karikatur und Satire in der Medizin: Medico-Kunsthistorische Studie von Professor Dr. Eugen Holländer, 2nd edn (Stuttgart:Ferdinand Enke, 1921), fig. 79 (p. 171)

Quarantine

Drawing from experiences from ancient cultures that had dealt with contagious diseases, medieval societies observed the connection between the passage of time and the eruption of symptoms, noting that, after a period of observation, individuals who had not developed symptoms of the illness would likely not be affected and, more importantly, would not spread the disease upon entering the city. To that end, they started instituting mandatory isolation. The first known quarantine was enacted in Ragusa (City-state of Dubrovnik) in 1377, where all arrivals had to spend 30 days on a nearby island of Lokrum before entering the city. This period of 30 days (trentine) was later extended to 40 days (quarenta giorni or quarantine) . The institution of quarantine was one of the rarely effective measures that took place during the Black Death and its use quickly spread throughout Europe. Quarantine remains in effect in the present time as a highly regulated, nationally and internationally governed public health measure available to combat contagions .

“Spanish Flu” Pandemic 1918–1920

The Spanish flu pandemic in the first decades of the twentieth century was the first true global pandemic and the first one that occurred in the setting of modern medicine, with specialties such as infectious diseases and epidemiology studying the nature of the illness and the course of the pandemic as it unfolded. It is also, as of this time, the last true global pandemic with devastating consequences for societies across the globe . It was caused by the H1N1 strain of the influenza virus, a strain that had an encore outbreak in the early years of the twenty-first century.

Despite advances in epidemiology and public health, both at the time and in subsequent decades, the true origin of Spanish flu remains unknown, despite its name. As possible sources of origin, cited are the USA, China, Spain, France, or Austria. These uncertainties are perpetuated by the circumstances of the Spanish flu – it took place in the middle of World War I, with significant censorships in place, and with fairly advanced modes of transportation, including intercontinental travel .

Within months, the deadly H1N1 strain of influenza virus had spread to every corner of the world. In addition to Europe, where massive military movements and overcrowding contributed to massive spread, this virus devastated the USA, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The mortality rate of Spanish flu ranged between 10% and 20%. With over a quarter of the global population contracting that flu at some point, the death toll was immense – well over 50 million, possibly 100 million dead. It killed more individuals in a year than the Black Death had killed in a century .

This pandemic, unusually, tended to mortally affect mostly young and previously healthy individuals. This is likely due to its triggering a cytokine storm, which overwhelms and demolishes the immune system. By August of 1918, the virus had mutated to a much more virulent and deadlier form, returning to kill many of those who avoided it during the first wave .

Spanish flu had an immense influence on our civilization. Some authors (Price) even point out that it may have tipped the outcome of World War I, as it affected armies of Germany and the Austrian–Hungarian Empire earlier and more virulently than their Allied opponents (Fig. 2.4) .

Figure 2.4

American Expeditionary Force, victims of Spanish flu in France, 1918. Uncredited U.S. Army photographer – U.S. Army Medical Corps photo via National Museum of Health & Medicine website at U.S. Army Camp Hospital No. 45, Aix-Les-Bains, France, Influenza Ward No. 1

Many notable politicians, artists, and scientists were either affected by the flu or succumbed to it. Many survived and went on to have distinguished careers in arts and politics (e.g., Walt Disney, Greta Garbo, Raymond Chandler, Franz Kafka, Edward Munch, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson). Many did not; this pandemic counted as its victims, among others, outstanding painters like Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele , and acclaimed poets like Guillaume Apollinaire. It also claimed the life of Sigmund Freud’s fifth child – Sophie Halberstadt-Freud.

This pandemic was also the first one where the long-lingering effects could be observed and quantified. A study of US census data from 1960 to 1980 found that the children born to women exposed to the pandemic had more physical ailments and a lower lifetime income than those born a few months earlier or later. A 2006 study in the Journal of Political Economy found that “cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments compared with other birth cohorts” .

Despite its immense effect on the global civilization, Spanish flu started to fade quickly from the public and scientific attention, establishing a precedent for the future pandemics, and leading some historians (Crosby) to call it the “forgotten pandemic” . One of the explanations for this treatment of the pandemic may lie in the fact that it peaked and waned rapidly, over a period of 9 months before it even could get adequate media coverage. Another reason may be in the fact that the pandemic was overshadowed by more significant historical events, such as the culmination and the ending of World War I. A third explanation may be that this is how societies deal with such rapidly spreading pandemics – at first with great interest, horror, and panic, and then, as soon as they start to subside, with dispassionate disinterest.

HIV Pandemic

HIV/AIDS is a slowly progressing global pandemic cascading through decades of time, different continents, and different populations, bringing new challenges with every new iteration and for every new group it affected. It started in the early 1980s in the USA, causing significant public concern as HIV at the time inevitably progressed to AIDS and ultimately, to death. The initial expansion of HIV was marked by its spread predominantly among the gay population and by high mortality, leading to marked social isolation and stigma.

HIV affects about 40 million people globally (prevalence rate: 0.79%) and has killed almost the same number of people since 1981 . It causes about one million deaths a year worldwide (down from nearly two million in 2005) . While it represents a global public health phenomenon, the HIV epidemic is particularly alarming in some Sub-Saharan African countries (Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland), where the prevalence tops 25% . In the USA, about 1.2 million people live with HIV and about 12,000 die every year (down from over 40,000 per year in the late 1990s). HIV in the USA disproportionately affects gay population, transgendered women, and African-Americans .

Being a fairly slowly spreading pandemic, HIV has received formidable public health attention, both by national and by international administrations and pharmaceuticals. Advances in treatment (protease inhibitors and anti-retrovirals) have turned HIV into a chronic condition that can be managed by medications. It is a rare infectious disease that has managed to attract the focus of mental health which, in turn, resulted in a solid volume of works on mental health and HIV . By studying the mental health of HIV, we can begin to understand some of the challenges generally associated with infectious diseases. We know, for example, that the lifetime prevalence rate for depression in HIV individuals is, at 22%, more than twice the prevalence rate in general population .

We understand how depression in HIV individuals shows association with substance abuse and that issues of stigma, guilt, and shame affect the outlook for HIV patients, including their own adherence to life-saving treatments . We know about medical treatments of depression in HIV and we have studies in psychotherapy for patients with HIV. Some of those approaches can be very useful in treating patients in the context of a pandemic. Given the contrast between the chronicity of the HIV and the acuity of a potential pandemic, most of those approaches cannot be simply translated from mental health approach to HIV and used for patients in a rapidly advancing outbreak or a pandemic.

Smallpox Outbreak in Former Yugoslavia (1972)

Smallpox was a highly contagious disease for which Edward Jenner developed the world’s first vaccine in 1798. Caused by the Variola virus, it was a highly contagious disease with prominent skin eruptions (pustules) and mortality of about 30%. It may have been responsible for hundreds of millions of fatalities in the twentieth century alone. Due to the well-coordinated global effort starting in 1967 under the leadership of Donald Henderson, smallpox was eradicated within a decade of undertaking the eradication on a global scale .

The smallpox outbreak in the former Yugoslavia in 1972 was a far cry from even an epidemic, let alone a pandemic, but it illustrated the challenges associated with a rapidly spreading, highly contagious illness in a modern world. It started with a pilgrim returning from the Middle East, who developed fever and skin eruptions. Since a case of smallpox had not been seen in the region for over 30 years, physicians failed to correctly diagnose the illness and nine healthcare providers ended among 38 cases infected by the index case and first fatality .

Socialist Yugoslavia at the time declared martial law and introduced mandatory revaccination. Entire villages and neighbourhoods were cordoned off (cordon sanitaire is a measure of putting entire geographic regions in quarantine). About 10,000 individuals who may have come into contact with the infected were placed in an actual quarantine. Borders were closed, and all non-essential travel was suspended. Within 2 weeks, the entire population of Yugoslavia was revaccinated (about 18 million people at the time). During the outbreak, 175 cases were identified, with 35 fatalities. Due to prompt and massive response, however, the disease was eradicated and the society returned to normal within 2 months . This event has proven to be a useful model for working out scenarios (“Dark Winter”) for responses to an outbreak of a highly contagious disease, both as a natural occurrence and as an act of bioterrorism .

SARS

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was the first outbreak in the twenty-first century that managed to get public attention. Caused by the SARS Corona virus (SARS-CoV), it started in China and affected fewer than 10,000 individuals, mainly in China and Hong Kong, but also in other countries, including 251 cases in Canada (Toronto) .

The severity of respiratory symptoms and mortality rate of about 10% caused a global public health concern. Due to the vigilance of public health systems worldwide, the outbreak was contained by mid-2003 . This outbreak was among the first acute outbreaks that had mental health aspects studied in the process and in the aftermath, in various part of the world and in different societies, yielding valuable data on effects of an acute infectious outbreak on affected individuals, families, and the entire communities, including the mental health issues facing healthcare providers . Some of the valuable insights into the mental health of patients in isolation, survivors of the severe illness, or psychological sequelae of working with such patients were researched during the SARS outbreak.

“Swine Flu” or H1N1/09 Pandemic

The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was a reprise of the “Spanish flu” pandemic from 1918, but with far less devastating consequences. Suspected as a re-assortment of bird, swine, and human flu viruses, it was colloquially known as the “swine flu” . It started in Mexico in April of 2009 and reached pandemic proportions within weeks . It began to taper off toward the end of the year and by May of 2010, it was declared over.

It infected over 10% of the global population (lower than expected), with a death toll estimated varying from 20,000 to over 500,000 . Although its death rate was ultimately lower than the regular influenza death rates, at the time it was perceived as very threatening because it disproportionately affected previously healthy young adults, often quickly leading to severe respiratory compromise. A possible explanation for this phenomenon (in addition to the “cytokine storm” applicable to the 1918 H1N1 outbreak) is attributed to older adults having immunity due to a similar H1N1 outbreak in the 1970s .

This pandemic also resulted in some valuable data studying and analysing the mental health aspects of the outbreak. It was among the first outbreaks where policy reports included mental health as an aspect of preparedness and mitigation policy efforts. This outbreak of H1N1 was notable for dissonance between the public sentiment about the outbreak and the public health steps recommended and undertaken by WHO and national health institutions. General public sentiment was that of alarm caused by WHO releases and warnings, but it quickly turned to discontent and mistrust when the initial grim outlook of the outbreak failed to materialize . Health agencies were accused of creating panic (“panicdemic”) and peddling unproven vaccines to boost the pharmaceutical companies (in 2009, some extra $1,5 billion worth of H1N1 vaccines were purchased and administered in the USA) .

This outbreak illustrated how difficult it may be to gauge and manage public expectations and public sentiments in the effort to mobilize a response. It also demonstrated how distilling descriptions of the impact of a complex public health threat like a pandemic into a single term like “mild,” “moderate,” or “severe” can potentially be misleading and, ultimately, of little use in public health approach .

Ebola Outbreak (2014–2016)

Ebola virus, endemic to Central and West Africa, with fruit bats serving as a likely reservoir, appeared in an outbreak in a remote village in Guinea in December 2013. Spreading mostly within families, it reached Sierra Leone and Liberia, where it managed to generate considerable outbreaks over the following months, with over 28,000 cases and over 11,000 fatalities. A very small number of cases were registered in Nigeria and Mali, but those outbreaks were quickly contained . Ebola outbreak, which happened to be the largest outbreak of Ebola infection to date, gained global notoriety after a passenger from Liberia fell ill and died in Texas in September of 2014, infecting two nurses caring for him, and leading to a significant public concern over a possible Ebola outbreak in the USA . This led to a significant public health and military effort to address the outbreak and help contain it on site (Operation United Assistance) .

ZIKA (2015–2016)

Zika virus was a little known, dormant virus found in rhesus monkeys in Uganda. Prior to 2014, the only known outbreak among humans was recorded in Micronesia in 2007. The virus was then identified in Brazil in 2015, after an outbreak of a mild illness causing a flat pinkish rash, bloodshot eyes, fever, joint pain and headaches, resembling dengue. It is a mosquito-borne disease (Aedes Aegypti), but it can be sexually transmitted. Despite its mild course, which initially made it unremarkable form the public health perspective, infection with Zika can cause Guillain-Barre syndrome in its wake in adults and, more tragically, cause severe microcephalia in unborn children of infected mothers (a risk of about 1%) .

In Brazil, in 2015, for example, there were 2400 birth defects and 29 infant deaths due to suspected Zika infection . Zika outbreak is an illustrative case of the context of global transmission; it was transferred from Micronesia, across the Pacific, to Brazil, whence it continued to spread . It is also a case of a modern media pandemic; it featured prominently in the social media. In early 2016, Zika was being mentioned 50 times a minute in Twitter posts. Social media were used to disseminate information, to educate, or to communicate concerns .

Its presence in social media, perhaps for the first time in history, allowed social researchers to study the public sentiment, also known as the emotional epidemiology (Ofri), in real time . While both public health institutions and the general public voiced their concern with the outbreak, scientists and officials sought to provide educational aspect, while concerned public was trying to have their emotional concerns addressed. It is indicative that 4 out of 5 posts on Zika on social media were accurate; yet, those that were “trending” and gaining popularity were posts with inaccurate content (now colloquially referred to as the “fake news”) . This is a phenomenon that requires significant attention in preparing for future outbreaks because it may hold a key not only to preparedness, but also to execution of public health plans that may involve quarantine and immunization.

Since 2016, Zika has continued to spread throughout South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and several states within the USA. It remains a significant public health concern, as there is no vaccine and the only reliable way to avoid the risk for the offspring is to avoid areas where Zika was identified or to postpone pregnancy should travel to or living in affected areas be unavoidable .

Disease X

Disease X is not, as of yet, an actual disease caused by a known agent, but a speculated source of the next pandemic that could have devastating effects on humanity. Knowing the scope of deleterious effects a pandemic outbreak can have on humankind, in the wake of the Ebola outbreak, the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to dedicate formidable resources to identifying, studying, and combating possible future outbreaks. It does so in the form of an R&D Blueprint, though devising its global strategy and preparedness plan that allows the rapid activation of R&D activities during epidemics .

R&D Blueprint maintains and updates a list of so-called identified priority diseases. This list is updated at regular intervals and, as of 2018, it includes diseases such as Ebola and Marburg virus diseases, Lassa fever, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Nipah and henipa virus diseases, Zika, and others . For each disease identified, an R&D roadmap is created, followed by target product profiles (i.e., immunizations, treatment, and regulatory framework). Those efforts are important to help us combat a dangerous outbreak of any of the abovementioned diseases, but also to fend off Disease X. Since Disease X is a hypothetical entity, brought by a yet unknown pathogen that could cause a serious international pandemic, the R&D Blueprint explicitly seeks to enable cross-cutting R&D preparedness that is also relevant for both existing culprits and the unknown future “Disease X” as much as possible.

WHO utilizes this R&D Blueprint vehicle to assemble and deploy a broad global coalition of experts who regularly contribute to the Blueprint and who come from several medical, scientific, and regulatory backgrounds. Its advisory group, at the time, does not include mental health specialists .

TABLE 1

Timeline of the pandemics described in this paper.

YearsPandemicsPathogensVectors
541–543Plague of JustinianYersinia pestisFleas associated to wild rodents
1347–1351Black DeathYersinia pestisFleas associated to wild rodents
1817–1824First cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1827–1835Second cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1839–1856Third cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1863–1875Fourth cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1881–1886Fifth cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1885–ongoingThird plagueYersinia pestisFleas associated to wild rodents
1889–1893Russian fluInfluenza A/H3N8?Avian?
1899–1923Sixth cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1918–1919Spanish fluInfluenza A/H1N1Avian
1957–1959Asian fluInfluenza A/H2N2Avian
1961-ongoingSeventh cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
1968–1970Hong Kong fluInfluenza A/H3N2Avian
2002–2003Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)SARS-CoVBats, palm civets
2009–2010Swine fluInfluenza A/H1N1Pigs
2015-ongoingMiddle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)MERS-CoVBats, dromedary camels
2019-ongoingCOVID-19SARS-CoV-2Bats, pangolins?

Immigrants to Australia

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

Since the First Fleet dropped anchor in 1788, close to 10 million settlers have moved from across the world to start a new life in Australia.

They have arrived in waves, encouraged by developments like the 1850s gold rushes, or to escape adverse conditions at home such as the Industrial Revolution’s social upheavals in 19th-century Britain, the two world wars and the aftermath of the Vietnam War in the 1970s. Collectively these migrants have helped shape a unique British-based and now multicultural society on the perimeter of Asia.

Image: Group of migrants on MV Toscana at Trieste, 1954. ANMM Collection Gift from Barbara Alysen

Convict transportation[GR1] 

From 1788 to 1868 Britain transported more than 160,000 convicts from its overcrowded prisons to the Australian colonies, forming the basis of the first migration from Europe to Australia. When these first Europeans arrived they did not find an empty land as expected. They were outnumbered by more than 500,000 indigenous Aboriginal people whose ancestors had lived in Australia for at least 50,000 years.

Free immigrants[GR2] 

Between 1793 and 1850 nearly 200,000 free settlers and assisted immigrants chose to migrate to Australia to start a new life. The majority were English agricultural workers or domestic servants who outnumbered the Irish and Scottish migrants.

Image: SS Great Britain leaving Prince’s Pier, Liverpool, for Australia, 1852. ANMM Collection

Labourers

Did you know the Chinese were the third largest migrant group in Australia [GR3] after the British and Germans by 1901?

Thousands of Chinese people came to Australia during the 1850s gold rushes. When the gold was exhausted many took up market gardening or established businesses such as restaurants or laundries. In the second half of the 19th-century South Sea Islanders were recruited to work on Queensland sugar plantations, Afghan cameleers played a vital role in the exploration and opening up of the Australian outback, and Japanese divers contributed to the development of the pearling industry.

White Australia

Did you know migrants had to pass a dictation test in any European language in order to enter Australia between 1901 and 1958[GR4] ?

Following Federation in 1901 Australia’s newly-formed Federal Parliament passed the Immigration Restriction Act, which placed certain restrictions on immigration and aimed to stop Chinese and South Sea Islanders from coming to Australia. These laws, known as the White Australia policy, were administered by a dictation test and informed Australian attitudes to immigration for the next 50 years.

Populate or perish

In the years after World War 2, Australia stepped up its immigration with the catchphrase ‘Populate or perish!’ It negotiated agreements to accept more than two million migrants and displaced people from Europe, offered assisted £10 passages to one million British migrants, nicknamed ‘Ten Pound Poms’, and finally, in the 1970s, repealed the restrictive White Australia policy framed in 1901.

Boat people[GR5] 

In the late 1970s, just as the last migrants to travel by ocean liner arrived in Australia, a new wave of seaborne refugees docked in Darwin, firstly from East Timor and then from Indochina. The Vietnamese ‘boat people’ in particular arrived at a time of dramatic social upheaval in Australia, with spirited public debate about our involvement in the Vietnam War, the new concept of multiculturalism, the breaking of many of Australia’s traditional ties with Britain, and the forging of new links with Asia. Despite some opposition from the wider community, the relaxation of immigration restrictions meant that most of the refugees were allowed to settle in Australia. They were followed by a second wave of boat people from Cambodia, Vietnam and southern China in the late 1980s and 1990s. 

Asylum seekers[GR6] 

Since the late 1990s increasing numbers of asylum seekers fleeing conflict in the Middle East and Sri Lanka have arrived in Australia by boat. They are distinct from the previous two waves of boat people in that they usually involve larger numbers of arrivals and their passage is often organised by people smugglers. Today the question of how to deal with asylum seekers arriving on unauthorised voyages remains one of the most polarising debates in contemporary Australia.

Milestones in Australian democracy

This timeline of Australian democracy includes key milestones in Australia’s immigration history.

Gold Rush

1851 – 1852

Gold was discovered in Victoria, and a law was passed in Victoria forcing all gold miners to have a license. However, miners had no say in who ruled them.

Eureka Stockade

1854 – 1855

In 1854, the Eureka Stockade (lead by Peter Lawlor) began when miners demanded voting rights, and the day after it was started, British soldiers stormed the Eureka Stockade. Shortly after, mining licenses were abolished.

All Men Allowed To Vote

1856 – 1857

In 1856, all men over 21 were permitted to vote, instead of only wealthy land-owners. However, women still couldn’t vote.

Women’s Suffrage League

1888 – 1889

In 1888, the Women’s Suffrage League was formed, and voting rights were pursued.

Post-Federation

Federation

1900 – 1901

In 1900, the Australian Constitution was formed, and on the first of January 1901, the nation of Australia was created.

Women Allowed To Vote

1901 – 1902

Indigenous Australians Allowed To Vote

1961 – 1962

In 1962, a referendum was held to alter the Constitution to permit Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander people to vote; before this, they were actually classed as fauna.

Age To Vote 18

1972 – 1973

In 1973, the age to vote was lowered to 18, as part of a worldwide campaign.


 [GR1]Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported from Britain and Ireland to various penal colonies in Australia. The British Government began transporting convicts overseas to American colonies in the early 18th century. When transportation ended with the start of the American Revolution, an alternative site was needed to relieve further overcrowding of British prisons and hulks.

 [GR2]Between 1793 and 1850 nearly 200,000 free settlers and assisted immigrants chose to migrate to Australia to start a new life. The majority were English agricultural workers or domestic servants who outnumbered the Irish and Scottish migrants. Image: SS Great Britain leaving Prince’s Pier, Liverpool, for Australia, 1852. 

The history of Chinese Australians possible predates the arrival of James Cook in the eighteenth century. Chinese Australians are the oldest continuous immigrant group to Australia after those from the British Isles. Significant Chinese emigration only began in earnest after the discovery of gold and the subsequent gold rushes in Australia. This migration shaped and influenced Australian policies on immigration for over a century. Despite facing societal discrimination and restrictive immigration policies, Australians of Chinese descent have made a substantial contribution to the culture and history of the country.

 [GR4]between 1901 and 1958 migrants had to pass a dictation test in any European language in order to enter Australia. in 1901 Australia’s newly-formed Federal Parliament passed the Immigration Restriction Act, which placed certain restrictions on immigration and aimed to stop Chinese and South Sea Islanders from coming to Australia.

 [GR5]

Vietnamese boat people, also known simply as boat people, refers to the refugees who fled Vietnam by boat and ship following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. This migration and humanitarian crisis was at its highest in 1978 and 1979, but continued through the early 1990s. The term is also often used generically to refer to the Vietnamese people who left their country in mass exodus between 1975 and 1995. This article uses the term “boat people” to apply only to those who fled Vietnam by sea.

 [GR6]An asylum seeker is a person who has fled their home country because of war or other factors harming them or their family, enters another country, and applies for asylum (i.e., international protection) in this other country. An asylum seeker is an immigrant who has been affected by forced displacement and may become considered a refugee. The terms asylum seeker and refugee are often confused.

Humans coexisted with three-tonne marsupials and lizards as long as cars in ancient Australia

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

Authors

  1. Scott Hocknull

Senior Curator of Geosciences, Queensland Museum, and Honorary Research Fellow, University of Melbourne

Professor, University of Wollongong

Lecturer in Palaeontology, The University of Queensland

Associate Professor in Earth Sciences, University of Adelaide

Professor, The University of Queensland

Senior research fellow, Southern Cross University

Disclosure statement

Scott Hocknull receives funding from Queensland Museum and Queensland Museum Foundation.

Anthony Dosseto receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

Gilbert Price receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

Lee Arnold receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

Patrick Moss receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

Renaud Joannes-Boyau receives funding from the Australian Research Council

Partners

University of Melbourne provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation AU.

University of WollongongUniversity of Adelaide Southern Cross University, and University of Queensland provide funding as members of The Conversation AU.

When people first arrived in what is now Queensland, they would have found the land inhabited by massive animals including goannas six metres long and kangaroos twice as tall as a human.

We have studied fossil bones of these animals for the past decade. Our findings, published today in Nature Communications, shed new light on the mystery of what drove these ancient megafauna to extinction.



The first bones were found by the Barada Barna people during cultural heritage surveys on their traditional lands about 100 kilometres west of Mackay, at South Walker Creek Mine. Our study shares the first reliable glimpse of the giants that roamed the Australian tropics between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago.

These megafauna were the largest land animals to live in Australia since the time of the dinosaurs. Understanding the ecological role they played and the environmental impact of their loss remains their most valuable untold story.

Fossils are found eroding out of the ancient flood plains of South Walker Creek. Rochelle Lawrence, Queensland Museum.

While megafauna lived at South Walker Creek, people had arrived on the continent and were spreading across it. Our study adds new evidence to the ongoing megafauna extinction debate, but importantly underscores how much is left to learn from the fossil record.

The megafauna welcoming party

We excavated fossils from four sites and made detailed studies of the sites themselves to find the age of the fossils and understand what the environment was like in the past.

Our findings give us an idea of what megafaunal life was like in the tropical Australian savanna over a period of about 20,000 years, from around 60,000 to 40,000 years ago. During this time, the northern megafauna were different to those from the south.

Mega-reptiles of Pleistocene tropical Australia. V. Konstantinov, A. Atuchin, R. Allen, S. Hocknull. Queensland Museum.

We have found at least 13 extinct species so far at South Walker Creek, with mega-reptiles as apex predators, and mega-mammals their prey. Many of the species discovered are likely new species or northern variations of their southern counterparts.

Mega-mammals from Pleistocene tropical Australia. V. Konstantinov, A. Atuchin, S. Hocknull. Queensland Museum.

Some, like the extinct crocodiles, were thought to have gone extinct long before people were on the scene. However, we now know they survived in at least one place 60,000-40,000 years ago.

The giant kangaroo of South Walker Creek may be the largest kangaroo ever found. Pictured here next to the previous titleholder, Procoptodon goliah. Scale bar equals 1 m. V. Konstantinov, A. Atuchin, R. Allen, S. Hocknull. Queensland Museum.

Imagine first sighting a six-metre goanna and its Komodo Dragon-sized relative, or bumping into a land-dwelling crocodile and its plate-mail armoured aquatic cousin. The mammals were equally bizarre, including a giant bucktoothed wombat, a strange “bear-sloth” marsupial, and enormous kangaroos and wallabies.

A yet-to-be named giant kangaroo is the largest ever found. With an estimated mass of 274 kg, it beats the previous contender, the goliath short-faced kangaroo, Procoptodon goliah.

The biggest of all the mammals was the three-tonne marsupial Diprotodon, and the deadliest was the pouched predator Thylacoleo. Living alongside these giants were other megafauna species that still survive today: the emu, the red kangaroo and the saltwater crocodile.

Whodunnit? The evidence points to environmental change

Why did these megafauna become extinct? It has been argued that the extinctions were due to over-hunting by humans, and occurred shortly after people arrived in Australia.

However, this theory is not supported by our finding that a diverse collection of these ancient giants still survived 40,000 years ago, after humans had spread around the continent.

Fossil seeds, leaves and insects help palaeontologists reconstruct the megafauna’s environment. Scale bar equals 1 mm. Paul Tierney, Queensland Museum.

The extinctions of these tropical megafauna occurred sometime after our youngest fossil site formed, around 40,000 years ago. The timeframe of their disappearance coincided with sustained regional changes in available water and vegetation, as well as increased fire frequency. This combination of factors may have proven fatal to the giant land and aquatic species.

The megafauna extinction debate will no doubt continue for years to come. New discoveries will plug up the key gaps in the record. With the gaps in the north of the continent the greatest yet to fill.

With an overlap between people and megafauna of some 15,000–20,000 years, new questions arise about co-habitation. How did people live with these giants during a period of such drastic environmental change?

How much more change can Australia bear?

Major environmental change and extinctions are not an unusual part of our geological past, but this time it’s personal; it involves us. Throughout the Pleistocene (the time that ended with the most recent ice age), Australia has undergone major climatic and environmental change.

Within the same catchment of these new megafauna sites, one study shows how major climatic upheaval beginning around 280,000 years ago caused the disappearance of a diverse rainforest fauna. This set in motion a sequence of changes to the ecosystem that culminated in the loss of the megafauna at South Walker Creek around 40,000 years ago.



It’s still unclear what impact these long-term environmental changes and the loss of the megafauna had on the species that survived.

This long-term trend of extinctions has now been given a kick along by the major changes to the environment created by humans which continue today. In the early 21st century in Australia we have seen increases in floods, droughts and bushfires, and we expect these increases to continue.

The fossil record provides us with a window into our past that can help us understand our present. As our study shows, dramatic environmental change takes a heavy toll on species survival especially for those at the top of the food chain. Will we heed the warnings from the past or suffer the consequences?

The ugly past of Australia’s ‘lock hospitals’ on Bernier and Dorre Islands slowly revealed

Copied, Compiled & Edited by George W Rehder

Ugly past of ‘lock hospitals’ slowly revealed

Between 1908 and 1919, more than 800 Aboriginal men, women and children were removed from their homelands across Western Australia and taken to ‘lock hospitals’ on Bernier and Dorre Islands for treatment for suspected venereal diseases. Many never returned home.

This article contains images of Indigenous people who are deceased.

For generations, Aboriginal people across WA were not allowed to talk about the islands because it was too traumatic.

Kathleen Musulin was told a story by one elder in Carnarvon, the remote town closest to the Bernier and Dorre Islands.

“As a young girl she would overhear the older women talking about their loved ones being taken over to the islands never to return,” Ms Musulin said.

“She asked her mother, ‘What’s all that about?’, and her mother said, ‘Don’t talk about it. You are not allowed to talk about the islands. Just cover your eyes and just point to the islands’.

“The reason being was because it was so traumatic and having that hurt inside, you can’t really let that go.

“It is time that we need to let that hurt go. Not only for ourselves, but for our future generations.”

A shocking history

Over a period of 11 years women and children were taken to the lock hospital at Dorre Island, while the men went to Bernier Island.(Supplied: Battye Library (725B-22))

After being diagnosed by policemen as having suspected venereal diseases people were rounded up, many placed in chains, and taken to the islands.

This was facilitated by the Aboriginal Act of 1905.

The islands’ facilities were inadequate, people had no contact with their families back home, and they were made to undergo experimental medical treatments.

Academics have said about 40 per cent of those confined never returned home, and more than 100 people died on the islands and were buried in unmarked graves.

WA Minister for Regional Development, Alannah MacTiernan, said she was shocked by the story, including the fact she had never heard of it before it was raised with her earlier this year, even though she had worked in Carnarvon in the 1980s.

“I’ve never, ever heard of this story, so I was really very surprised,” she said.

“Because of the degree of trauma and the shame surrounding it meant that it was not an issue that was raised by Aboriginal people.

“It was such a shameful experience, such a horrific experience, that they never spoke about it.”

The WA Government said it is the first in Australia to acknowledge the lock hospital history.

The Government is funding a statue to be built near the historic One Mile Jetty in Carnarvon, where the people would have been loaded onto boats bound for the islands.

A map outlining Australia’s history of medical incarceration.(Supplied: Melissa Sweet)

‘A truly disgraceful story’

The Bernier and Dorre Island lock hospitals are part of a wider story of the medical incarceration of Aboriginal people across Australia.

Lock hospitals also existed in Port Hedland, in WA, and later in Barambah and Fantome Island in Queensland.

Leprosy field hospitals were also established in WA, the Northern Territory and Queensland.

“This is a truly disgraceful story,” Ms MacTiernan said.

“This [the statue] is saying, ‘This is part of our story’.

“We’ve got to be grown up. We’ve got to acknowledge what happened if we as a community are to move forward.”

The Shire of Carnarvon has also acknowledged the history, and is working with members of the local Aboriginal community on plans for a ceremony in Carnarvon on January 9, 2019.

This will be one hundred years to the day since the last person was removed from the islands and the hospitals closed.

Ms Musulin grew up in Carnarvon hearing stories of how her grandfather had been searching for her great-grandmother, who was taken away from the Broome area.

She has been instrumental in pushing for greater acknowledgement of the lock hospital history, along with Bob Dorey, another member of the Carnarvon Aboriginal community.

Kathleen Musulin and Bob Dorey have been working together for four years to bring the histories of the lock hospitals on Bernier and Dorre Island to light, and have the dark chapter in Australia’s history acknowledged.(ABC North West: Karen Michelmore)

“There were a lot of people who didn’t know the true history of the islands and what happened to our ancestors over there,” Ms Musulin said.

“My great-grandmother, she’s still buried over there, with a lot of other Aboriginal people still buried over there in unmarked graves.

“It’s important, not only for myself, but it’s important for my children and grandchildren to know what happened to their ancestors.

“It’s important for other families because of the trauma and the hurt that we have suffered, knowing what happened to our ancestors and the horrific things that were done to them.

“They were experimented on to find a cure for venereal diseases, they were taken over there and locked up on the islands.

“A lot of them didn’t even have STIs [sexually transmitted infections]. There were many healthy Aboriginal people who were taken over there, children as well.

“And what I think is, one form of that was to remove them from stations and other areas, to get them off the land so the stations could be opened up.”

Mr Dorey, who will perform a ceremony with other elders in Carnarvon next year, said he wants the wider Australian public to know the story of the lock hospitals.

“I would like them to know everything about them, what happened over there,” he said.

“It’s our story. We’ve learned everybody else’s story in school but nothing like this.”

History slowly emerges

The history of the lock hospitals has emerged through the work of several academics working on separate projects.

Health journalist Melissa Sweet picked up a travel book at an airport a decade ago that had a few pages which mentioned the lock hospital history.

“I was transfixed when I read it, because at that stage I had been a health journalist for many years and I had never heard this history of the lock hospitals,” she said.

Ms Sweet started asking around, and was surprised at how few people had known about this history.

“That’s where my journey began to work with community members to bring wider awareness to the history.”

Archaeologist Jade Pervan has found a number of medical artefacts from the lock hospital history.(Supplied: Jade Pervan)

Ms Sweet travelled to Carnarvon where she met Ms Musulin.

The pair have since worked closely on the issue.

As Ms Sweet dug further, she realised the history was part of a much bigger national story about medical incarceration and said while historic the story is still relevant today.

“It’s not about saying it’s all in the past and this doesn’t go on any more,” she said.

“I was always asking people why does this history matter, and people would bring up the current history of over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the prison system.

“A lot of the concerns still remain.”

Medical artefacts uncovered

Archaeologist Jade Pervan grew up in Carnarvon and had heard a little bit of the story.

When she was undertaking research at the University of Western Australia she knew academics were talking about it, and wanted to dig further.

Ms Pervan uncovered a lot of archaeological materials on the islands dating from the lock hospital period.

She discovered European artefacts associated with the doctors and nurses at the hospitals such as expensive ceramic ware, personal items like combs and shoes, and even a piano.

This contrasted sharply with the items connected with the Indigenous people.

“The Aboriginal patients didn’t live in the houses. They were confined to the islands themselves so they had to make makeshift humpies or houses,” Ms Pervan said.

“They were given rations, so if the rations didn’t come in off the boat in time they would have hunted and foraged for the food off the islands.

Ms Pervan said the lock hospitals were established with racial motives.

“We know that these lock hospitals were set up after the 1905 Aboriginal Act which was where they didn’t want supposed diseases that Aboriginal people had passed onto the Europeans,” she said.

“It was likely that a lot of the Aboriginal people didn’t have any of those diseases, in this case it was venereal disease or syphilis, and they were probably placed on there for other reasons.

“It was a very racially-based removal of people to these islands. Europeans at the time were not interned for having the same diseases.”

Acknowledge the brutal history of Indigenous health care – for healing

Authors

  1. Melissa Sweet

Independent journalist and health writer; Adjunct Senior Lecturer, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney; Founder of Croakey.org. PhD candidate, University of Canberra

Associate Professor, Communication, University of Canberra

Senior Lecturer, Centre for Nursing and Midwifery Research, James Cook University

Disclosure statement

Melissa Sweet received an Australian Postgraduate Award to support her PhD candidature. The APA ended in late 2015.

Kerry McCallum receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

Lynore Geia does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Partners

This article was co-authored by Kathleen Musulin, a Malgana/Yawuru woman living in Carnarvon and a member of the Carnarvon Shire Council lock hospital memorial working group.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised this article contains images of deceased people.


In March, a small group of people joined the musician, environmentalist and former politician Peter Garrett on a deeply moving journey to a remote island, about 58 kilometres off the coast from the Western Australian town of Carnarvon.

For Garrett, the boat ride was retracing travels that his grandmother had made almost a century earlier, en route to Dorre and Bernier islands, where Aboriginal people were incarcerated on medical grounds between 1908 and 1919.

Part of the journey was filmed for the SBS documentary series, Who Do You Think You Are?, which screened on Tuesday night. The episode revealed some of the history of Garrett’s grandmother, who worked on the islands as a nurse.

For Kathleen Musulin, a Malgana/Yawuru woman living in Carnarvon (and co-author of this article), the trip to Dorre with Garrett was also an opportunity to connect with ancestors, particularly her great grandmother, who was one of hundreds of Aboriginal people imprisoned on the islands, many of whom died there.

The stated reason for the removal of Aboriginal people to “lock hospitals” on Bernier and Dorre islands was “venereal disease”, though many questions surround this non-specific diagnosis, particularly given the role of police and non-medical people in diagnosing and removing people, often in chains and using force.

A plaque remembering those who were imprisoned and who died on the islands. Memorial at Dorre Island, Author provided

Lock hospitals were an invention of the British Empire. In the 1800s, they were used to confine women in English garrison towns who were thought to be engaged in sex work and to have venereal disease, under a series of Contagious Diseases Acts designed to protect the health of soldiers rather than the prisoner-patients.

Following vocal opposition, lock hospitals were abandoned in Britain, although similar measures continued elsewhere in the British Empire into the 20th century. In Australia, lock hospitals for “common prostitutes” existed in Melbourne and Brisbane into the 1900s.

However, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, lock hospitals operated in a different context – firmly rooted in the institutionalised racism of White Australia. Legislation providing for the “protection” of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people resulted in human rights abuses, intrusive surveillance, control, disruption, institutionalisation, and harm.

Facilities recorded extremely high death rates. Hospital Ward Dorre Island/State library of Western Australia

In the early years of the Bernier and Dorre lock hospitals, inmates were subjected to invasive interventions, while in latter years there was little medical care. The facilities recorded extremely high death rates, as did a lock hospital that operated from 1928 to 1945 on Fantome or Eumilli Island in the Palm Island group near Townsville in Queensland.

The removal of people to Bernier and Dorre islands was occurring at a time when authorities sought to prevent sexual relationships between Aboriginal women and white men as well as so-called “Asiatics”, as enacted in the WA Aborigines Act of 1905. As historian Dr Mary Anne Jebb has observed in an unpublished manuscript, this legislation:

…institutionalised Aboriginal women as immoral and intimacy between races as a problem which needed to be stamped out.

The lock hospitals were also interlinked with other traumas of colonisation, including the removal of Aboriginal people as prisoners or witnesses (mainly to do with the killing of stock), and the removal of children (some of the travelling inspectors who took away people with disease also took children). It was a time when senior doctors considered neck-chaining of Aboriginal people, often for prolonged periods, to be “humane”.

The lock hospitals were interlinked with other traumas of colonisation. Library of Western Australia

Around the time of the lock hospitals, Aboriginal people in WA were active in drawing public and political attention to wide-ranging injustices, including police brutality, their exclusion from schools and general health services, and other policies of segregation.

While the early decades of the 20th century were marked by concern about venereal diseases in the wider population, the policies and practices for non-Indigenous people stood in stark contrast to treatment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In 1911, a meeting of Australasian doctors recommended that general hospitals and dispensaries, rather than lock hospitals, “should provide the necessary accommodation for venereal cases”.

Male Aboriginal patients outside the hospital at Bernier Island. State Library of Western Australia

When many states introduced compulsory notification and treatment for venereal diseases for the general population following the first world war, non-Indigenous patients were provided with education and free treatment. By contrast, the lock hospitals of Queensland and WA provided penal rather than therapeutic conditions.

As a Yamaji researcher Dr Robin Barrington has observed of the Bernier and Dorre lock hospitals, they were:

…places of imprisonment, exile, isolation, segregation, anthropological investigations and medical experiments made possible by laws of exception.

At the time, even authorities acknowledged that Aboriginal people saw the Bernier and Dorre lock hospitals as penal institutions. In 1909, newspapers reported WA’s Chief Protector of Aborigines, Charles Gale, stating they were seen “as a sort of gaol”.

It was not only the island confinement that was punitive; people often faced traumatic long journeys, on foot and by ship, as well as long periods in prisons or other lock-ups awaiting transport to the islands.

Garrett says it would have been terrifying to be sent to to Dorre Island. Screenshot/Who Do You Think You Are/ SBS

In an interview some weeks after his visit to Dorre Island, Garrett told me (Melissa Sweet) that it had made him appreciate how terrifying it would have been for those Aboriginal people taken there. He compared the lock hospitals to a form of “gulag”, and described the island’s harsh landscape.

He said:

Even by Australian standards, it is remarkably barren, remote, inhospitable and, to be there for weeks on end, never mind years on end, yes, it really brings you up with a start… You can’t fail but to come away with a very strong feeling of loss and of unhappiness and of confusion.

During his short visit to Carnarvon, Garrett was struck by the lack of local acknowledgement for this internationally significant history. He noted, for example, its absence from a large new historical display at the town’s landmark One Mile Jetty, from where many inmates and staff departed for the islands.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people want greater public acknowledgement of the Bernier, Dorre and Fantome island lock hospitals and their traumatic impacts. University of Western Australia

For Kathleen Musulin, visiting Dorre was a deeply moving and spiritual experience, which is part of a bigger journey to increase public awareness and understanding of the lock hospitals’ histories. Many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people want greater public acknowledgement of the Bernier, Dorre and Fantome island lock hospitals and their traumatic impacts, according to findings from my (Melissa Sweet’s) PhD research.

This is seen as important for healing and justice, with interviewees wanting the wider Australian community to know “what Aboriginal people went through”. Efforts are now underway, through a Carnarvon Shire Council working group, to develop memorials to pay respects to those taken to the islands.

Peter Garrett and Kathleen Musulin on Dorre island. Screenshot/Who Do You Think You Are/ SBS

Knowing and acknowledging this history is particularly important for health systems and professionals, given that current Australian health dialogue supports the development of culturally safe services and practices, and this requires an understanding of one’s own profession’s historical complicity in such events.

Learning from history opens the way to moving forward with respect in health professions, to provide services that will ensure better health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, many of whom continue to experience adverse and traumatising experiences with health care.

The lock hospitals are part of a wider history of medical incarceration, as exemplified by Fantome Island, which also housed a leprosarium for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people from 1940-73. These histories remain very present in the memories and lives of many families on Palm Island.

These and other episodes of medical incarceration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples can be seen as archetypal examples of the role of health care professionals and systems in colonisation, contributing to intergenerational traumas.

The Australian Psychological Society recently issued an apology for the profession’s role in contributing to the mistreatment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including its failure to advocate on important matters such as the policy of forced removal, which resulted in the Stolen Generations.

Far more could be done across health systems to acknowledge the wider histories of harmful health care policies, systems and practices that institutionalised, excluded, segregated and harmed Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Acknowledgement is one important step towards healing and reparation.


* Our next article will investigate what can be learnt from the extensive newspaper coverage of the lock hospitals.