1950 Australian National Airways Douglas DC-4 crash

Douglas DC-4 Amana crash

The Douglas DC-4 Amana, the aircraft destroyed in the accident.
Accident
Date26 June 1950
SummaryMultiple engine failure
Site19 km north-west of York, Western Australia
31.821°S 116.581°ECoordinates31.821°S 116.581°E
Aircraft
Aircraft typeDouglas DC-4
Aircraft nameAmana
OperatorAustralian National Airways
RegistrationVH-ANA
Flight originPerth Airport
DestinationAdelaide Airport
Passengers24
Crew5
Fatalities29
Survivors0


On 26 June 1950, a Douglas DC-4[GR1]  Skymaster aircraft departed from Perth, Western Australia for an eight-hour flight to Adelaide, South Australia. It crashed 22 minutes after take-off, 35 miles (56 km) East from Perth Airport. All 29 occupants were killed in the accident; one initially survived, but died six days later. It was the worst civil aviation accident in Australia.

As the aircraft flew eastwards over the outer suburbs of Perth numerous witnesses observed that it was flying at a lower altitude than usual for the daily Skymaster services, and at least one of the engines was running roughly and backfiring at regular intervals. In the minutes before it crashed, witnesses heard a number of different engine noises – sometimes operating normally, sometimes all engine noise ceased, only to be replaced by what was described as a very loud, high-pitched “scream”. When the wrecked engines were examined many weeks after the accident a significant amount of corrosion product was found in the fuel system within two of the engines. After a preliminary investigation, Investigators from the Department of Civil Aviation [GR2] believed the water responsible for the corrosion was also responsible for rough running of at least one engine, and ultimately temporary loss of power from all engines on at least one occasion. The Investigators did not find a likely source for the water.

All but one of the 29 occupants on board the aircraft died, either from multiple injuries and burns, or from incineration. One elderly male passenger survived the crash. The first rescuers at the crash site found him wandering about, dazed and distressed. He suffered serious burns and was admitted to hospital where he died six days later.

The accident became the subject of an Inquiry chaired by a Supreme Court judge. In the absence of evidence indicating the source of any water in the fuel, the Inquiry dismissed the submission that water was responsible for the accident. The Inquiry did not determine the cause of the accident but it made recommendations to enhance the safety of aircraft operations.

The flight

The aircraft was the Amana, a Douglas DC-4-1009 registered VH-ANA[GR3]  and the flagship of the Australian National Airways fleet. It flew for the first time on 28 January 1946 and was flown to Australia on 9 February 1946.

The Amana departed from Perth Airport at 9:55 pm for the 8-hour flight to Adelaide. On board were 24 passengers, 3 pilots and two air hostesses.

A radio report was received from the Amana at 10:00 pm advising it was on course and climbing to 9,000 feet. Nothing more was heard from the aircraft. As it flew east over the outer suburbs of Perth numerous people on the ground observed that it was flying unusually low, and heard at least one of its engines running roughly and backfiring repeatedly. Amana crashed at about 10:13 pm.

Crash

The debris field

A number of residents on farming properties to the west of York heard a large aircraft flying low over the area. The aircraft seemed to be in trouble because the noise from the engines was changing significantly. At times the engines seemed to be operating normally but on at least one occasion all engine noise ceased for a brief time and then returned as a very loud, high-pitched noise. One resident reported that when all engine noise ceased he could hear a rushing sound until the scream from the engines returned. Several residents reported seeing a bright flash of white light in the distance, followed by a loud crashing and scraping noise. Those closest to the crash could then see the yellow glow of a major fire.

Ten minutes after the Amana set course for Adelaide, a Douglas DC-4 operated by Trans Australia Airlines[GR4]  became airborne at Perth, also heading for Adelaide. As the TAA aircraft set course for Adelaide, the captain, Douglas MacDonald, saw a vivid white flash on the horizon in precisely the direction in which he was heading. It lasted about six seconds, long enough for him to draw it to the attention of the two other crew members. Eight minutes later, the TAA aircraft passed over a band of fire on the ground. MacDonald estimated the fire was 28 nautical miles (52 km) east of Perth Airport. As MacDonald approached Cunderdin, he was aware the Amana, flying about ten minutes ahead of him, had not yet radioed its position report at Cunderdin. He became concerned that the vivid white flash and the ground fire might indicate some tragedy had befallen the Amana so he advised Air Traffic Control about his observations. Air Traffic Control was also concerned about the Amana’s failure to report at Cunderdin so on hearing MacDonald’s observations of the vivid white flash and the ground fire they activated emergency procedures. They asked MacDonald to fly back to the fire and determine its position. MacDonald did so and advised Air Traffic Control of bearings from the fire to York and Northam, the towns nearest the crash site.

Search and rescue

Frank McNamara (62), an apiarist, and Geoff Inkpen (25), a young farmer, heard the sound of a big aircraft in serious trouble, flying low nearby. McNamara described the noise from the engines as “terrifying”. They investigated and saw the bright light of a flash fire. McNamara sent his two teenage sons in his utility truck to York to alert the police. McNamara and Inkpen then set out on foot in the direction of the fire. As there was bright moonlight, they were able to hurry through the bush. After about half an hour, they came upon a scene of devastation. They were astonished to find an elderly man in a dazed state wandering around the burning wreckage. He gave his name and explained that he had been a passenger on a large aircraft. He had survived the crash despite being badly burned. No one else was found alive.

In response to notification from Air Traffic Control, three ambulances from Perth were dispatched in the direction of the crash site, known to be somewhere between Chidlow[GR5]  and York. The crash site was several miles from the road so the ambulance crews travelled eastwards all the way to York without sighting a fire. The crews were eventually guided back along the main road and then along a dirt road that enabled them to drive to within three or four miles of the crash site. The crews then took their first-aid boxes and set out on foot.

Frank McNamara made a bed of leaves for the survivor and built a fire to help keep him as warm and comfortable as possible. McNamara stayed with the survivor while Inkpen went to summon help. After several hours, ambulance crews arrived and administered first-aid and morphia. Rescue workers constructed a stretcher using saplings, bandages and overcoats. They covered the survivor with an overcoat and carried him for two hours to cover about two miles through thickly wooded country to McNamara’s utility truck, which then carried him and his rescuers to a waiting ambulance.

Frank McNamara and Geoff Inkpen were publicly thanked by the Minister for Civil Aviation for the great assistance they rendered to the rescue effort throughout the night. In a public letter to Frank McNamara, the minister acknowledged the unrelenting effort of McNamara and his sons under extremely difficult conditions. He also acknowledged McNamara’s care of the survivor and regretted that McNamara was not rewarded by seeing the survivor recover. In a public letter to Geoff Inkpen, the Minister expressed his deep appreciation for Inkpen’s actions on the night of the crash. During World War II, Inkpen had served in the Royal Australian Air Force[GR6]  (RAAF) as a navigator and the minister acknowledged that, in peacetime, Inkpen had continued to uphold “the fine traditions” of the RAAF.

Fate of those onboard

The sole survivor was the 67-year-old Managing-Director of Forwood Down and Company Ltd., a South Australian engineering company. He was the oldest person on board the flight, and probably the most experienced air traveler. He was interviewed by police in hospital in Perth, but was not aware of much detail about the final minutes of the flight. He said there was no sign of fire prior to the crash and no announcement to passengers to fasten their seat belts. He died six days after the crash and was buried at the North Road cemetery in Adelaide, his home town.

Investigators believed the aircraft captain survived for a short time after the crash. His body was a short distance away from his seat and both were a few metres ahead of the wreckage where they had been thrown after the nose of the aircraft was split open in the impact with a large tree. The seat belt had not broken, but it had been undone. The captain’s tunic was pulled up over his head as though to protect his face from the heat of the nearby inferno. Investigators believed he survived the crash and undid his seat belt to drag himself away from the fire. His body was not burnt, but autopsy showed both his legs were broken and he died from a fractured skull.

Postmortem examinations were performed on the 28 victims of the crash. The two co-pilots died from multiple injuries. Twenty-three passengers and the two air hostesses were found to have died from multiple injuries and burns, or incineration. Only 12 of the 28 victims could be formally identified. The remaining 16 victims were either unrecognizable or unable to be identified and were buried in a mass grave at Perth’s Karrakatta cemetery.

Passengers

On its fatal flight the Amana was carrying 24 passengers, including 2 infants. All but one died in the crash or the ensuing inferno.

Investigation

Part of the Amana’s fuselage

One of the Amana’s engines

The wreckage burned for several hours

Western Australian police examining the still-burning wreckage

Three investigators from the Department of Civil Aviation began work at the crash scene the day after the accident. They found the Amana had crashed in a heavily timbered area on the Inkpen family property Berry Brow, on the easterly track between Perth airport and Kalgoorlie, at a point where the elevation was about 1,100 feet (340 m) above sea level. The aircraft struck the tops of tall gum trees while descending at an angle of about 15° below horizontal. Its speed at impact was estimated at 250 miles per hour (400 km/h). It crashed through large trees, breaking them off as if they were matchsticks, before impacting the ground violently and gouging a long, wide furrow. The left wing was torn away from the fuselage and then the aircraft broke up and burst into flames. Only the rear fuselage with the fin and rudder were not affected by fire. The wreckage trail was about 280 yards (260 m) long and 35 yards (32 m) wide. At the time of impact the Amana’s left wing was lower than its right, suggesting it may have been turning left. It was heading north, not east towards Cunderdin. Investigators speculated that the crew may have been turning with the intention of returning to Perth airport; or they may have been preparing for a crash-landing in a large clear area to the north of the crash site.

Possibly as a result of rough-running of one or more of its engines, the Amana was observed flying over Perth’s outer-eastern suburbs at an unusually low altitude. No witness report was received from anyone along the next 16 nautical miles (30 km) of the Amana’s track from Perth’s outer suburbs to within 5 nautical miles (9 km) of the crash site. In the minute before it crashed, eight witnesses heard a large airplane in distress and reported unusual engine noise, including engine noise ceasing on at least one occasion, followed by the sudden return of very loud engine noise. This suggested that, on at least one occasion, none of the engines were producing power, followed by a resumption of power on some of the engines. The investigation team concluded that the Amana failed to reach its assigned altitude of 9,000 feet, and that it experienced intermittent engine problems of such severity that all engine power was lost on at least one occasion. Without power and with only one of its propellers feathered[GR7] , a Douglas DC-4 loses altitude at a great rate, possibly as fast as 100 feet per second (6,000 feet per minute).

Engines and propellers numbers 1 to 3 suffered substantial damage in the crash, but engine and propeller number 4 suffered much less damage. The investigators determined that at the time of impact, propellers 1, 2 and 3 were turning normally and their engines were producing power but propeller number 4 was feathered and its engine was not operating. There was also some evidence that action was taken by the crew to unfeather propeller number 4 in the moments before impact. None of the engines contained evidence of any internal failure prior to impact. All the magnetos were tested and the results indicated normal ignition was available to all engines up to the time of impact.

Engine number 4 suffered only minor, external damage. It was dismantled by the investigation team in an attempt to determine why it might have been shut down by the crew. A substantial amount of corrosion product was found in the passages of the fuel flow meter on engine number 4. Western Australia’s Deputy Mineralogist identified the corrosion product as magnesium hydroxide[GR8] . This is a corrosion product formed by reaction of magnesium and water, suggesting the fuel passages had been filled with water in the months between the crash and the detailed examination of the engine. Charles Gibbs, an engine specialist employed by the Department of Civil Aviation, estimated at least 45 cubic centimeters of water must have been involved. Rain falling on the crash site before engine number 4 was removed could not account for this much water in the fuel passages. Gibbs first examined the fuel system of engine number 4 and discovered the corrosion about two months after the accident. He conducted a test on an identical flow meter and found that after he left water in the fuel flow passages for approximately 8 weeks a similar amount of corrosion product developed. This suggested the rough running heard by witnesses on the ground may have been caused by water in the fuel reaching engine number 4. The steel rotor in the fuel pump of engine number 1 was slightly corroded but the fuel systems of engines 2 and 3 showed no evidence of corrosion. Investigators formed the opinion that the rough running heard by witnesses on the ground, and the crew’s decision to shut down engine number 4 and feather its propeller, may have been related to water in the fuel reaching that engine. Similarly, the intermittent loss of power on all engines in the final minutes of the flight may indicate that all engines were receiving fuel contaminated with water.

The only abnormality found in all four engines was the vapor vent float in the fuel strainer chamber of the carburetors. The floats had been crushed by extreme fuel pressure. Inquiries were made to the engine manufacturer and other civil aviation authorities but none had prior experience of vapour vent floats collapsing. Tests on carburetors were also carried out in Australia by the Aeronautical Research Laboratories but without finding any suitable explanation. Whether the floats were crushed in flight or in the crash could not be determined, but even if it had occurred in flight it would not have affected operation of the engines.

The earliest reports from the crash site speculated that the Amana was already on fire when it struck the tops of trees because those trees, and pieces of the aircraft’s left wing torn off in the impact with them, showed signs of scorching. Several eyewitnesses reported seeing flames in the sky before the aircraft struck the ground. Department of Civil Aviation investigators discounted this speculation because only one of the Amana’s push-button engine fire extinguishers had activated and this had most likely occurred during the crash or the fire.

Australian National Airways (ANA) ground staff in Sydney checked the Amana’s fuel tanks for the presence of water prior to its first departure on 26 June. They found none. The Amana was subsequently re-fueled in Melbourne and Adelaide but no check of the fuel tanks was made on these occasions. After being re-fueled in Perth immediately prior to the fatal flight, the fuel filters in all 4 engines and the fuel drain serving the cross-feed pipe in the wing centre-section were all checked for the presence of water. The fuel tanks themselves were not checked, partly because, on the night of 26 June, the ground staff were “pressed for time” because one despatch engineer was absent due to illness.

ANA was of the opinion that if a small amount of water entered a fuel tank during refuelling it would only reach the drain cocks when the aircraft was in level flight so it could not be detected immediately after re-fuelling. For 15 years ANA had operated in the knowledge that the only satisfactory time to check fuel tanks for the presence of water was prior to the first flight of the day, after the aircraft had been stationary overnight. Throughout this time ANA checked fuel tanks for the presence of water prior to the first flight of the day.

Prior to its final flight, the Amana received 1,756 US gallons (6,650 L) of fuel from a tanker operated by the Vacuum Oil Company. The tanker had been checked for the presence of water in the morning and again at 6:30 pm, about 2 hours prior to re-fuelling the Amana. It had also supplied fuel to 3 de Havilland Dove aircraft, none of which suffered any engine problems or were found to have water in the fuel.

The Department of Civil Aviation performed tests on parts of the DC-4 fuel system. Tests on the engine fuel system showed that when the engine boost pump was operating, vortex[GR9]  formed in the engine fuel tank. If a small amount of water was present, this vortex held the water in suspension and prevented it from entering the engine. The tests also showed that when the boost pump was turned off, the vortex dissipated and any water would soon find its way into the engine. Investigators believed this might explain why all engines were operating normally during the takeoff but at least one engine began to run roughly around the time the engine boost pumps would be turned off.

Inquiry

The Minister for Civil Aviation, Thomas White, appointed Justice William Simpson of the ACT Supreme Court to conduct an Air Court of Inquiry into the crash of the Amana. The Inquiry opened in Perth on 7 February 1951. Justice Simpson was assisted by two assessors – Captain J.W. Bennett, a pilot with British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines; and Mr D.B. Hudson, an aeronautical engineer with Qantas Empire Airways. The Commonwealth Crown Solicitor was represented by L.D. Seaton and B. Simpson. Australian National Airways was represented by George Pape. The Department of Civil Aviation was represented by Henry Winneke. The Air Pilots’ Association was represented by Francis Burt. The Inquiry sat in Perth for 12 days; heard evidence from 67 witnesses and concluded on Tuesday 20 February.

Western Australia’s Deputy Mineralogist gave evidence that he had identified magnesium hydroxide, a corrosion product, in fuel passages in one of Amana’s engines. Counsel for the Department of Civil Aviation explained that evidence gathered during investigation of the crash indicated water in some of the fuel on board Amana was responsible for the corrosion products found in engines numbers 1 and 4; for the rough running of an engine heard by a number of witnesses; and for the intermittent failure of all engines, leading to the aircraft descending to ground level. The Inquiry heard evidence from the Department of Civil Aviation’s Acting Chief Inspector of Air Accidents, C.A.J. Lum, a former RAAF Douglas Dakota pilot, who described his personal experience of a flight in 1946 in which all fuel tanks were checked for the presence of water prior to take-off and the flight proceeded normally for 20 minutes until both engines began running roughly. Lum returned to the aerodrome and checked again for water in the tanks, this time finding a significant amount of water. Counsel for the Vacuum Oil Co. explained that it was almost impossible for water to be introduced to an aircraft during refuelling, and vigorously rejected the theory that water in the fuel contributed to the crash.

Counsel for the Commonwealth Crown Solicitor presented evidence that the Amana was on fire before it first struck trees. Counsel for the widow of one of the victims suggested the crash may have been caused by the elevator trim tab [GR10] jamming in the diving position.

In April 1951 Justice Simpson advised the Minister for Civil Aviation that new evidence had become available. The Minister gave permission for the Inquiry to be re-opened. The Inquiry re-opened in Melbourne on 4 June 1951. The Department of Civil Aviation had recently completed tests on the DC-4 fuel system. The tests showed that when an engine boost pump was operating, a vortex in the engine fuel tank prevented water from entering the engine. The tests also showed that when the boost pump was turned off, any water would soon find its way into the engine. The Department of Civil Aviation believed this might explain why all engines were operating normally during the takeoff but at least one engine began to run roughly around the time the engine boost pumps would be turned off. However, Justice Simpson stated that the re-opened Inquiry served only to confirm his view that the Amana’s loss of power was not due to water in the fuel.

Justice Simpson’s report was tabled in the House of Representatives on 28 June 1951 by the new Minister for Civil Aviation, Larry Anthony. The Inquiry found that the Amana suffered total loss of engine power on at least one occasion, followed by rapid loss of height until it struck the ground. However, the evidence did not allow the court to determine the cause of the total loss of engine power. Consequently, the court was unable to determine the cause of the accident. Simpson stated he was satisfied water had not been introduced into the Amana’s fuel system in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide or Perth.

The Inquiry uncovered two deviations from the Air Navigation Regulations although it did not consider these deviations contributed to the accident:

  1. ANA was not in the practice of performing a fuel-drain check immediately after each re-fuelling, as required by Air Navigation Orders.
  2. On the fatal flight, 8,545 feet of photographic film were carried as cargo. Air Navigation Orders specified that a maximum of 3,000 feet of photographic film may be carried.

The Inquiry also uncovered three irregularities in the safety regulation of civil aviation in Australia although none of these irregularities contributed to the accident. Justice Simpson’s report contained recommendations to deal with the irregularities:

  1. fuel companies that supply fuel to aircraft should be required to check every compartment in a tanker wagon for the presence of water each time fuel in the tanker wagon is replenished.
  2. when fuel was being drained from an aircraft’s tanks to check for the presence of impurities, the sample should be collected in a transparent vessel to allow more reliable identification of any water that might be present.
  3. when pilots who regularly fly four-engine aeroplanes perform 6-monthly checks for renewal of their commercial pilot licenses, the check should be carried out in a four-engine airplane rather than in a two-engine airplane as was the common practice.

During the House of Representatives debate on the report, the Minister, Larry Anthony, stated that he had already asked fuel companies to check their tanker wagons for the presence of water after each replenishment, and the relevant Air Navigation Order would be amended to require fuel to be drained into transparent containers. He stated that his Department did not intend to amend the relevant Air Navigation Order to require pilots of four-engine aeroplanes to perform the periodic checks in a four-engine airplane because it considered it was more challenging to fly with one engine inoperative in a two-engine airplane than in a four-engine airplane.

Subsequent speculation about cause of the crash

Investigators from the Department of Civil Aviation believed water in some of the fuel tanks of VH-ANA was responsible for rough running of one or more of the engines; and this ultimately led to intermittent failure of all the engines. The Inquiry led by Mr Justice Simpson found no evidence that there was significant water in the fuel tanks. No radio call was received from Amana to indicate the nature of any problem, or even that the crew was aware of a problem. The Inquiry concluded without determining the cause of the crash.

In the weeks and months after conclusion of the Inquiry one possible explanation of the crash began to circulate among employees of ANA. This possibility began with one piece of evidence uncovered by the Inquiry during cross-examination of ANA’s ground staff. It was reported that after sunrise the morning after the crash the one-gallon container used to check Amana’s fuel filters was found empty and lying on its side on the apron a short distance from where Amana had been parked. The Inquiry attached no significance to this evidence and did not explore it further.

Employees of ANA believed the container had last been used to drain fuel from the cross-feed drain cock, the fuel cock that serves the pipe in the wing centre-section for cross-feeding of fuel from tanks in one wing to engines in the other wing. Moments after this procedure commenced, the staff member was advised of a telephone call from his wife and he went to answer the telephone. With the cross-feed selector valves closed, little fuel ran out when the drain cock was opened. Some employees believed that because no fuel was running out neither the staff member nor anyone else noticed the drain cock was still open. Due either to the wind or the slipstream from Amana’s propellers as it began to taxi prior to take-off, the almost-empty container was blown over and rolled some distance along the apron where it was found the next morning.

Some employees of ANA speculated that approximately ten minutes after take-off the crew of Amana were aware of the seriousness of rough running on number 4 engine so decided to shut it down. Company procedures specified that if an operational problem occurred prior to reaching Kalgoorlie[GR11] , 290 nautical miles (540 km) east of Perth, the aircraft was to return to Perth; but if a problem occurred after reaching Kalgoorlie the flight could continue to Adelaide. The Douglas DC-4 was capable of flying from Perth to Adelaide with one engine inoperative. The crew of Amana on the fatal flight might have decided to wait until past Kalgoorlie before making a radio call to report one engine had been shut down, and then continue to Adelaide. To manage fuel usage and balance the weight of fuel across the wing, the crew might have selected some of the operating engines to draw fuel from number 4 tank. The DC-4 had a complex fuel selection system and, either deliberately or inadvertently, all operating engines might have been connected to number 4 tank. If the drain cock in the cross-feed pipe was still open to the atmosphere, air would be drawn into the pipe, causing an interruption of fuel supply to the engines, all engines to stop operating and their propellers to move to fine pitch. When the crew realized engines 1, 2 and 3 had all suddenly failed and that cross-feeding of fuel was the source of the problem they would have changed the fuel selections and restored fuel to the engines, causing the sudden screaming noise heard by witnesses as the engines burst back into life with their propellers in fine pitch. Amana had been flying at lower altitude than usual so there was inadequate height for the crew to arrest the high rate of descent before the aircraft struck high ground on the Inkpen family property. (At the Air Court of Inquiry, George Pape, representing ANA, described as “fantastic” any suggestion that the crew of the Amana would be cross-feeding fuel from one wing to the engines on the other wing at such an early stage of the flight.)

The Flight Superintendent and the Technical Superintendent of ANA simulated some of these events during a test flight in another DC-4. They were satisfied that the time intervals between events were compatible with the likely sequence of events leading to the crash of the Amana, and that it was a plausible explanation of the accident. However, on legal advice this possible explanation of the crash was not made public. Two accidents involving Douglas DC-4s, one approaching Dublin Airport, Ireland, in 1961 and another approaching Stockport Airport, Manchester, United Kingdom, in 1967 were attributed to interruption of fuel supply when engines were supplied from the cross-feed system which was open to an empty fuel tank, allowing air to be drawn into the cross-feed pipe.

Recent archaeological finds and re-evaluation of Amana’s final moments[GR12] 

Around 2002 further wreckage from Amana’s port wing outboard of the engines was investigated about 1.5 miles from the crash site. This wreckage had not been located during the 1951 investigation, although it had subsequently been located during farming operations and shifted to a barren area where it avoided significant subsequent degradation by grass fires. It suggests that having attained substantially level flight, Amana hit one or more trees several seconds before reaching its final impact site, causing sufficient damage to result in the in-flight fire observed by witnesses at the time, and a deviation from its original flight path. Part of this wreckage is now on display at The Civil Aviation Historical Society & Airways Museum at Essendon Airport.

A high-speed impact on part of the wing and fuel system might explain a surge in fuel pressure sufficient to cause the crushed vapour vent float found in the carburetor of each of Amana’s engines.

Memorials

After the accident, souvenir hunters proved to be such a problem that the owners of Berry Brow kept all gates locked. Geoff Inkpen stated that after completion of an Inquiry a bulldozer would be used to dig a ditch at the crash site and what remained of the Amana would be buried.

A small memorial to the loss of the Amana, its passengers and crew, has been created in the aeronautical museum in the town of Beverley, 29 miles (47 km) south-east of the crash site. The memorial includes the nose undercarriage from the Amana. A memorial plaque was erected in the main street of Beverley on 26 June 2001, the fifty-first anniversary of the crash.

Aftermath

Australian National Airways (ANA) never fully recovered from the crash of the Amana. Since the beginning of 1945, 77 people had been killed in accidents in aircraft operated by ANA. In late 1948, ANA suffered 4 crashes in 4 months. The loss of ANA’s reputation as a safe airline, together with the unblemished safety record and growing commercial success of its rival Trans Australia Airlines, sent ANA into decline. In 1957 ANA was taken over by Ansett Transport Industries Limited and merged with Ansett Airways to form the domestic airline Ansett-ANA.

Amana Memorial

26-November-2014

Photographs supplied by Father Ted Doncaster

The memorial and mass grave commemorate the victims of the Amana Plane Crash.

In June 1950 the Australian National Airways Skymaster Amana, the flagship of the company`s fleet, crashed into a wooded hillside northwest of York. Of the twenty-four passengers and five crew, only one man managed to get out alive. His name was Edgar W. Forwood, aged sixty-seven. Unfortunately, his condition steadily deteriorated and he died on Saturday of the same week. This crash is the worst aviation disaster in Western Australia’s history.

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This photo of the late forties shows the graceful ANA flagship VH-ANA Amana at Essendon Airport Melbourne. Not long after this picture was taken she would be smashed to pieces a long way from home.

On the 26 of June 1950 in Perth West Australia a typically fine and moonlit evening greeted the 24 passengers and 5 crew that boarded Amana for a scheduled flight to Adelaide and then on to Melbourne.

By 21:50 the DC 4 was taxiing for a departure off Perth Runway 29, the same strip, but opposite direction to that used by the R4D-5 Blue Goose five years earlier and unfortunately destined for a similar fate.

Looking down Guildfords (Perth) Runway 29 off which Amana departed.

Making a left turn to set heading overhead the Airport, Amana tracked due east towards her first waypoint Cunderdin. Unfortunately fate intervened less than 30 nautical miles later when the aircraft inexplicably crashed in the West Australian bush.

The port undercarriage leg from Amana, taken in 2001 lying under a tree near the crashsite

Witnesses that night from along the route taken by Amana reported rough running, backfiring and even periods of silence from the engines. The accident investigation team determined that earlier in the short flight, number four engine had been shut down by the flight crew and subsequently, the remaining three engines had all failed for indeterminate periods.
There was evidence that immediately prior to impact, number four engine had been un-feathered in an attempted restart, and that power had been restored to the other three. Additionally the aircraft had commenced a left turn apparently returning to Guildford. Unfortunately it was all too late to save VH-ANA. In the dark, in a 15 degree turn to port, the aircraft barely cleared a ridge line, struck a tree 30 feet off the ground and ploughed into a downward slope shredding itself and contents into small pieces as it went.

Notice where Amana sheared off the top of this tree immediately prior to impact with the ground.

It is difficult to imagine the magnitude of the forces that reduced this flap actuating mechanism to a single component of twisted stainless steel.

Above: Looking back in the direction of the impact tree (note the small piece of aluminium protruding from the ground). Below: Taken close to the initial impact site, looking in the direction of travel, 330 Magnetic. Despite years of cultivation you can still see small pieces of wreckage that litter the ground.
 

In the course of the accident something, possibly a fuel tank, has burned fiercely here; consequently nothing has grown on this spot in the ensuing years.

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 [GR1]The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engine (piston) propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. Military versions of the plane, the C-54 and R5D, served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s. From 1945, many civil airlines operated the DC-4 worldwide

 [GR2]Due to the inherent dangers in the use of flight vehicles, national aviation authorities typically regulate the following critical aspects of aircraft airworthiness and their operation:

  • design of aircraft, engines, airborne equipment and ground-based equipment affecting flight safety
  • conditions of manufacture and testing of aircraft and equipment
  • maintenance of aircraft and equipment
  • operation of aircraft and equipment
  • licensing of pilots, air traffic controllers, flight dispatchers and maintenance engineers
  • licensing of airports and navigational aids
  • standards for air traffic control.

Depending on the legal system of the jurisdiction, a NAA will derive its powers from an act of parliament (such as the Civil or Federal Aviation Act), and is then empowered to make regulations within the bounds of the act. This allows technical aspects of airworthiness to be dealt with by subject matter experts and not politicians.

An NAA may also be involved in the investigation of aircraft accidents, although in many cases this is left to a separate body (such as the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) in Australia or the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the United States), to allow independent review of regulatory oversight.

An NAA will regulate the control of air traffic but a separate agency will generally carry out air traffic control functions.

In some countries an NAA may build and operate airports, including non-airside operations such as passenger terminals; the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal and the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines being among such national authorities. In other countries, private companies or local government authorities may own and operate individual airports.

 [GR3]An aircraft registration, alternatively called a tail number, is a code unique to a single aircraft, required by international convention to be marked on the exterior of every civil aircraft. The registration indicates the aircraft’s country of registration, and functions much like an automobile license plate or a ship registration. This code must also appear in its Certificate of Registration, issued by the relevant National Aviation Authority (NAA). An aircraft can only have one registration, in one jurisdiction, though it is changeable over the life of the aircraft.

 [GR4]Trans Australia Airlines (TAA), renamed Australian Airlines in 1986, was one of the two major Australian domestic airlines between its inception in 1946 and its merger with Qantas in September 1992. As a result of the “COBRA” (or Common Branding) project, the entire airline was rebranded Qantas about a year later with tickets stating in small print “Australian Airlines Limited trading as Qantas Airways Limited” until the adoption of a single Air Operator Certificate a few years later. At that point, the entire airline was officially renamed “Qantas Airways Limited” continuing the name and livery of the parent company with the only change being the change of by-line from “The Spirit of Australia” to “The Australian Airline” under the window line with the existing “Qantas” title appearing above.

 [GR5]The Chidlow townsite was originally known variously as Chidlow’s Flat, Chidlow’s Springs or Chidlow’s Well after a well and stockyard on the old Mahogany Creek to Northam road. The well was sunk by William Chidlow, a pioneer of the Northam district, who originally established the Northam road. Chidlow arrived in the Swan River Colony in 1831. Settlement began in 1883 when it became known that Chidlow’s Well was to be the terminus of the second section of the Eastern Railway, which was opened in March 1884. Chidlow’s Well railway station and townsite were renamed Chidlow in 1920.

 [GR6]The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the principal aerial warfare force of Australia, a part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Australian Army. The Air Force is commanded by the Chief of Air Force (CAF), who is subordinate to the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF). The CAF is also directly responsible to the Minister of Defence, with the Department of Defence administering the ADF and the Air Force.

Formed in March 1921, as the Australian Air Force, through the separation of the Australian Air Corps from the Army, which in turn amalgamated the separate aerial services of both the Army and Navy. It directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), formed on 22 October 1912.

 [GR7]On most variable-pitch propellers, the blades can be rotated parallel to the airflow to stop rotation of the propeller and reduce drag when the engine fails or is deliberately shut down. This is called feathering, a term borrowed from rowing. On single-engined aircraft, whether a powered glider or turbine-powered aircraft, the effect is to increase the gliding distance. On a multi-engine aircraft, feathering the propeller on an inoperative engine reduces drag, and helps the aircraft maintain speed and altitude with the operative engines.

Most feathering systems for reciprocating engines sense a drop in oil pressure and move the blades toward the feather position, and require the pilot to pull the propeller control back to disengage the high-pitch stop pins before the engine reaches idle RPMTurboprop control systems usually utilize a negative torque sensor in the reduction gearbox which moves the blades toward feather when the engine is no longer providing power to the propeller. Depending on design, the pilot may have to push a button to override the high-pitch stops and complete the feathering process, or the feathering process may be totally automatic.

 [GR8]Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. It occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It is a white solid with low solubility in water (Ksp = 5.61×10−12). Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids, such as milk of magnesia.

 [GR9]fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved. Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be observed in smoke ringswhirlpools in the wake of a boat, and the winds surrounding a tropical cyclonetornado or dust devil.

Vortices are a major component of turbulent flow. The distribution of velocity, vorticity (the curl of the flow velocity), as well as the concept of circulation are used to characterise vortices. In most vortices, the fluid flow velocity is greatest next to its axis and decreases in inverse proportion to the distance from the axis.

In the absence of external forces, viscous friction within the fluid tends to organise the flow into a collection of irrotational vortices, possibly superimposed to larger-scale flows, including larger-scale vortices. Once formed, vortices can move, stretch, twist, and interact in complex ways. A moving vortex carries some angular and linear momentum, energy, and mass, with it.

 [GR10]Trim tabs are small surfaces connected to the trailing edge of a larger control surface on a boat or aircraft, used to control the trim of the controls, i.e. to counteract hydro- or aerodynamic forces and stabilise the boat or aircraft in a particular desired attitude without the need for the operator to constantly apply a control force. This is done by adjusting the angle of the tab relative to the larger surface.

Changing the setting of a trim tab adjusts the neutral or resting position of a control surface (such as an elevator or rudder). As the desired position of a control surface changes (corresponding mainly to different speeds), an adjustable trim tab will allow the operator to reduce the manual force required to maintain that position—to zero, if used correctly. Thus the trim tab acts as a servo tab. Because the center of pressure of the trim tab is farther away from the axis of rotation of the control surface than the center of pressure of the control surface, the moment generated by the tab can match the moment generated by the control surface. The position of the control surface on its axis will change until the torques from the control surface and the trim surface balance each other.

 [GR11]Kalgoorlie is a city in the Goldfields–Esperance region of Western Australia, located 595 km (370 mi) east-northeast of Perth at the end of the Great Eastern Highway. It is sometimes referred to as Kalgoorlie–Boulder, as the surrounding urban area includes the historic townsite of Boulder and the local government area is the City of Kalgoorlie–Boulder.

Kalgoorlie-Boulder lies on the traditional lands of the Wangkatja group of peoples. The name “Kalgoorlie” is derived from the Wangai word Karlkurla or Kulgooluh, meaning “place of the silky pears“. The city was established in 1893 during the Western Australian gold rushes. It soon replaced Coolgardie as the largest settlement on the Eastern Goldfields. Kalgoorlie is the ultimate destination of the Goldfields Water Supply Scheme and the Golden Pipeline Heritage Trail. The nearby Super Pit gold mine was Australia’s largest open-cut gold mine for many years.

 [GR12]Essendon Fields Airport (IATAMEBICAOYMEN), colloquially known as Essendon Airport, is a 305 ha (750 acres) public airport serving scheduled commercial, corporate-jet, charter and general aviation flights. It is located next to the intersection of the Tullamarine and Calder Freeways, in the north western suburb of Essendon Fields of MelbourneVictoria, Australia. The airport is the closest to Melbourne’s City Centre, approximately a 13 km (8.1 mi) drive north-west from it and 8 km (5.0 mi) south-east from Melbourne Tullamarine Airport. In 1970, Tullamarine Airport replaced Essendon as Melbourne’s main airport.

The Story Of The Chernobyl Disaster And The Radioactive Ghost Town Of Pripyat It Left Behind

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

The Chernobyl disaster of April 26, 1986 in Pripyat, Ukraine remains the most catastrophic nuclear accident of the 20th century.

The Chernobyl disaster of April 25 and 26, 1986, was the most catastrophic nuclear accident of the 20th century. It has shaped and inspired nuclear policy, influenced environmentalist and activist groups, and left a direct, physiological impact on Pripyat, Ukraine and the Eastern European regions it contaminated.

The event happened due just as much to negligence as inevitability — with no fail-safes to prevent radiation from escaping in case of an accident, improperly trained personnel, and no enacted safety measures to ensure that those mistakes wouldn’t occur in the first place, the disaster was arguably lying in wait.

When a late-night safety test went awry and subsequent human error interfered with preventative measures, Chernobyl’s Reactor 4 became unmanageable. Water and steam merged together which lead to an explosion and a resulting open-air graphite fire. Two plant workers died that night and arguably suffered the least out of all those who eventually died from radiation or grew up with birth defects.

The Pripyat Amusement Park was set to open on May 1, 1986 — a week after the Chernobyl disaster.

Over the next few days, 134 servicemen involved with the clean-up in and around Pripyat were hospitalized, 28 died of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in the following weeks, and 14 died of radiation-induced cancer within the next ten years. Indeed, the complete effects the disaster had on the health of the public in Pripyat and the surrounding area is still not totally known.

A simple miscalculation in safety measures during a late-night test quickly became the biggest nuclear disaster of the modern era. Brave souls on the ground sacrificed everything to stop it as the rest of the world watched in horror. 33 years later, the radioactivity of the Chernobyl disaster still lingers.

Emergency workers cleaning up radiated materials with shovels in Pripyat, 1986.

Ground Zero: A Timeline Of Events That Led To The Chernobyl Disaster

The accident occurred a full year before President Reagan famously ordered USSR General Secretary Gorbachev to “tear down that wall.” The Pripyat Amusement Park was set to open on May 1st as part of the May Day celebrations, but that opportunity never came.

It was 1:23 A.M. local time when Reactor 4 suffered a fateful power increase too high to handle. This was before nuclear reactors were encased in a now standardized, protective containment vessel.

Workers hosing the plant down with a decontaminant, 1986.

Chernobyl’s failings allowed vast amounts of radioactive isotopes to billow out into the atmosphere, covering parts of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and the American east coast in varying amounts of fallout.

Areas closest to the site, like Pripyat, were affected most drastically, with Ukraine’s capital Kiev receiving around 60 percent of the fallout while a significant amount of Russian territory sustained considerable contamination as well. UNICEF estimated that over 350,000 people evacuated their homes in Pripyat and far beyond between 1986 and 2000 specifically due to Chernobyl’s after effects.

The Design Flaws And Misuse Of Reactor 4

The Soviet Union’s Chernobyl nuclear plant is about 65 miles north of Kiev on the banks of the Pripyat River. The town of Pripyat or Prypyat was founded in 1970 to serve the nuclear plant specifically as a closed, nuclear city. It only became an official city nine years later.

But today, save for the startling emergence of wildlife, Pripyat remains a ghost town.

Chernobyl had four reactors and each was capable of generating 1,000 megawatts of electric power. For context, the California Independent System Operator which oversees the bulk of the state’s electric power system, says one megawatt is capable of producing enough electricity for the instantaneous demand of 1,000 homes at once.

Recording radiation levels during construction of a new sarcophagus for Reactor 4, August 1986.

Chernobyl’s four reactors were different than most others worldwide. The Soviet-designed RBMK reactor, or Reactor Bolsho-Moshchnosty Kanalny meaning “high-power channel reactor,” was water-pressurized and intended to produce both plutonium and electric power and as such, used a rare combination of water coolant and graphite moderators that made them fairly unstable at low power.

If the reactors lost cooling water, they’d dramatically decrease power output which would rapidly facilitate nuclear chain reactions. What’s more, the RBMK design didn’t have a containment structure which is exactly what it sounds like: a concrete and steel dome over the reactor itself meant to keep radiation inside the plant even if the reactor fails, leaks, or explodes.

These design flaws compounded with the staff of untrained operators made for the perfect storm of Nuclear failures.

The rather inadequately trained personnel working on the Number 4 reactor late that night on April 25 decided to complicate a routine safety test and conduct an electrical-engineering experiment of their own. Their curiosity of whether or not the reactor’s turbine could operate emergency water pumps on inertial power, unfortunately, got a hold of their judgment.

First, the team disconnected the reactor’s emergency safety systems as well as its essential power-regulating system. Things quickly worsened when they set the reactor at a power level so low that it became unstable and removed too many of its control rods in an effort to regain some control.

At this point, the reactor’s output reached over 200 megawatts. At that fateful hour of 1:23 A.M., the engineers shut the turbine engine off completely to confirm whether or not its inertial spinning would force the reactor’s water pumps to kick in. Tragically, it did not. Without the requisite water-coolant to maintain temperatures, the reactor’s power level spiked to unmanageable levels.

The Chernobyl Disaster

In an effort to prevent the situation from rapidly getting worse, the engineers reinserted all the control rods — about 200 — taken out earlier in the hopes of recalibrating the reactor and bringing it back to reasonable levels. Unfortunately, they reinserted those rods all at once, and because the rods’ tips were made of graphite, this set off a chemical reaction which resulted in an explosion that was then ignited by steam and gas.

The explosion ripped through the 1,000-metric-ton concrete and steel lid and reportedly ruptured all 1,660 pressure tubes as well — thereby causing another explosion that ultimately exposed the reactor core to the world outside.

The resultant fire allowed more than 50 tons of radioactive material to waft into the sky where it was inevitably carried away and spread across the continent by wind currents. The graphite moderator, leaking radioactive material, burned for 10 days straight.

It didn’t take long for the Soviets to order an evacuation of Pripyat’s 30,000. Authorities scrambled to problem-solve their way out of the fiasco on their hands and began with an attempted cover-up that failed a mere day later. Sweden’s radiation monitoring stations over 800 miles northwest of Chernobyl detected radiation levels 40 percent higher than standard levels just a day after the explosion. The Soviet news agencies had no choice but to admit to the world what had happened.

The amount of radiation relinquished into the skies from the Chernobyl disaster was several times that of U.S. atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. With the help of global air currents, the nuclear disaster affected Eastern and Northern Europe and contaminated millions of acres of pristine farmland in the region.

A crumbling school building in Pripyat, 2018.

The “Suicide Squad” Makes A Sacrifice For The Greater Good

Unbelievably, the events of the Chernobyl disaster could have been even worse if not for real-life hero Alexander Akimov and his brave team.

Akimov was the first to declare an emergency in the plant as soon as the reactor was shut down, though by then the damage had already been done. He realized too late the extent of the damage; already the reactor had exploded and began to leak extremely high levels of radiation.

Rather than evacuate the plant as the explosion ensued, Akimov stayed behind. He and his crew of Valeri Bezpalov, Alexi Ananeko, and Boris Baranov entered the reactor’s chamber in waist-high radioactive waters beside the exploded reactor to release water. Bezpalov, Ananeko, and Baranov comprised a ‘Suicide Squad’ that descended into the water even deeper to turn on the emergency feedwater pumps to flood the reactor and stave off the release of more radioactive materials.

They manually pumped emergency feedwater into the reactor without any protective gear. The work of the engineers ended up costing them their lives from radiation poisoning, but they dramatically changed the impact of the disaster. Their sacrifice saved countless others from a resulting fallout that would have covered most of Europe.

The Toll Of Cleanup Operations In Pripyat

While the physical illnesses and disease were reportedly difficult to specifically tie to the disaster itself, the short- and long-term efforts to minimize any harrowing consequences were substantial.

The initial explosion resulted in the death of two workers and 28 firemen and emergency clean-up workers, including 19 others, died within three months of the explosion from Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS). Around 1,000 on-site reactor staff and emergency workers were heavily exposed to high-level radiation as well as more than 200,000 emergency and recovery operation workers.

Managing Reactor 4 proved more difficult and complex compared with the relatively basic task of moving people from one place to another. Soviet estimates have calculated that 211,000 workers took part in the cleanup activities during the first year with anywhere between 300,000 and 600,000 people participating within the first two.

Evacuations began 36 hours after the incident with Soviet authorities having successfully relocated everyone in the 30-kilometer exclusion zone within a month. About 116,000 people had to pick up their things and find new homes — or potentially die from radiation-induced illnesses.

But a 2005 United Nations Report maintains that “the largest public health problem created by the accident” was its effect on the mental health of the 600,000 people living in areas impacted by the event.

The Nuclear Energy Institute claimed Chernobyl’s failings resulted in about 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer, with some deaths occurring as late as 2004 — while the UN study argued that less than 50 deaths could be guaranteed to have resulted from the event’s radiation exposure.

‘Liquidators’ preparing for cleanup, 1986.

Children in contaminated areas were given high doses of thyroid medication in order to combat the increase in radioiodine — a contaminant isotope that had seeped into the regional milk. This isotope had a half-life of eight days. Meanwhile, the soil was found to be contained by cesium-137 — which has a half-life of 30 years.

The efforts appeared to be to little avail. Numerous studies found that the number of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age in Belarus as well as Russia and Ukraine in general, showed a steep, concerning spike. Many of these children had developed a particular form of cancer from drinking milk — as cows grazed on contaminated soil, and produced contaminated milk.

A mural in Pripyat depicting children before the meltdown, 2018.

It hadn’t yet become clear, in the frenzy of day to day cleanup operations in those first months following the Chernobyl disaster, but an entire generation of children would grow up permanently changed by the event.

The Prince and the Diggers Daughter-

By Moya Sharp 

Copied & edited by George W Rehder


A TALE OF THE GOLDFIELDS
written by JAMES GRAYSON for the “Nambucca News”

When gold is calling, however tortuous the road, civilised men all the world over (and some women, too) will overcome all apparent impossible obstacles, reaching their objective often in the last stage of endurance. How strange it is, but nevertheless true, that the richest of the Midas ‘ hoards are more often found in places of a nightmare access.
The West Australian Goldfields, for instance, with which this tale is linked, could tell many pitiful stories of suffering and death in that cruel desert land that still its secrets keeps of many who ventured but came not through. Tortured by thirst, chasing the beautiful mirage lakes so real-like. Surely it cannot possibly be that these realistic waters, vast lake areas extending away the miles, beyond, up the shadowy vales, eddying around the distant foothills, with the great fleecy clouds in a blue dome above, and with the white gum-trunks along the hillside so clearly reflected in these inviting pools, can “be but deception—death snares of the badlands. The little waves of deception even are there, rippling the surface of these lakes of grandeur ever beckoning their thirst-parched victims to a desert grave.
And so, my readers, we can easily imagine the spark of hope that flickers in the dying eyes, and the slight flutter to the heart of feeble beats that come when the stricken one first sights these lakes of doom. Many are the graves where lost ones sleep, with no rail to guard or stone to tell who rests there beneath the salt-bush in the water less region of the golden state. Things became so bad at one period in the early days of the Western gold rush, that a police camel corps, as we called them, were continuously scouring the bush, more especially out in the Siberia district. Many were the timely rescues, but often, too often, there were graves to dig.Then for a spell men were

detained in Southern Cross, which was at the time the furthest out civilisation — the jumping off place for the dash across the no-man’s-land of West Australia, 130 miles where no dingoes howled between the Cross and the “Camp of Rest” Coolgardie.

When Bailey and Ford ventured out into the unknown and discovered gold “lumps of it” on the first fringe of what subsequently was proved to be the largest and richest tract of gold-bearing country in the world, the railway line from Northam to the Cross, the out-post mining camp, was in course of completion. From there, however, to Bailey’s new strike was the desert crossing of another 130 miles of dry going. This newly discovered belt extended practically from south to north of the State. On the one square mile of Kalgoorlie, discovered by Paddy Hannan and friends, 25 miles east again from Coolgardie, 450 tons of gold has been smelted.

However, to get on with the story. West Australia was  — burning thirst, long dry stages in blistering heat, 115 in the shade at times, and the cradle home of the “bung-eye” fly. Wagon and horse teams, were the first mode of transport from the Cross, and still are used in many parts of the north-west. We had the cycle express and the donkey teams, but had it not been for the camel, things would have been much worse. It was ideal for these ancient ships of the desert, for level sandy going could always be found in a winding way.
An abundance of camel feed, quandong and mulga scrub, enabled the out-back storekeeper to keep up his stock. These beasts of burden have been known to go 9 to 10 days without a “reviver” and to carry at the same time from 4 to 6 hundredweight average to the connected “train” — nose-line to tail. To drive these thousands of camels, quite an army of Afghans were required, by which means the barrier of the desert land was overcome and the richest gold-fields that as yet man has known was thrown open to the world, and to where flocked the mighty hordes of the nations.

Most of these rich mines have petered out now — treasures torn from old mother earth’ so speedily with modern equipment, by the old mining methods the fields would have lived for another half century. At the time of which I speak the appearance of a woman ,in Coolgardie was an event of excitement and of much speculation. So when Rowles and his family one day arrived in the camp there was quite a stir, for this was the pioneer family east of the badlands. The little girl Rowles, whom I had last seen in Western Queensland, was now about 15, and with good looks, tall and well developed. The thousands of dinkum prospectors who were there, most of them having daughters of their own, mothers or sisters back east, admired this “Daughter of the Diggers,” as we named her. She was like a link with our home life. She was looked upon as only a kid by the white population.

Unfortunately, not so by the black, Prince Shah Mahomet. This meeting of the East with West was tragic, the beginning of a feud which covered 16 years of suffering and shame, taking toll of six human lives.  At the time the Rowles and family, consisted of his wife and daughter Stella, with two little brothers, Billy was about eleven while Peter was nine years old. They struck camp near where there were three large camel owners in Coolgardie, owning thousands of camels each. They controlled the whole of the goldfields transport trade, so naturally freight rates were high, which same were paid without a murmur, the storekeeper passing it on to the digger. It had to be rich, with tin-dog at 5/- per lb. tin, water 5/-per gallon. These three camel men became very wealthy. The richest of the three, however, was Tagh Mahomet, who with his brother Faiz Mahomet, owned many thousands of these beasts of burden, and in commission on every part of the field. Tagh Mahomet was a cousin of the then Amir of Afghanistan, and was really a prince in his own land, being treated as such in Coolgardie by his fellow countrymen. Thus, with royal blood and plenty of money he was easily the camel transport king of the West.


Then there was Shah Mahomet, another prince of the blood. He was Tagh Mahomet’s nephew, and looked every inch what a prince should be, tall and well proportioned, of commanding bearing, black of beard, and without doubt a splendid specimen of manhood. A man that many a girl might easily have fallen in love with. One did, but with what terrible results! When the Rowles family struck the field, Shah had just turned his 21st year. There had been a full week of feasting and merry-making in the Afghan encampment down on Fly Flat, where there was never less than 100 men under canvas at the one time. On many occasions, however, there might be anything up to 200 as it often happened, numbers of incoming camel trains arrived in Coolgardie at the same time. For the birthday party of this black prince, incoming camel drivers urged their string onwards, some doing double stages. This merry-making, like the joy time of a Ghan Christmas, was kept up night and day for one week. The whole population of the field were free, to come and go. A ton of fruit was distributed among the white crowd in the first two nights. I don’t know how much on the following nights, but there was fruit everywhere which must have cost a fortune. In Afghanistan, from time immemorial, the young women, girls, of 9 and 10 years, take to themselves the responsibility of a husband and home. Perhaps the men there become of age before the 21st milestone on the road of life. However, I know the black Prince at the time of the celebration was 21 years old. It was some three months later that Bob Rowles and family arrived on the camp. The girl was considered by the white population to be little more than a child — the Eastern race, though, look upon woman’s age from a different angle altogether.
So when the bomb burst among us that Shah Mahomet had abducted Stella Rowles, a white girl of only 15, the diggers were stirred to murdering point. How the news spread is unknown, but in less than half an hour more than 5,000 diggers, armed to the teeth, surrounded the camp of Shah Mahomet. “String him up!” was heard on every hand, Police inspector McKinna and Warden Finnerty (both have now passed through golden gates)  rushed with all available troopers to the rescue, but they had as much chance of staying the rush as they would have had of stopping a flood. The encampment consisted of many drivers canvas dwellings, with old Prince Tagh Mahomet’s residence — a rather big affair of canvas, hessian, galvanised iron, rusty kerosene tins — squatting in the centre.

The young Prince had shared the “royal palace” with the old chap of money and rank. However, “royalty” counted nothing with the sons of white fathers on this occasion, anyway. It was an ugly situation, the birth of this riot on Fly Speck Flat. Then, when big Paddy McGrath, with his mate Paddy Whelan, arrived on the scene and took charge of things with a mighty shout of “bush law,” the thousands “charged like rushing steers through the “royal” encampment, which they flattened to the ground. The ‘Ghans didn’t show any of the “white feather,” Wrestling is the noble art in Afghanistan, as the bare knuckles act as arbitrator in many British disputes among men. The black Prince was an amateur champion in his own land, and among the hundreds of camel drivers on the field there was only one better man at the game than he that one was a professional named Adgie, whom Mahomet brought specially from ‘Ghan land to wrestle any white man in West Australia.

In a very few moments the scene was as likened to an earthquake visitation. Then somehow it was learned that the young Prince, like a Lochinvar, had mounted his fastest trotting camel, and in the dusk of the evening had carried away the maiden to parts unknown. The broken-hearted Rowles now appealed to the old Prince, who was just as mad with his nephew as the father of the girl was. But what could he do that would avail? However, he put at the immediate service of Rowles and his party any reasonable number of his best riding camels, also Gould Mahomet as interpreter, who could speak half -a-dozen languages fluently. As the father (Rowles) had sworn to shoot the abductor on sight a trooper went along in the name of the law, the girl being under the age of 16. The old Prince issued a mandate to be proclaimed by Gould Mahomet to all Afghans, wherever met, that anyone found harboring Shah Mahomet, who had disgraced his nations honour and offended the Prophet, would be struck off the pay-sheet of the transport king. It was then rumored that an Afghan rider had been seen heading towards the old 90-mile road, early in the night, with what was thought to be a second Ghan riding double, no notice was taken at the time of this every-day sight, so now it was calculated that he was making for some outback Afghan encampment or a cross country dash for some mid-North West sea port, and on this slight clue the chase started without the slightest hope in the world of ever overhauling the runaways. At the time of the abduction I was away from Coolgardie on a flying trip with a mate, Jack Pickering, through the outback country of Murrin Murrin and the Hawk’s Nest 120 miles north-west.

We had said good-bye to little Stella before starting only a week previously. We were now returning, following a compass track which would take us to the little gnamma hole, known as Split Rock. Camels make no hoof-beats, and we came out through a thick patch of mulga right into a small Afghan camp at the Rock, had come right up close before we were noticed (there were no camp dogs on the fields in those days), and I could have sworn that I caught the. whisk of a female’s dress disappearing into a tent. Under similar circumstances the Ghans greet the traveler in a friendly way, but on this occasion we were at a loss to account for the coolness, the lack of welcome. I was struck with some kind of suppressed excitement among them, which they evidently had been discussing upon our arrival. They were civil enough, but seemed anxious. They had been spelling their string for a few days, they said, but were about to move on. We struck the 90-mile road shortly after this arid camped that night at the Flying Pig “specking patch.” Early next morning, when within about 25 miles of Coolgardie on the 90-mile road, we proceeded along, Jack in the lead (poor old Jack- he was a wonderful bushman, but a few years after this he was speared by the natives) suddenly called out, “What’s this coming?’ it must be the advance party of a new gold rush!” We could see a small party of camel riders about a mile distant. “We’ll wait here, Jim,” he advised. “They are coming up fast— we’re in luck, we’ll join the party!” And it was there, with anger and regret that we heard of the pitiful occurrence which sounded to me as a tale of fiction, and I thought of the little kid of the Queensland diggings who, in her trust of men, wanted to show to me where her daddy had all his worldly possessions hidden.

The Rowles party numbered half-a-dozen. Besides Rowles and the trooper, there was Smiler Hales, a writer, no doubt some of you have read his books. Then there was “Rocky Mountain” Bill, a rather, spectacular sort of cuss, a friend of Smiler’s, who claimed to have put up a miner’s timbering record of 6 miles close sets at Cripple Creek, Rocky Mountain, U.S.A. The others were McGrath and Paddy Whelan, with Gould Mahomet. After we had talked the matter over and I had explained what I thought I had seen at Split Rock, Jack Pickering decided to continue on to Coolgardie while I went back to the Rock camp with the party just to ease the father’s mind. McGrath and Whelan turned their faces to the south and accompanied Pickering home. We reached Split Rock long after nightfall, and, as I expected, the Ghans had moved on. We camped well away from where I thought I saw the whisk of a woman’s dress the day previous. As soon as light dawned next morning, while the others were making ready for an early start still onward, the trooper and myself made a thorough investigation, but no girl’s footprints could we find. The policeman was a real bushman and good tracker, and I was pretty good myself in those days. However, I had a strong sense of conviction upon me that the little lass had been there. Gone to destruction at the age of 14 years and 9 months, her father told me. Ularing mining camp lay 22 miles due north.  The Split Rock camel party had passed through late the previous day but there was no girl with them. So at last, giving up all hope of finding his daughter, the brokenhearted father agreed to return home, but kept repeating aloud, “What will her mother say to me?”

Things settled more peacefully in a few days. New gold strikes were being reported from every quarter, and old chums scattered, in many cases never to meet again. Old ‘ Uncle Tagh Mahomet confiscated all of the young Prince’s property, and issued a decree forbidding him ever to return to West Australia.
Rowles and his wife’ still stuck to the old camp in the hope that little Stella some day would return. It was not, however, until 12 months after that a letter came one day from the girl, telling that Shah Mahomet had taken her to a place in India and there had legally married her in accordance with Mohammedan custom, and with this slight comfort they had to be content.
As these camel owners were growing wealthy in West Australia and Shah dare not return, the members of his clan plotted for vengeance. Suddenly, the first blow was struck in this tragic feud, which had begun 15 months before. The old Prince, Tagh Mahomet, chief of the local Afghans, was murdered by a member of an awful Indian cult, which the British Raj had failed to stamp out, and one morning, when the whole camp were engaged in worship a strange Ghan, Goulah  Mahomet, bowed low behind the kneeling old Prince, pressed a revolver against his ribs and shot him dead. it was Friday January 10, 1896, Then he walked up to the police station and gave himself up, he had fulfilled his mission.

Stella’s family were never to see her again.

Former Aboriginal prison on Rottnest Island, the Quod, closed for tourist accommodation

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

Ezra Jacobs-Smith is the Aboriginal Heritage Officer on Rottnest Island(

A prison building on Rottnest Island where thousands of Aboriginal men and boys were incarcerated will no longer be used as holiday accommodation.

It is a move welcomed by Noongar people as a significant step towards reconciliation and healing.

The island is a popular holiday destination off Perth’s coast and famous for its pristine beaches and quokka selfie opportunities, but the failure to acknowledge its tragic history has long been a source of distress for Aboriginal people.

From Thursday, the 29-cell prison, known as the Quod, will close.

The Quod, the Rottnest prison that was built by and housed Aboriginal prisoners.(

Aboriginal men were taken from all over Western Australia and imprisoned on the island from 1838 until 1904.

Aboriginal heritage officer Ezra Jacobs-Smith told ABC Radio Perth that around 4,000 men and boys, some as young as seven and as old as 80, were incarcerated in the Quod.

They were put to work building houses, the lighthouse and roads that are still in use today.

“The people that were in charge at the time spoke about the prison on Rottnest as being a more humane option than being in prison on the mainland,” Mr Jacobs-Smith said.

“They talked about it being a place where they might be able to rehabilitate them and teach them skills like farming.

“I think the reality didn’t turn out to be that.

“I think we all agree now that it was more about control and the break-up of Aboriginal resistance to settlement across the state of Western Australia.

“A lot of the men that were taken away from country were significant male leadership in their communities.”

Aboriginal prisoners on Rottnest Island, 1889.(

Supplied: State Library of WA

Conditions under the first superintendent, Henry Vincent, were particularly cruel.

“A lot of men passed away because of the conditions they were housed in — dysentery, measles, influenza,” Mr Jacobs-Smith said.

“There were severe beatings and five recorded hangings here; gallows were set up in the Quod and other prisoners forced to watch.”

Future to be debated

Attention has now turned to what should happen to the Quod and the adjacent burial ground, which contains the remains of 370 Aboriginal people.

“I think the first step is recognising the truth of what happened here and to understand and respect this history,” Mr Jacobs-Smith said.

“You can’t imagine running a tourist business over somewhere like Auschwitz; that is the challenge that sits in front of us, the Rottnest Island Authority, the Aboriginal community and the wider community in WA who access the island quite regularly.”

The Wadjemup Aboriginal Reference Group will now begin a thorough process of consultation to determine the site’s future use.

Pamela Thorley is a member of the Wadjemup Aboriginal Reference Group(

Group member Pamela Thorley said she was happy to see the Quod close.

“We have to consult widely across Western Australia and ensure that Aboriginal people who want to have a say on what happens here have that opportunity,” she said.

“Ideas range from people who say ‘burn it down’, to people who say ‘let’s recognise it appropriately and have an interpretive centre’.

“Until we do the consultation and we do it properly, the answers are unknown.”

The Rottnest Island burial site is believed to contain the remains of 370 Aboriginal men.(

Some Aboriginal people have suggested the entire island, which Noongar people call Wadjemup, be handed back to the Wadjuk Noongar community, but Ms Thornley said that was not going happen.

Rather, she said she wanted to see Aboriginal people benefit from the State Government’s plans to expand tourism and accommodation.

“I think there are lots employment training opportunities here for Aboriginal people,” she said.

“I think there could be Aboriginal-owned businesses on the island, a ranger program, opportunities in hospitality, cultural enterprise.

“And we need to ensure that we have some type of memorial here telling the true history of the island.”

Rottnest Island, which Noongar people call Wadjemup, will remain a holiday destination.(

Ms Thorley expects it to be a long process but, if done well, could be an exemplary reconciliation project.

“This could be an international best-practice project.

“There’s a lot of burden on us, the reference group, to ensure that it happens.”

Until it does, visitors are encouraged to undertake a brief ceremony when they arrive to show their respect.

“Take a handful of sand and go down to the water and speak to the spirits,” Mr Jacobs-Smith explained.

“We introduce ourselves and tell them who we are and why we are here.

“It’s just a way of showing that respect and acknowledging what has happened in the past, and non-Aboriginal people are welcome to partake in that ceremony.”

List of people legally executed in Western Australia

Long Island, Houtman Abrolhos

  • Jeronimus Corneliszoon[GR1]  – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Lenert Michielsz – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Mattys Beijr – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Jan Hendricx – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children

  • Allert Janssen – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Rutger Fredericxsz – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Andries Jonas – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children

York

York
  • Doodjeep – 7 July 1840 – Hanged in chains at the site of the crime, for the murders of Sarah Cook and her 8-month-old child on 18 May 1839 at Norrilong, York
  • Barrabong – 7 July 1840 – Hanged in chains at the site of the crime for the murders of Sarah Cook and her 8-month-old child on 18 May 1839 at Norrilong, York

Mullewa

Mullewa
  • Wangayackoo – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Yermakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Garolee – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Charlakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Williakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott

Kellerberrin

Kellerberrin
  • Ngowee – 19 January 1866 – For the murder of Edward Clarkson on 21 August 1865, hanged at the site of the crime, at Dalbercuttin, near Kellerberrin
  • Egup (Condor) – 21 April 1866 – For the murder of Edward Clarkson on 21 August 1865, hanged at the site of the crime, at Dalbercuttin, near Kellerberrin

Roebourne

Roebourne
  • Cooperabiddy – 20 March 1893 – Hanged for murder of James Coppin, described as a ‘half-caste’, at the Hamersley Ranges
  • Doulga – 28 December 1896 – Hanged for the murder of John Horrigan at Lagrange Bay on 28 March 1896
  • Caroling – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station
  • Poeling – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station
  • Weedabong – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station

Derby

Derby
  • Lillimara – 21 October 1899 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of Thomas Jasper on 17 March 1897 on Oscar Range Station, Fitzroy Crossing
  • Mullabudden – 12 May 1900 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of John Dobbie on 12 March 1899 at Mount Broome
  • Woolmillamah – 12 May 1900 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of John Dobbie on 12 March 1899 at Mount Broome

Halls Creek

Halls Creek
  • Tomahawk – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891
  • Dicky – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891
  • Chinaman (Jerringo) – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891

Geraldton

Geraldton
  • Sing Ong – 29 October 1884 – Hanged for the murder of Chung Ah Foo on 11 May 1884 at Shark Bay

Albany

Albany
  • Peter McKean (alias William McDonald) – 12 October 1872 – Hanged for the murder of William “Yorkie” Marriott on 30 June 1872 at Slab Hut Gully (Tunney), between Kojonup and Cranbrook

Perth

Perth
  • Midgegooroo[GR2]  – 22 May 1833 – Executed at the Perth Gaol by firing squad on a death warrant issued summarily by Lieutenant Governor Frederick Irwin, for the murders of Thomas and John Velvick at Bull’s Creek on 31 March 1833
  • Mendik – 14 October 1841 – Hanged at the site of the crime for the murder of twelve-year-old John Burtenshaw on the Canning River at Maddington on 16 July 1839
  • Buckas (lascar[GR3] 

A group of people

Description automatically generated with low confidence

  • ) – January 1845 – Hanged at Perth for rape on a child under ten years of age
  • James Malcolm – 14 April 1847 – Hanged at the site of the crime, the Burswood Estate (Victoria Park), for highway robbery and murder of Clark Gordon on 6 January 1847
  • Kanyin – 12 April 1850 – Hanged at Redcliffe for the murder of Yadupwert at York. This was the first public execution in Western Australia for inter se
  •  murder
  • Edward Bishop – 12 October 1854 – Hanged at South Perth for the murder of Ah Chong, a chinaman, at York. Protested his innocence to the end. Three years later William Voss confessed to the crime. Voss was hanged in 1862 at Perth Gaol for the murder of his wife
  • Samuel Stanley – 18 April 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Catherine Dayly on the York Road
  • Jacob – 18 April 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Bijare at Gingin on 25 September 1854
  • Yoongal – 14 July 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Kanip at the Hotham River
  • Yandan – 14 July 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder by spearing of a ten-year-old girl named Yangerdan near York

Hanged at the Perth Gaol:

  • Bridget Hurford – 15 October 1855 – for the murder of her husband John Hurford at Vasse
  • William Dodd – 15 October 1855 – for the murder of John Hurford at Vasse
  • George Williams – 15 October 1855 – for wounding Warder James McEvoy with a shovel at the Convict Establishment
  •  on 26 September 1855
  • John Scott – 14 January 1856 – for the murder of William Longmate at Vasse
  • Daniel Lewis (Convict # 2972)- January 1857 – for the rape of Ellen Horton at Woorooloo
  • John Lloyd – 29 October 1857 – for wounding with intent to kill John Brown at Port Gregory in June 1857
  • Richard Bibbey – 17 October 1859 – for the murder of Billamarra at Upper Irwin in March 1859. First European executed for murder of an aboriginal in Western Australia
  • Thomas Airey – 13 October 1860 – for the rape of five-year-old Lydia Farmer at Perth in July. Had been granted ticket-of-leave 4 June 1860.
  • John Caldwell – 13 October 1860 – for rape and murder of an aboriginal girl at Champion Bay. A ticket-of-leave man.
  • Thomas Clancy – 10 January 1861 – for the rape of seven-year-old Ellen Jane White at Bunbury
  • Joseph McDonald – 10 January 1861 – for rape at Toodyay
  • Robert Thomas Palin[GR4]  – 6 July 1861 – for robbery with violence of Susan Harding at Fremantle
  • William Voss – 9 January 1862 – for the murder of his wife Mary Moir at York on 11 November 1861
  • Kewacan (Larry) – 24 January 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Long Jimmy – 24 January 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Narreen – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of an Indigenous girl called Nelly at Victoria Plains
  • Eenue – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of an Indigenous girl called Nelly at Victoria Plains
  • Finger – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Thomas Pedder – 21 March 1863 – for the murder of Thomas Sweeny, a shepherd, at Irwin River on 1 December 1862
  • John Thomas – 8 September 1863 – for the murder of Duncan Urquhart at Peninsula Farm on 6 June 1863
  • Joseph White – 21 October 1863 – for rape of 13 yo Jane Rhodes, at Greenough on 18 August 1863
  • Teelup – 21 October 1863 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Narrigalt – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Martha Farling, a 31/2 year-old ‘half-caste’ girl, near York on 26 May 1865
  • Youndalt – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Martha Farling, a 31/2 yo ‘half-caste’ girl, near York on 26 May 1865
  • Nandingbert – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Quatcull near Albany on 14 May 1865
  • Yardalgene (also called Jackey Howson) – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Quatcull near Albany on 14 May 1865
  • Daniel Duffy – 11 January 1866 – an escaped convict, hanged for the murder of Edward Johnson on 5 November 1865 at Northam
  • Matthew Brooks – 11 January 1866 – an escaped convict, hanged for the murder of Edward Johnson on 5 November 1865 at Northam
  • Bernard Wootton (also called MacNulty) – 8 October 1867 – an escaped convict, hanged for the attempted murder of Police Sgt. John Moye after his recapture at Murramine, near Beverley. Hanged at Perth Gaol.
  • James Fanning – 14 April 1871 – for the rape of thirteen-year-old Mary Dawes on the Albany Road on 24 November 1870. The first private execution and the last execution for rape in the colony
  • Margaret Cody – 15 July 1871 – for the murder of James Holditch, at North Fremantle on 4 March 1871
  • William Davis – 15 July 1871 – for the murder of James Holditch, at North Fremantle on 4 March 1871
  • Briley (Briarly) – 13 October 1871 – for the murder of Charley (Wickin) at Albany
  • Noorbung – 13 October 1871 – for the murder of Margaret Mary McGowan at Boyanup on 30 June 1871
  • Charcoal (Mullandaridgee) – 15 February 1872 – for the murder of Samuel Wells Lazenby at Port Walcott on 7 August 1871
  • Tommy (Mullandee) – 15 February 1872 – for the murder of Samuel Wells Lazenby at Port Walcott
  •  on 7 August 1871
  • Yarradeee – 16 October 1873 – for the murder and cannibalism of three-year-old Edward William Dunn at Yanganooka, Port Gregory on 5 October 1865
  • Muregelly – 16 October 1873 – for the murder and cannibalism of three-year-old Edward William Dunn at Yanganooka, Port Gregory on 5 October 1865
  • Robert Goswell – 13 January 1874 – for murder of Mary Anne Lloyd at Stapelford, Beverley on 1 December 1873
  • John Gill – 4 April 1874 – hanged for the murder of William Foster at Narrogin on 13 February 1874
  • Bobbinett – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Police Lance-Corporal William Archibald Armstrong near Kojonup on 14 January 1875
  • Wanaba (or Wallaby) – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Tommy Howell (or Moul), a police native assistant, near Yalgoo on 10 July 1874
  • Wandagary – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Tommy Howell (or Moul), a police native assistant, near Yalgoo on 10 July 1874
  • Kenneth Brown[GR5]  – 10 June 1876 – for the murder of his wife Mary Ann on 3 January 1876 at Geraldton
  • Yarndu – 16 October 1876
  • Chilagorah – 29 April 1879 – for the murder of Pintagorah at Cossack on 31 January 1879
  • Ah Kett – 27 January 1883 – for the murder of Foo Ah Moy, at Cheritah Station, Roebourne on 2 July 1883
  • John Collins – 27 January 1883 – for the murder of John King at the Kalgan River near Albany on 2 October 1882
  • John Maroney – 25 October 1883 – for the murder of James Watson at Yellenup, Kojonup on 1 May 1883
  • William Watkins – 25 October 1883 – for the murder of James Watson at Yellenup, Kojonup on 1 May 1883
  • Henry Benjamin Haynes – 23 January 1884 – for the murder of his wife Mary Ann Haynes at Perth on 12 October 1883
  • Thomas Henry Carbury – 23 October 1884 – for the murder of Constable Hackett at Beverley
  • Beverley
    • on 12 September 1884
    • John Duffy – 28 January 1885 – for the murder of his wife Mary Sultana McGann at Fremantle on 21 November 1884
    • Henry Sherry – 27 October 1885 – for the murder of Catherine Waldock at Quinderring, Williams on 16 September 1885
    • Franz Erdmann – 4 April 1887 – for the murder of Anthony Johnson at McPhee’s Creek, Kimberley on 27 October 1886
    • William Conroy [GR6] – 18 November 1887 – for the murder of John Snook at Fremantle Town Hall on 23 June 1887

    Rottnest

    Rottnest
    • Tampin – 16 July 1879 – Hanged for the murder of John Moir at Stokes Inlet on 29 March 1877
    • Wangabiddi – 18 Jun 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Charles Redfern at Minni-Minni on the Gascoyne River in May 1882 
    • Guerilla – 18 June 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Anthony Cornish at Fitzroy River on 12 December 1882
    • Naracorie – 3 August 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Charles Brackell at Wandagee on the Minilya River on 31 July 1882 
    • Calabungamarra – 13 June 1888 – Hanged for the murder of a Chinese man, Indyco, at Hamersley Range

    Fremantle

    List of executions at Fremantle Prison

    Hanged at the Round House:

    • John Gaven[GR7]  – 6 April 1844 – Hanged for the murder of George Pollard at South Dandalup

    Hanged at Fremantle Prison:

    • Long Jimmy (alias Jimmy Long) – 2 March 1889 – A Malay, hanged for the murder of Claude Kerr on board the pearling lugger ‘Dawn’ at Cossack on 7 September 1888
    • Ahle Pres (alias Harry Pres) – 8 November 1889 – A Singapore Malay, hanged for the murder of Louis, a Filipino, near Halls Creek, on 9 June 1889
    • Ah Chi (alias Li Ki Hong) – 16 April 1891 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Gin at Daliak, York on 3 March 1891
    • Chew Fong – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Lyee Nyee – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Yung Quonk (Young Quong) – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Sin Cho Chi – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of George E.B Fairhead, at a Mill Stream out-station, near Roebourne
    • [GR8] – 2 May 1896 – Hanged for the murder of Tagh Mahomet in the mosque at Coolgardie on 10 January 1896
    • Jumna Khan – 31 March 1897 – Hanged for the murder of William Griffiths in High Street, Fremantle on 3 December 1896
    • Pedro De La Cruz – 19 July 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Captain John Arthur Reddell of the brigantine Ethel, his 19-year-old son Leslie, the mate James Taylor, and two crew-members (Ando, who was Japanese, and Jimmy, who was Indigenous), at the La Grange Bay pearling grounds, near Broome, on 19 October 1899
    • Peter Perez – 19 July 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Captain John Arthur Reddell of the brigantine Ethel, his 19-year-old son Leslie, the mate James Taylor, and two crew-members (Ando, who was Japanese, and Jimmy, who was Indigenous), at the La Grange Bay pearling grounds, near Broome, on 19 October 1899
    • Samuel Peters – 9 September 1902 – Hanged for the murder of his wife Trevenna Peters at Leederville on 3 July 1903
    • Stelios Psichitas – 15 April 1903 – Greek national, hanged for the rape and murder of his sister-in-law Sophia Psichitas (nee Leadakis) and murder of his 4-month-old nephew Emanuel at Lawlers on 20 December 1902
    • Fredric Maillat – 21 April 1903 – French national, hanged for the murder of Charles Lauffer, at Smith’s Mill, Glen Forest, on 4 February 1903
    • Sebaro Rokka – 7 July 1903 – Hanged for the murder of Dollah and another Malay at Point Cunningham, near Derby on 20 February 1903
    • Ah Hook – 11 January 1904 – Hanged for the murder of Yanoo, a Japanese laundryman, at Carnarvon on 26 August 1903
    • Manoor Mohomet – 4 May 1904 – Hanged for the murder of Meer, an Afghan, at Kensington, near Menzies on 16 November 1903
    • Simeon Espada – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome on 30 August 1905
    • Charles Hagen – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome on 30 August 1905
    • Pablo Marquez – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome
    Broome
    • on 30 August 1905
    • Antonio Sala – 19 November 1906 – Hanged for the murder of Battista Gregorini at Mt Jackson on 13 September 1906
    • Augustin De Kitchilan – 23 October 1907 – Hanged for the murder of Leah Fouracre at Peppermint Grove Farm, Waroona on 15 or 16 August 1907
    • Harry G. Smith – 23 March 1908 – Hanged for the murder of William John Clinton at Day Dawn on 5 January 1908
    • Iwakichi Oki – 22 October 1908 – Hanged for the murder of James Henry Shaw at West Murray, Pinjarra on 23 August 1908
    • Martha Rendell
    •  – 6 October 1909 – Hanged for the murder of her 14-year-old stepson Arthur Morris by poisoning on 8 October 1908, suspected of killing two younger stepchildren
    • Peter Robustelli – 9 February 1910 – Hanged for the murder of Giovanni Forsatti in a lane between Bayley and Woodward streets, Coolgardie
    Coolgardie
    • on 19 October 1909
    • Alexander Smart – 7 March 1911 – Hanged for the murder of Ethel May Harris at 5 Cowle Street, West Perth on 10 March 1910
    • David H Smithson – 25 July 1911 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 18-year-old Elizabeth Frances Compton at Woodlupine on 13 May 1911
    • Charles Spargo – 1 July 1913 – Hanged for the murder of Gilbert Pickering Jones at Broome on 23 January 1913
    • Charles H. Odgers – 14 January 1914 – Hanged for the murder of Edith Molyneaux at Balgobin, Dandalup on 3 October 1913; also charged with murder of Richard Thomas Williams at Waroona on 14 September 1913
    • Andrea Sacheri (alias Joseph Cutay) – 12 April 1915 – Hanged for the murder of 11-year-old Jean Bell at Marrinup, near Dwellingup, on 12 January 1915
    • Frank Matamin (alias Rosland) – 12 March 1923 – Hanged for the murder of Zareen at Nullagine on 27 August 1922
    • Royston Rennie – 2 August 1926 – Hanged for the murder of John Roger Greville on the train between East Perth and Perth stations on 3 June 1926
    • William Coulter – 25 October 1926 – Hanged for the murders of Inspector John Walsh and Sergeant Alexander Pitman
    •  near Boulder on 28 April 1926
    • John Sumpter Milner – 21 May 1928 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Ivy Lewis at Darkan on 28 February 1928
    • Clifford Hulme – 3 September 1928 – Hanged for the murder of Harold Eaton Smith at Wubin on 22 June 1928
    • Antonio Fanto – 18 May 1931 – Hanged for the murder of Cosimo Nesci (sometimes Nexi, Xesci) at Latham on 20 March 1931
    • John Thomas Smith (Snowy Rowles[GR9] 
    Extract from The Mirror on the story of Snowy Rowles and the Murchison Murder. Page 6 19 March, 1932.
    • ) – 13 June 1932 – Hanged for the murder of Louis George Carron near the 183 mile gate on the No. 1 Rabbit-proof fence
    • , near Youanmi, on or about 20 May 1930
    • Karol Tapci – 23 June 1952 – Hanged for the murder of Norman Alfred Perfect at Wubin on 17 March
    • Robert Jeremiah Thomas – 18 July 1960 – Hanged for the murder of taxi-driver Keith Mervyn Campbell Wedd at Claremont on 22 June 1959. Also charged with the murder of John and Kaye O’Hara in Jimbell St, Mosman Park.
    • Mervyn Fallows – 6 June 1961 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Sandra Dorothea Smith at North Beach on or before 29 December 1960
    • Brian William Robinson – 20 January 1964 – Hanged for the murder of Constable Noel Ileson at Belmont on 9 February 1963
    • Eric Edgar Cooke[GR10]  
    • – 26 October 1964 – Hanged for murder of John Lindsay Sturkey at Nedlands on 27 January 1963

     [GR1]Jeronimus Cornelisz (c. 1598 – 2 October 1629) was a Dutch apothecary and Dutch East India Company merchant who sailed aboard the merchant ship Batavia which foundered near Australia. Cornelisz then led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history.

    After the ship was wrecked on 4 June 1629, in the Houtman Abrolhos, a chain of coral islands off the west coast of Australia, Francisco Pelsaert, the expedition’s commander, went to get help from the Dutch settlements in Indonesia, returning several months later.

    While Pelsaert was away, Cornelisz led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history, for which he was eventually tried, convicted and hanged.

     [GR2]Midgegooroo (died 22 May 1833) was an Aboriginal Australian elder of the Nyungar nation, who played a key role in Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in the area of Perth, Western Australia. Everything documented about Midgegooroo (variously spelled in the record as “Midgeegaroo”, “Midgegarew”, “Midgegoorong”, Midgegoroo”, Midjegoorong”, “Midjigoroo”, “Midgigeroo”, Midjigeroo”, “Migegaroo”, “Migegaroom”, “Migegooroo”, “Midgecarro”, “Widgegooroo”) is mediated through the eyes of the colonisers, some of whom, notably G.F. Moore, Robert Menli Lyon and Francis Armstrong, derived their information from discussions with contemporary Noongar people, in particular the son of Midgegooroo, Yagan. Largely due to his exploits in opposing colonisation and his relationship with Lyon and Moore, Yagan has a much sharper historical profile than his father. Midgegooroo was executed by firing squad and without trial under the authority of Lieutenant Governor Frederick Irwin in 1833.

     [GR3]lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian SubcontinentSoutheast Asia, the Arab worldBritish Somaliland, or other land east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 20th century.

    The word lascar derives ultimately from lashkar, the Persian word for “army.” In Mughal and Urdu culture the word is used to describe a “swarm like formation in any army” (lashkar); however this word originates via Portuguese language. The Portuguese adapted this term to “lascarim“, meaning Asian militiamen or seamen, specifically from any area east of the Cape of Good Hope. This means that IndianMalayChinese and Japanese crewmen were covered by the Portuguese definition. The British of the East India Company initially described Indian lascars as ‘Topazes‘, but later adopted the Portuguese name, calling them ‘lascar’. Lascars served on British ships under “lascar agreements”. These agreements allowed shipowners more control than was the case in ordinary articles of agreement. The sailors could be transferred from one ship to another and retained in service for up to three years at one time. The name lascar was also used to refer to Indian servants, typically engaged by British military officers

     [GR4]Robert Thomas Palin (c.1835 – 6 July 1861) was a convict transported to Western Australia. His execution in 1861 was the only time in the convict era of Western Australia that Ordinance 17 Victoria Number 7 was used to secure the capital punishment of a convict for a crime not normally punishable by death.

    Born around 1835, nothing is known of Robert Palin’s early life except his criminal record. In 1851, he was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment for housebreaking; in 1853, he was tried but acquitted of murder; and in March 1856, he was convicted of “burglary from the person” and sentenced to penal servitude for life. At the time of his sentencing, he was described as a shoemaker by trade.

    Palin was transported to Western Australia on the Nile, arriving in January 1860. His behaviour was good both during and after the voyage. In April 1860, he was appointed a probationary constable and received his ticket of leave in January 1861. At that time he had a house in Fremantle from which he worked as a shoemaker and took in lodgers.

    On 29 May 1861, Palin was charged with having broken into the home of Samuel and Susan Harding. Susan Harding gave evidence that her husband had been away and that she had woken during the night to find a man standing at the side of her bed. The man seized her by the arm and demanded money. When she said she had none, “he pulled the bedclothes down and felt about the bed… I thought he was going to commit some assault.” Harding then gave the man a number of valuables and he left. The following morning, the police followed a set of footprints to Palin’s house, where they found some wet boots whose tread matched the prints. They also recovered a number of the valuables that had been stolen.

    Palin claimed to have been set up by William Cockrane, another ticket-of-leave man whom Palin said had a grudge against him. However, he was not believed and the jury found him guilty of robbery with violence, the violence being the “battery on the person of Mrs. Harding by seizing her by the arm while she was in bed.” Chief Justice Archibald Burt passed a sentence of death and Palin was hanged three days later on 6 July 1861.

     [GR5]While in Melbourne, Brown married Mary Ann Tindall (born 1849). They re-located to New Zealand and for some time operated the Courthouse Hotel in Thames (outside of Auckland). In the years 1874 and 1875, they produced two children, Rose and Amy. In Thames, Brown showed a range of anti-social behavior that included two court appearances for assault on a local shop keeper and threatening to kill his wife. The family returned to Western Australia in September 1875, by which time the marriage was in trouble, and there are a range of further references to them constantly and openly quarrelling. On their return journey from Melbourne to Fremantle, the couple had a physical altercation that was witnessed by John Forrest. The couple and their children arrived in Champion Bay in October 1875. During this time, Brown continued to show a range of anti-social behaviours, and, on Monday 3 January 1876, during the process of packing up their house to move to other accommodation, he shot his wife dead.

    At trial, he elected not to provide any explanation or excuse for his actions and his legal team mounted a defence based on diminished responsibility. The prosecution succeeded in proving the charge at the third trial (the first two trials resulting in hung juries). Brown was found guilty of wilful murder and sentenced to death by the Chief Justice Archibald Burt and hanged on 10 June 1876 at Perth Gaol. The record of inquest proclaimed by Police Magistrate E Landor states that Brown died by hanging.

    Many years later, Rose Burges, the eldest daughter of Brown’s second marriage, claimed that while travelling in America she had met her father in a hotel. Because of this, a story persists that Brown’s older brother had arranged Brown’s escape to the United States. This is considered as improbable, and there is a newspaper report describing how Maitland Brown stood next to Brown on the dock when the bolt was drawn and that Brown’s body had to be cut free from the rope and was later buried by relatives, possibly at Guildford (where his mother resided at the time).

    Brown’s second child by his first marriage was Edith Cowan (nee Brown). Edith’s grandson was Peter Cowan, a celebrated Western Australian author who wrote detailed biographies on Maitland Brown and Edith Cowan. Julie Lewis has suggested that Brown’s life and death:

     [GR6]William Conroy (1857 – 18 November 1887) was the last person executed at the Perth Gaol. Conroy was convicted of murdering Fremantle Town Councillor John Snook.

    Conroy had immigrated from Ireland about ten years earlier, and before going to Fremantle was the licensee of the Victoria Hotel, located at the corner of James Street and Melbourne Road in Perth. On 6 September 1886 Conroy became the first publican of the new National Hotel on High Street in Fremantle.

    On 23 June 1887 Conroy went to the Fremantle Town Hall where there was a children’s ball in progress. He demanded entrance, as he was a licensee of the National Hotel, but was told by Snook that only ladies and children were to be admitted. He persisted in his demands and finally the door was slammed on him. Conroy later gained admittance to the Town Hall. When Snook left the supper room, Conroy followed him, drew a revolver from his pocket, shot Snook and put the gun back in his pocket. Conroy was arrested immediately. Snook died three months later. The trial took place at Perth and he was sentenced to death on 7 October 1887. After he was sentenced a petition was raised and signed by approximately 1500 people, including all members of the jury who had at the time of passing the verdict asked the judge to be lenient. This was then given to Governor Broome. A further call to the governor for clemency occurred during a public meeting attend by 1000 people at the Perth Town Hall. Governor Broome then reviewed the case with two judges and medical people who had previously been part of Conroy’s trial, but the governor decided to let the law take it course. Conroy was hanged at Perth Gaol at 8 am on 18 November 1887. The execution however was not swift as when Conroy was hanged the initial fall failed to break his neck and it took approximately 15 minutes for him to die of strangulation. Conroy was buried at Fremantle Cemetery

     [GR7]Born in 1829, John Gavin was convicted of an offence while still a juvenile, and was transported to Western Australia as a Parkhurst apprentice, arriving on board the Shepherd in October 1843.

    On 3 April 1844, he was tried for the murder of his employer’s son, 18-year-old George Pollard. He confessed to killing the sleeping victim with an adze, but he seemed unaware of a rational motive. Three days later he was publicly hanged outside the Round House in Fremantle. After a death mask had been taken and his brain studied for “scientific purposes” he was buried in the sand hills to the south without a ceremony.

     [GR8]In the Fremantle Gaol on Saturday morning Goulam Mahomet, the murderer of Tagh. Mahomet at Coolgardie on January 10 was hanged, at the age of 27 years. Death was almost instantaneous and certainly was inflicted without pain. Just over three weeks ago Goulam Mahomet was sentenced by Mr. Justice Stone to undergo capital punishment for the murder of a fellow Afghan, Tagh Mahomet, a member of the wealthy trading and camel owning firm of Faiz and Tagh Mahomet, of Coolgardie. It seems peculiar that, of all places, the deed was perpetrated inside the Mahommedan mosque, and at a time when, to a Muslim, the victim was engaged in the solemn act of prayer.

     [GR9]The Murchison Murders were a series of three murders, committed by an itinerant stockman known as “Snowy” Rowles (born John Thomas Smith), near the rabbit-proof fence in Western Australia during the early 1930s. Rowles used the murder method that had been suggested by author Arthur Upfield in his then unpublished book The Sands of Windee, in which he described a foolproof way to dispose of a body and thus commit the perfect murder.

     [GR10]Eric Edgar Cooke (25 February 1931 – 26 October 1964), nicknamed The Night Caller and later The Nedlands Monster, was an Australian serial killer. From September 1958 to August 1963, he terrorised the city of Perth, Western Australia, by committing at least twenty-two violent crimes, eight of which resulted in deaths.[

    List of people legally executed in Victoria

    • Tunnerminnerwait – Hanged at Melbourne on 20 January 1842 for the murder of two whalers at Cape Paterson
    • Maulboyheenner – Hanged at Melbourne on 20 January 1842 for the murder of two whalers at Cape Paterson
    • Charles Ellis – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 28 June 1842 for “shooting with intent to maim or disable” (“The Plenty Trio”)
    • Martin Fogarty – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 28 June 1842 for “shooting with intent to maim or disable” (“The Plenty Trio”)
    • Daniel (“Yankee Jack”) Jepps – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 28 June 1842 for “shooting with intent to maim or disable” (“The Plenty Trio”)
    • Alkepurata (“Roger”) – 5 September 1842 – From Port Fairy. Hanged at Melbourne for murder of Patrick Codd at Mount Rouse, Hamilton
    • Jeremiah Connell – 27 January 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    •  for the murder of Edward Martin at Buninyong
    • Bobby – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the killing by spear of Andrew Beveridge at Piangil
    • Ptolemy – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the killing by spear of Andrew Beveridge at Piangil
    • John (“Pretty Boy”) Healey – 29 November 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Jemmy Ritchie at Tarraville, Gippsland
    • Augustus Dancey 19 – 1 August 1848 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Matthew Luck at Stony Creek (Spotswood)
    • Patrick Kennedy – 1 October 1851 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary at Penshurst
    • James Barlow – 22 May 1852 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder by stabbing William Jones at a boarding house in Flinders Street, Melbourne
    • John Riches (Richie) – 3 November 1852 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Harry Webb in the Black Forest, near Macedon
    • George Pinkerton – 4 April 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Bridget Smith, 8 months pregnant, and her one-year-old son Charles at Brighton
    • Aaron Durant – 11 July 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for robbery with violence and sexual assault of Mr & Mrs John Wright at Bendigo
    • John Smith – 23 August 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Fryer’s Creek
    • Henry Turner – 23 August 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Fryer’s Creek
    • William Atkins (or Atkyns) – 3 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the robbery of the Private Escort, near Kalkallo
    • George (“Frenchy”) Melville – 3 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for the robbery of the Private Escort
    • George Wilson – 3 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the robbery of an Escort
    • Patrick O’Connor (or Connor) – 24 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the attempted murder of Edward Thompson near Kilmore
    • Henry Bradley – 24 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the attempted murder of Edward Thompson near Kilmore
    • Michael Fennessy – 25 October 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of his wife Eliza Fennessy off Little Bourke Street
    • Alexander Ram – 25 October 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Kitty Finessy at Prahran
    • John Smith – 25 November 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for being accessory to rape of Mary-Ann Brown on the Goulburn River Diggings
    • Joseph West – 27 December 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for rape of eight-year-old Elizabeth Fraser near Chewton
    • James Button – 28 March 1854 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Shooting With Intent on the Goulburn River Diggings
    • David Magee – 25 April 1854 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of a man named McCarthy on the Avoca River
    • William Thoroughgood – 23 May 1854 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of seven-year-old Sarah Bishop
    • John Hughes – 25 September 1854 – Hanged At Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Abraham Marcus at Yackandandah
    • John Gunn – 9 November 1854 – Hanged at Geelong Gaol 
    • for the murder of Samuel Harris at Warrnambool
    • George (John) Roberts – 9 November 1854 – Hanged at Geelong for attempting to poison George Kelly at Native Creek, near Inverleigh
    • Luke Lucas – 24 November 1854 – Hanged for murder of his wife Mary off Little Bourke Street
    • James McAlister – 25 July 1855 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Jane Jones at the Exchange Hotel, Swanston Street, Melbourne
    • James Condon (alias Arthur Somerville) – 24 November 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence near Bacchus Marsh
    • John Dixon – 24 November 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence near Bacchus Marsh
    • Alfred Henry Jackson – 24 November 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence near Bacchus Marsh
    • James Ross (alias Griffiths) – 22 April 1856 – Hanged at Geelong Gaol for the murder of his son and Eliza Sayer near Horsham
    • William Twigham (or Twiggem, alias Lexton)33 – 11 March 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Sergeant John McNally at the Cathcart Diggings, near Ararat
    • Chu-Ah-Luk 30 – 2 March 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Ah Pat at Campbell’s Creek
    • James Cornick – 16 March 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Agnes McCallum (Horne) at Eaglehawk
    • Frederick Turner 22 – 27 April 1857 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery Under Arms on the Flemington Road
    • Thomas Williams – 28 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • Henry Smith (alias Brennan) – 28 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price[GR1] 
    • Thomas Moloney – 28 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • Francis Brannigan – 29 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • William Brown – 29 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • Richard Bryant – 29 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • John Chisley – 30 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • James Woodlock – 1 June 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Charles Vick in Castlemaine
    • Chong Sigh – 3 September 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Sophia “The Chinawoman” Lewis in a brothel in Stephen Street (Exhibition Street) Melbourne
    • Hing Tran – 3 September 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Sophia Lewis in a brothel in Stephen Street (Exhibition Street) Melbourne
    • John Mason – 6 November 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of “Big George” Beynor at Ballan
    • Edward Brown – 1 March 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Ararat Racecourse
    • William Jones – 1 March 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Ararat Racecourse
    • George Robinson – 16 March 1858 – Hanged for the murder of Margaret Brown at Maryborough
    • Edward Cardana (alias John Nelson alias Michael Ferrara) – 19 March 1858 – Hanged at Bendigo for the murder of John Armstrong at Long Gully
    • Owen McQueeny – 20 October 1858 – Hanged at Geelong for the murder of Elizabeth Lowe near Meredith (“The Green Tent Murder”)
    • Samuel Gibbs – 12 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for the murder of his wife Anne at Ararat. This execution was botched; the rope snapped tumbling Gibbs to the floor. He had to be carried back up the scaffold and hanged again with a fresh rope.
    • George Thompson – 12 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Hugh Anderson at Ballarat
    • Edward Hitchcock – 29 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Ann at Strathloddon, near Campbell’s Creek. This execution was also botched; Hitchcock failed to die and remained struggling on the rope. The executioner had to grab Hitchcock by the knees and use his weight to ensure death.
    • Christian Von Sie (or Von See) – 29 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Martin Loemann near Mitiamo
    • Thomas Ryan – 11 April 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Joe Hartwig in the Indigo Valley
    • William (“Plaguey Billy”) Armstrong – 12 July 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for shooting with intent, Omeo
    • George (“The Butcher”) Chamberlain 24 – 12 July 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for shooting with intent, Omeo
    • Richard Rowley – 26 July 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for violent assault with intent to murder his overseers at the Pentridge Stockade
    • William Siddons – 7 November 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of eight-year-old Mary-Anne Smith at Doctor’s Creek, near Lexton
    • Henry Brown – 21 November 1859 – Hanged for murder of George James Tickner at Mount Korong, near Wedderburn
    • George Waines -16 July 1860 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Mary Hunt at Casterton
    • Edward Fenlow (alias Reynolds) – 20 August 1860 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of George Plummer (alias Gardiner) at Inglewood
    • John McDonald – 30 September 1860 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for murder of his wife Sarah at Ironbark Gully, Bendigo
    • William Smith – 22 April 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Ellen near Wangaratta
    • Henry Cooley – 11 July 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of his wife Harriet at Heathcote
    • Nathaniel Horatio Ruby – 5 August 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Joe Watson at the Great Western Reef, Tarnagulla
    • Martin Rice – 30 September 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Anthony Green off Bourke Street, Melbourne
    • Thomas Sanders – 31 October 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of Mary Egan at Keilor
    • Samuel Pollett – 29 December 1862 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of his ten-year-old daughter Sarah at Prahran
    • Thomas McGee – 19 February 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Alexander Brown at Maiden Gully
    • James Murphy – 6 November 1863 – Hanged at Geelong for the murder of Senior Constable Daniel O’Boyle at Warrnambool
    • Julian Cross – 11 November 1863 – From Macao. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Robert Scott in the Wappan district (near Mansfield)
    • David Gedge – 11 November 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Robert Scott in the Wappan district (near Mansfield)
    • Elizabeth Scott – 11 November 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of her husband in the Wappan district (near Mansfield)
    • James Barrett (also called Birmingham) – 1 December 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Beckinsale at Woodstock
    • Alexander Davis – 29 February 1864 – Hanged at Ballarat Gaol for the murder of George Sims at Smythesdale
    • William Carver (also called Thornby, Foster) – 3 August 1864 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for an attempted bank robbery at Fitzroy
    • Samuel Woods (also called Abraham Salmonie) – 3 August 1864 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for Shooting With Intent in an attempted bank robbery at Fitzroy
    • Christopher Harrison – 3 August 1864 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of James Marsh in William St.
    • John Stacey (real name Casey) – 5 April 1865 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of two-year-old Danny Gleeson at South Melbourne
    • Joseph (“Quiet Joe”) Brown – 4 May 1865 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Emmanuel “Dodger” Jacobs at the Whittington Tavern, Bourke Street Melbourne
    • Peter Dotsalaere – 6 July 1865 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Catherine Jacobs at 106 LaTrobe Street Melbourne
    • David Young – 21 August 1865 – Hanged at Castlemaine Gaol A picture containing building, outdoor, old, house

Description automatically generatedfor the murder of Margaret Graham at Daylesford
    • Thomas (“Yankee Tom”) Menard – 28 October 1865 – Hanged at Geelong for the murder of James Sweeney at Warrnambool
    • Patrick Sheehan – 6 November 1865 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of James Kennedy at Rowdy Flat Yackandandah
    • Long Poy – 10 March 1866 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Ah Yong at Emu Flat
    • James Jones – 19 March 1866 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Dr Julius Saenger, committed at Scarsdale
    • Robert Bourke (alias Cluskey) – 29 November 1866 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Harry Facey Hurst at Diamond Creek
    • Denis Murphy – 16 April 1867 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Patrick O’Meara at Bullarook
    • John Kelly – 4 May 1867 – Hanged at Beechworth for sodomy on eighteen-month-old James Strack at Wangaratta
    • William Terry – 31 July 1867 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of a man named Peter Reddick or Redyk on the Coliban near Taradale
    • George Searle – 7 August 1867 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Thomas Burke at Piggoreet
    • Joseph Ballan – 7 August 1867 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Thomas Burke at Piggoreet
    • Bernard Cunningham – 31 March 1868 – Confederate Army veteran. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of John Fairweather at Green Gully, near Keilor
    • Joseph Whelan – 31 March 1868 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of farmer Tom Branley at Rokewood
    • John Hogan – 14 August 1868 – Hanged at Castlemaine
    • for the murder of Martin Rooney, committed at Bullock Creek, outside Marong
    • Michael Flannigan (Flannagan) – 31 March 1869 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Sgt Thomas Hull at Hamilton
    • James Ritson – 3 August 1869 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of the Methodist Minister William Hill, who was visiting him at A Division, Pentridge
    • Peter Higgins (alias James Smith) – 11 November 1869 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of his wife Elizabeth Wheelahan near Springhurst
    • Ah Pew – 23 May 1870 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of nine-year-old Elizabeth Hunt at Glenluce, near Vaughan
    • Patrick Smith – 4 August 1870 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary at North Melbourne
    • Andrew Vair (Vere) – 15 August 1870 – Hanged at Ararat for murder of Amos Cheale at St Arnaud
    • James Cusack – 30 August 1870 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Anne at Woods Point
    • James Seery – 14 November 1870 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of August Tepfar at Crooked River, Gippsland
    • James Quinn – 10 November 1871 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of Ah Woo, near Myrtleford
    • Patrick Geary – 4 December 1871 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of a shepherd named Thomas Brookhouse near Colac in 1854
    • Edward Feeney – 14 May 1872 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Charles Marks in the Treasury Gardens
    • James Wilkie – 20 May 1872 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Henry Pensom at Daylesford
    • Samuel Wright – 11 March 1873 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the attempted murder of Arthur Hagan (or Hogan) at Dead Horse Flat, near Eaglehawk
    • Thomas Brady – 12 May 1873 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of John Watt (“The Wooragee Murder”)
    • James Smith – 12 May 1873 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of John Watt (“The Wooragee Murder”)
    • Pierre Borbun (Barburn, Borhuu) – 20 May 1873 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Sarah Smith, the publican’s wife at the White Swan Hotel, Sunrise Gully, Kangaroo Flat
    • Oscar (or Hasker) Wallace – 11 August 1873 – Hanged at Ballarat for the rape of Mary Cook at Mount Beckworth, near Clunes
    • Ah Kat (Ah Cat) – 9 August 1875 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Friedrich Renzelmann at Bet Bet, near Dunolly
    • An Gaa – 30 August 1875 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Pooey Waugh, committed at Vaughan
    • Henry Howard – 4 October 1875 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Wright, licensee of the Frankston Hotel
    • John Weachurch (alias Taylor) – 6 December 1875 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for attempted murder of Warder Patrick Moran
    • John Duffus – 22 May 1876 – Hanged at Castlemaine, having been handed in by his wife for the rape of his eleven-year-old daughter Mary Ann near Goornong
    • James (“Donegal Jim”) Ashe – 21 August 1876 – Hanged at Ballarat for the rape of Elizabeth Reece at Burrumbeet
    • Basileo Bondietto – 11 December 1876 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Carlo Comisto near Tallarook
    • William Hastings – 14 March 1877 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Annie near Mount Eliza
    • Thomas Hogan – 9 June 1879 – Hanged at Beechworth for fratricide at Bundalong, near Yarrawonga
    • Ned Kelly 
    • 25 – 11 November 1880 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Constable Thomas Lonigan
    • Robert Rohan – 6 June 1881 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of John Shea at Yalca
    • Robert Francis Burns
    •  – 25 September 1883 – Confessed to eight murders. Hanged at Ararat for the murder of Michael Quinliven at Wickliffe
    • Henry Morgan – 6 June 1884 – Hanged at Ararat for the rape and murder of ten-year-old Margaret Nolan at Panmure
    • James Hawthorn – 21 August 1884 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for fratricide at Brighton
    • William O’Brien – 24 October 1884 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of farmer Peter McAinsh at Lancefield
    • William Barnes – 15 May 1885 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Joe Slack at South Melbourne
    • Charles Bushby (alias Baker) – 3 September 1885 – Hanged at Ballarat for attempted murder of Det Sgt Richard Hyland near Gong Gong
    • Edward (“The Fiddler”) Hunter – 27 November 1885 – Hanged at Bendigo Prison 
    • for the murder of Jim Power at the Golden Fleece Hotel, Charlton
    • Freeland Morell – 7 January 1886 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of fellow sailor John Anderson on the docks at Port Melbourne
    • George Syme – 9 November 1888 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his mother-in-law Margaret Clifford at Lilydale
    • William Harrison – 18 March 1889 – Hanged at Bendigo for the murder of ‘Corky Jack’ Duggan at Elmore
    • Filipe Castillo – 16 September 1889 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Annie Thornton at North Carlton
    • Robert Landells – 16 October 1889 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Peter Sherlock at Chamber’s Paddock, about 6 km from Ringwood
    • John Thomas Phelan – 16 March 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his de facto wife Ada Hatton at St.James’ Place (now Ellis St) South Yarra
    • John Wilson – 23 March 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his fiancée Estella Marks at Darling Gardens, Clifton Hill
    • Cornelius Bourke – 20 April 1891 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of an elderly prisoner named Peter Stewart in the gaol at Hamilton
    • Fatta Chand – 27 April 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Juggo Mull at Healesville
    • Frank Spearin (also called John Wilson) – 11 May 1891 – Hanged at Ballarat for the rape of six-year-old Adeline Shepherd at Eastern Oval, Ballarat
    • James Johnston – 18 May 1891 – Hanged at Ballarat Gaol for murdering his wife Mary and their four children in Drummond Street North, Ballarat
    • William Coulston (Colston) – 21 August 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Mary & William Davis at Narbethong
    • Frederick Bailey Deeming[GR2] 
    •  – Murdered at least six people. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Emily Mather at Windsor – 23 May 1892
    • John Conder – 28 August 1893 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Karamjit Singh near Buchan
    • Frances KnorrA picture containing text

Description automatically generated – 15 January 1894 – “The Brunswick Baby Farmer” – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of two infants
    • Ernest Knox – 19 March 1894 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Isaac Crawcour while in the act of burglary at Williamstown
    • Fred Jordan – 20 August 1894 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his girlfriend Minnie Crabtree at Port Melbourne
    • Martha Needle
    •  – 22 October 1894 – Murdered five people by poison. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Louis Juncken at 137 Bridge Road Richmond
    • Elijah Cockroft – 12 November 1894 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Fanny Mutt at Noradjuha, near Natimuk
    • Arthur Buck – 1 July 1895 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Catherine Norton at South Melbourne
    • Emma Williams – 4 November 1895 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of her two-year-old son John at Port Melbourne
    • Charles Henry Strange – 13 January 1896 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Fred Dowse at Lakes Entrance
    • Charles John Hall – 13 September 1897 – Hanged at Bendigo for the murder of his wife Minnie at Eaglehawk
    • Alfred Archer – 21 November 1898 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of William Matthews at Strathmerton
    • William Robert Jones – 26 March 1900 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murdering eight-year-old Rita Jones at Broadford
    • Albert Edward McNamara – 14 April 1902 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for arson causing death of his four-year-old son Bert at Carlton
    • August Tisler (Sippol) – 20 October 1902 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Edward Sangal at Dandenong
    • James Coleman Williams – 8 September 1904 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his employer’s wife Mary Veitch at O’Grady Street Clifton Hill
    • Charles Deutschmann – 29 June 1908 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of his wife Isabella Deutschmann at Dobie, near Ararat
    • Joseph Pfeiffer – 29 April 1912 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for shooting his sister-in-law Florence Whitely at 102 Mills Street, Middle Park
    • John Jackson – 24 January 1916 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Constable David McGrath while in the act of robbing the Trades Hall
    • Antonio Picone – 18 September 1916 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Giuseppe Lauricella at Queen Victoria Market
    • Albert Edward Budd (39) – 29 January 1918 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his foster-sister Annie Samson at Port Melbourne
    • George Farrow Blunderfield – 15 April 1918 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of mother and daughter Margaret & Rose Taylor at Trawool
    • Colin Campbell Ross
    •  – 24 April 1922 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the Gun Alley Murder.[GR3]  Posthumously pardoned in 2007, the only instance of a pardon for a judicially executed person in Australia
    • Angus Murray (real name Henry Donnelly) – 14 April 1924 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Thomas Berriman at Glenferrie Station
    • David Bennett – 26 September 1932 – Hanged at Pentridge Prison

    •  for the rape of a four-year-old girl at North Carlton (sentenced to death for a similar offence in WA in 1911). The first execution at Pentridge
    • Arnold Sodeman
    •  – 1 June 1936 – “The Schoolgirl Strangler” – Confessed to the murder of four girls. Hanged at Pentridge
    • Edward Cornelius – 22 June 1936 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of the Reverend Laceby Cecil at St. Saviour’s Collingwood (“The Vicarage Murder”)
    • ·       Thomas William (“Nugget”) Johnson[GR4] [GR5]  – 23 January 1939 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Chares Bunney and Robert Gray at the former Windsor Castle Hotel, Dunolly
    • George Green – 17 April 1939 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Phyllis and Annie Wiseman at Glenroy
    • Alfred Bye – 22 December 1941 – Hanged at Pentridge for stabbing to death Thomas Walker off Treasury Place Bye took over twenty-two minutes to die.
    • Eddie Leonski
    •  – 9 November 1942 – “The Brownout Strangler” – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Ivy McLeod, Pauline Thompson & Gladys Hosking at Victoria Avenue, Albert Park, Spring St Melbourne and Gatehouse St Parkville respectively
    • Norman Andrews – 19 February 1951 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of ‘Pop’ Kent
    • Robert David Clayton – 19 February 1951 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of ‘Pop’ Kent
    • Jean Lee
    •  – 19 February 1951 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of ‘Pop’ Kent in Dorrit Street Carlton. The last woman executed in Australia
    • Ronald Ryan
    •  – 3 February 1967 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Prison Officer George Hodson. The last person executed in Australia.

     [GR1]John Giles Price (20 October 1808 – 27 March 1857), was a colonial administrator in Australia. He served as the Civil Commandant of the convict settlement at Norfolk Island from August 1846 to January 1853, and later as Inspector-General of penal establishments in Victoria, during which he was “stoned to death” by angry and disgruntled prisoners.

     [GR2]Frederick Bailey Deeming (30 July 1853 – 23 May 1892) was an English-born Australian murderer. He was convicted and executed for the murder of a woman in Melbourne, Australia. He is remembered today because he was suspected by some of being the notorious serial killer Jack the Ripper.

    Deeming was born in Ashby-de-la-ZouchLeicestershire, England, son of Thomas Deeming, brazier, and his wife Ann (née Bailey). He was a “difficult child” according to writers Maurice Gurvich and Christopher Wray. At 16 years of age, he ran away to sea, and thereafter he began a long career of crime, largely thieving and obtaining money under false pretenses. He was also responsible for the murder of his first wife Marie and his four children at Rainhill, England, on or about 26 July 1891, and a second wife, Emily Mather, at Windsor, Melbourne, on 24 December 1891.

    Less than three months elapsed between the discovery of Mather’s body in Windsor, Melbourne, in March 1892, and Deeming’s execution for her murder in May 1892; a remarkably short time by comparison to modern western legal standards. This was not only due to efficient police work, but also a result of the considerable international media interest the murder attracted. For example, it was an English journalist working for the Melbourne Argus who first approached Mather’s mother in Rainhill and delivered the news of her daughter’s murder. Another factor was Deeming’s behaviour in public, for while he often used different names, he usually drew attention to himself with behaviour variously described as aggressive, ostentatious, ingratiating and overly attentive to women.

     [GR3]The Gun Alley Murder was the rape and murder of 12-year-old Alma Tirtschke in Melbourne, Australia, in 1921. She was a schoolgirl who attended Hawthorn West High School and had last been seen alive close to a drinking establishment, the Australian Wine Saloon; under these circumstances her murder caused a sensation. More recently, the case has become well known as a miscarriage of justice.

     [GR4]Thomas William Johnson (1898 – 23/1/1939), was convicted of a double murder in Dunolly, Victoria. He confessed to two killings before being executed at Pentridge PrisonVictoria in 1939. Johnson was the fourth of eleven people to be hanged at Pentridge Prison after the closure of Melbourne Gaol in 1929.

     [GR5]George Green (1900 – 17/4/1939), was convicted of a double murder in Glenroy, Australia. He was convicted of murdering two women before being executed at Pentridge PrisonVictoria in 1939. Green was the fifth of eleven people to be hanged at Pentridge Prison after the closure of Melbourne Gaol in 1929.

    Green was found guilty of the murder of Miss Annie Wiseman, 63, and her niece Phyllis Vivienne Wiseman, 17, in their home at Glenroy on November 12, 1938.

    List of people legally executed in Tasmania

    • Thomas England – April 1806 – Private of 102nd Regiment, hanged at Port Dalrymple for his part in theft from Government Stores at Port Dalrymple on 18 Jan 1806.
    • James Keating – 14 April 1806 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in theft from Government Stores at Port Dalrymple on 18 Jan 1806.
    • Terence Flynn – 14 July 1810 – Hanged in the Queenborough district (Sandy Bay) for murder
    • Job Stokes – 14 July 1810 – Hanged in the Queenborough district for housebreaking
    • John McCabe – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of William Parish
    • John Townshend – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of William Parish
    • Peter Gory – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of William Parish
    • William Stephens (Steel) – 25 May 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • Thomas Mauley – 6 June 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for murder
    • Richard McGuire (McGwire) – June 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of William Carlisle and James O’Byrne at New Norfolk
    • Hugh Byrne – June or early July 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of William Carlisle and James O’Byrne at New Norfolk
    • Richard Collyer – 26 January 1818 – Hanged on the New Town road, Hobart, for the murder in 1815 of Carlisle and O’Byrne at New Norfolk
    • George Gray – 11 June 1818 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of John Evans (real name Charles Bell) at York Plains
    • William Trimm – 11 June 1818 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing in the Richmond district
    • Thomas Bailey – 28 July 1820 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • John Brady – 28 July 1820 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • Robert Hunter – 28 April 1821 – Publicly hanged at scaffold erected at the top of Macquarie Street, Hobart Town, for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • Edward Brady – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • James Flynn – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • Joseph Potaski – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • John Oliver – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for cattle-stealing
    • John McGuinness – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Michael Riley – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • Thomas Kenny – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • John Higgins – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • John Hill – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • John Morell – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston for stealing in the Norfolk Plains district
    • Daniel McCarthy – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • Robert Gillaird – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • William Lloyd – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • Patrick Kane – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • William Hyder – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town for diverse robberies in the Paterson’s Plains district
    • James Norris – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town
    • Edward McCracken – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town
    • Thomas Gutteridge – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town for stealing at Norfolk Plains
    • William Smith – 25 April 1822 – Publicly hanged at the Cascade end of Macquarie Street, Hobart, for sheep stealing.
    • John Williams – 25 April 1822 – Publicly hanged at the Cascade end of Macquarie Street, Hobart, for sheep stealing.
    • James Smith – 12 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing. (Smith actually cheated the hangman by “suspending himself by a silk handkerchief from a bar…in the room in which he was confined”)
    • George Richardson – 14 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Robert Oldham – 14 April 1823– Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • William Davis – 14 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Ralph Churlton – 14 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Alexander Pearce –[GR1]  19 July 1824 – Murderer and cannibal. Hanged at Hobart
    • Thomas Butler – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • Patrick Connolly – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • James Tierney – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • Isaac Walker – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • John Thomson – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • George Gardner – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for killing a steer with intent to steal
    • Arthur Dicker – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for killing a steer with intent to steal
    • Thomas Taylor – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for the murder of John Street at Abbotsfield
    • Luke Fowler – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for the murder of John Street at Abbotsfield
    • Charles Kimberley – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for the murder of Judith Burke
    • James Crawford – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • John Bimms – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • Job Corfield – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • Matthew Stephenson – 15 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • John Twiggs – 15 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • Thomas Hudson – 28 January 1825 – Hanged at Macquarie Harbour for the murder of Robert Esk
    • Richard Allen – 28 January 1825 – Hanged at Macquarie Harbour for the murder of William Saul at Birch’s Bay
    • Francis Oates – 28 January 1825 – Hanged at Macquarie Harbour for the murder of James Williamson
    • Henry McConnell – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Jeremiah Ryan – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder and robbery
    • Charles Ryder – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder and robbery
    • James Bryant – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder and robbery
    • Black Jack (or Jack Roberts) – 25 February 1825 – Indigenous. Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Patrick McCarthy
    • Musquito [GR2] – 25 February 1825 – Indigenous (Eora). Hanged at Hobart for a murder at Grindstone Bay
    • Peter Thackery – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • John Logan – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted shooting murder of William Shoobridge. The victim was saved because the bullet struck a ruler in his pocket.
    • Samuel Fielding – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • James Chamberlain – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Stephen Lear – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at the Surveyor-General’s
    • Henry Fry – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at the Surveyor-General’s
    • John Reid Riddel – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of George Fildes in Goulburn St. He confessed to the murder of both his ex-wives.
    • Thomas Peacock – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of Constable Craggs
    • William Buckley – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • Joseph Broadhead – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • John Everiss – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • John Godliman – 7 September 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Samuel Hunt at Fourteen-Tree Plain, near Jericho.
    • Jonas Dobson – 12 December 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of his overseer
    • John Johnson – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Mr. Barnes’
    • Samuel Longman – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary
    • Charles Wigley – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary
    • James Major – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing an ox
    • William Pollock – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • George Harden – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • William Preece – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robberies and bushranging
    • James McCabe – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Richard Brown – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • James Brown – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • John Green – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Thomas Bosworth – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing a boat
    • Richard Miller – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing a boat
    • Richard Craven – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing a boat
    • James Eales – 17 February 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing and robbery
    • William Eales – 17 February 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing and robbery
    • Matthew Brady – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Patrick Bryant – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Thomas Jeffries [GR3] – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • John Perry – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • John Thompson – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Margaret Smith at the Watch-House
    • Samuel Hodgetts – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • James McKenney – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • James Goodwin – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • John Gregory – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • William Tilley – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging

    .

    • William Brown – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Thomas Dunnings – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Alexander Simpson at Pittwater
    • Edward Everett – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Alexander Simpson at Pittwater
    • William Smith – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Alexander Simpson at Pittwater
    • John Taylor – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour and robbing soldiers of their arms
    • George Watters – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour and robbing soldiers of their arms
    • Jack – 13 September 1826 – Indigenous. Hanged for the murder of Thomas Colley at Oyster Bay. Jack was kept apart before the execution as he was suffering from leprosy.
    • Dick – 13 September 1826 – Indigenous. Hanged for the murder of Thomas Colley at Oyster Bay
    • George Brace – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery and bushranging
    • John McFarlane – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding into the woods and robbing William Holdship at Browns River
    • James Edwards – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding into the woods and robbing William Holdship at Browns River
    • Thomas Balfour – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding into the woods and robbing William Holdship at Browns River
    • John Dadd – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • John Clark – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • Patrick Brown – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • John Pearson (Penson) – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary from Richard Worley, butcher, Elizabeth St
    • James Rowles – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbing his employer John Dunn’s shop, Elizabeth St
    • Timothy Swinscow – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbing Mrs. Till at New Norfolk
    • William Wickens – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbing Mrs. Till at New Norfolk
    • George Farquharson – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing at Jericho
    • Robert Cable – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from the Sherwin flock on the Clyde
    • Thomas Savell – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from David Lord in the Pitt Water district
    • John Davis – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from David Lord in the Pitt Water district
    • John Cruitt – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from David Lord in the Pitt Water district
    • Robert Grant – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing from Edmund Bryant near Jericho
    • George Bentley – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing from Edmund Bryant near Jericho
    • William Crest – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing from Edmund Bryant near Jericho
    • William Evans – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery at New Town of John Sayers ‘the broom-maker’.
    • Peter Rice – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for shooting at John Swift in Murray Street, Hobart
    • Patrick Dunne – 8 January 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Kingston
    • Charles Burgh – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for horse stealing
    • Henry Strong – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • Michael Brown – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • George Ellis – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • William Birt – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • William Hoadley – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • William Tuffnell – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of nine-year-old Ellen Briggs
    • Richard Gill – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Edward Howe – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for highway robbery near Scottsdale
    • Joseph Horsefield – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • James Gurd – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary in the Norfolk Plains district
    • William Ashford – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary in the Norfolk Plains district
    • Andrew Winchester – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary in the Macquarie River district
    • William Haywood – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Christopher McRae at Lake River
    • Henry Oakley – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary from Mr Brodie on the Clyde
    • Thomas Bidwell Child – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for forgery
    • John Wright – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Old Beach
    • John Clayton – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • George Dunning – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • William Longhurst – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Daniel McPherson – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary of the home of Henry Bye, North Hobart
    • Martin Higgins – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for “stealing in a dwelling house at noon-day” from Henry Bye, North Hobart
    • James Horsefield – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • George Metcalfe – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • James Coates – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • John Brown (the Mariner) – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • John Lee – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • George Braithwaite – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • John Brown (the Bricklayer) – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • Thomas Davis (real name Roberts) – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • Matthew McCullum – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • Humphrey Oulton – 15 November 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the theft of a sheep
    • Abraham Abrahams – 15 November 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the theft of a mare from the Gourlay property on the Clyde
    • William Shepherd – 15 November 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary from the home of Ralph Compton on the Norfolk Plains (Longford)
    • George Lacey – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of Constable George Rex at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Ward (“Flash Jack”) – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • Samuel Measures – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • William Jenkins – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • James Conhope – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of a six-year-old (convict per Minerva)
    • James Reid – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • Thomas Williams – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • James Kirk – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • John McMillan – 17 December 1827- Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • John Maguire – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • George Driver – 30 January 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Onely at Macquarie Harbour
    • Samuel Higgins – 30 January 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Onely at Macquarie Harbour
    • William Fowler – 1 March 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of a little girl named Emma Groom
    • Henry Williamson – 1 March 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Malcolm Logan at Green Ponds (Kempton)
    • Thomas Pearson – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and burglary at Cross Marsh (Melton Mowbray)
    • Phelim Bonner (real name Crampsey) – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery on James Collins
    • Edward Hangan – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of a gun from James McLanachan
    • John Grimes – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for shooting with intent at George Marshall near Sorell
    • Thomas Collins – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at the home of George Cartwright
    • Edward Burke – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Abraham Aaron – 1 August 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Maria Island
    • Philip Large – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of eleven year-old Margaret Stewart
    • John Morrison – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for arson
    • John Gibson – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • Charles Williams – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery
    • William Ashton – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • Joseph Moulds – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • William Baker – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • John Baker – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for sheep stealing
    • Bernard Shields – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for sheep stealing (convict per Minerva)
    • Daniel Mackie – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for sheep stealing
    • Daniel Leary – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for bullock stealing
    • Thomas Rogers – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • George Palmer – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery
    • Daniel Brown – 2 March 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of a fellow-convict named Stopford at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Salmon – 2 March 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of a fellow-convict named Stopford at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Leach – 7 March 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of his common-law wife
    • Robert Bourke – 12 July 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping and stealing a boat at Macquarie Harbour
    • William Madden – 12 July 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery
    • William Herring – 12 July 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping and stealing a boat at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Mayo – 11 January 1830 – Hanged at Hobart Gaol for the murder of James Bailey at Macquarie Harbour
    • William Wilkes – 23 January 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Dennis Alcoloret on Bruny Island in Oct 1827
    • Hugh Campbell – 3 February 1830 – Soldier of the 63rd Regiment, hanged at Hobart for the murder of Jonathan Brett
    • Michael Best – 11 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Richard Garner at Hamilton
    • John Oxley – 24 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Susan Corfield
    • Samuel Killen – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • John Jones – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • Joseph Fogg – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for an unnatural crime
    • Thomas Goodwin – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for cutting the throat of Ann Hamilton with intent to kill
    • Mary McLauchlan – 19 April 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of her infant son. The first woman executed in Van Diemen’s Land/Tasmania.
    • Edmund Daniels – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict, Asia 3rd) 
    • John Dighton – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict – Earl St Vincent
    • James Child – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict – Chapman 2nd
    • Andrew Bates – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict – Phoenix) 
    • Edward Ladywig – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery (Convict – Phoenix) 
    • Joseph Ellis – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing (Convict – Dromedary) 
    • Andrew McCue – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary of clothing and money from the house of John Robins
    • George Thomson – 17 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for housebreaking, theft of silver plate and two pistols (Convict – Lady Harewood
    • Edward Sweeney – 30 June 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his wife Mary Sweeney
    • William Thomas – 30 June 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of John ‘Smutty Jack’ Warne
    • William Messenger – 10 July 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of a five-year-old child
    • John Brady – 10 July 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of a five-year-old child
    • Richard Udall – 10 July 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of a five-year-old child
    • Charles Routley – 17 September 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John “Pretty Jack” Buckley at Carlton River
    • Henry Strong – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • William Hoadley – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • Michael Brown – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • William Birt – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • George Ellis – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • Charles Burgh (alias Sutton) – 9 January 1831 – Hanged at Hobart for the theft of a horse from Captain Andrew Barclay near Launceston
    • Edward Broughton[GR4]  (28) – 5 August 1831- Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour; while on the run he had murdered and cannibalised William Coventry and two others
    • Matthew Macavoy[GR5]  – 5 August 1831 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour; while on the run he had murdered and cannibalised William Coventry and two others
    • John Somers – 23 December 1831 – Hanged at Hobart for rape
    • James Camm – 30 April 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for piracy; he was involved in the Cyprus
    • mutiny[GR6]  in 1829
    • James Metcalfe – 30 April 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for assault of John Munn
    • Robert Gordon – 30 April 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary
    • John Gow – 14 May 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the shooting murder of Patrick Carrigan, a soldier of the 63rd
    • Joseph Colvin – 14 May 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Patrick Carrigan
    • Elijah Alder – 16 March 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Benjamin Horne at Ross
    • John Towers – 5 June 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of two hawkers named Patrick Fitzgibbon and John Kellerman on the St Paul’s Plains
    • James Fletcher – 5 June 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Patrick Fitzgibbon and John Kellerman on the St Paul’s Plains
    • Thomas Fleet – 17 October 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted axe murder of William Waring Saxton at Port Arthur
    • William Evans – 17 October 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted knife murder of George Edwards at Granton
    • William Higham – 5 January 1833 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robberies in the Ross area
    • Simon Gowan (Going) – 5 January 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of eight-year-old Mary Ann Bowman at Jericho
    • John Glover – 5 January 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of eight-year-old Mary Ann Bowman at Jericho
    • Robert Dutchess – 5 January 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for bestiality with a mare
    • John Clements (‘Jack the Lagger’) – 5 January 1833 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery and putting in fear
    • Richard (John) Jones – 15 April 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for bestiality on board the Circassian
    • Thomas Ansell – 1 November 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Jonathan Dark – 1 November 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary in Argyle St
    • William Ward – 10 March 1834 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Samuel Newman – 10 March 1834 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Thomas Dawson – 10 March 1834 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Joseph Deane – 26 March 1834 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Green Ponds (Kempton)
    • Henry Rutland – 26 March 1834 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Green Ponds (Kempton)
    • Samuel (a ‘man of colour’) – 26 March 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder at Port Arthur of Chief Constable Richard Newman
    • Joseph Greenwood – 16 April 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Constable Thomas Terry at New Town racecourse.
    • Benjamin Davidson – 17 June 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Ann Howell at Norfolk Plains (Longford)
    • William Hurlock (Hislop) – 17 June 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Ann Howell
    • Henry Street – 17 June 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Ann Howell
    • John Burke – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • William Weston – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • John Ashton – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • Thomas Kirkham – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • John Dunn – 11 August 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of William Evans at Lemon Springs, near Oatlands
    • George Clarke – 11 August 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of William Evans at Lemon Springs, near Oatlands
    • Samuel Hibbill (Hibbell) – 10 March 1836 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Capt. Sibson Bragg, by throwing him overboard the schooner Industry in the Tasman Sea
    • Thomas Harris – 10 March 1836 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Capt. Sibson Bragg, by throwing him overboard the schooner Industry in the Tasman Sea
    • Robert Smith – 10 March 1836 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Capt. Sibson Bragg, by throwing him overboard the schooner Industry in the Tasman Sea
    • Samuel Guillem – 16 March 1837 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Mary Mills at New Norfolk
    • John McKay – first five days of May 1837 – Hanged at Hobart for the 1 April 1837 murder of Joseph Edward Wilson near Perth. His corpse was later gibbeted at Perth.
    • John Gardiner – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston Gaol for the murder of George Mogg on the Tamar
    • John Hudson – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston for cutting and maiming with intent to murder Isaac Schofield, the overseer of a chain-gang
    • James Hawes – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary and assault on Valentine Soper at Windmill Hill, Launceston
    • Henry Stewart – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary and assault on Valentine Soper at Windmill Hill, Launceston
    • James Atterall – 21 June 1838 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Vincent’s Hotel, Epping Forest
    • James Regan – 21 June 1838 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Vincent’s Hotel, Epping Forest
    • Anthony Banks – 21 June 1838 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Vincent’s Hotel, Epping Forest. Banks was the first native-born Vandemonian executed in the colony
    • John Riley – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Matthews in Warwick St. Hobart
    • John Davis – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Matthews in Warwick St. Hobart
    • George Pettit – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Paul at York Plains
    • John Martin – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Sergeant George Newman (of the 51st[GR7] ) on board the government brig Tamar
    • John Watson – 30 January 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of John Holding at Ashby, near Ross
    • Patrick Wallace – 30 January 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of John Holding at Ashby, near Ross. Wallace and Watson were hangman Solomon Blay‘s
    • first executions.
    • Joseph Broom – 19 February 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of Joseph Bailey near Campbell Town
    • James McKay – 27 May 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Trusson at the Great Lake
    • William Hill – 27 May 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Trusson at the Great Lake
    • Patrick Minnighan – 25 June 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Travers at Port Arthur
    • Edward Allen – 31 July 1841 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Samuel Brewell at Muddy Creek, on the west bank of the Tamar
    • Thomas Dooner – 6 August 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Joseph Walker at a hut on the Macquarie River
    • James Broomfield – 25 October 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery at Tarleton
    • James Williamson – 4 January 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Lord at Swanport (Swansea)
    • George Bailey – 4 January 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Lord at Swanport (Swansea)
    • Henry Belfield – 20 January 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Broadman at Port Arthur
    • Elijah Ainsworth – 6 June 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of five-year-old Mary Jeffery
    • Thomas Turner – 9 June 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of his wife Hannah at Moonah
    • William Langham – 10 August 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of the Doctor at Port Arthur and the stabbing of a boy named Thomas Cooke
    • Samuel Williams – 27 December 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Harkness at Port Arthur
    • James Littleton – 27 December 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Henry Seaton at Broadmarsh
    • Henry Smith – 11 May 1843 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Henry Childs (Childe) at Sandy Bay
    • James Bowtell – 16 May 1843 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of William Marks on the highway at Dysart
    • Riley Jeffs – 26 July 1843 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at Launceston for the murder of District Constable William Ward at Campbell Town
    • John Conway – 26 July 1843 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at Launceston for the murder of District Constable William Ward at Campbell Town
    • John Woolley – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery and attempting to kill special constable William Hobart Wells
    • George Churchward – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • William Thomas – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • George Bristol – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • John Walker – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Alexander Reid – 24 April 1844 – Hanged at Oatlands for shooting and wounding Constable Murray
    • Thomas Marshall – 24 April 1844 – Hanged At Oatlands for the murder of Ben Smith
    • George Jones[GR8]  – 30 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery
    • James Platt – 30 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery
    • Isaac Tidburrow (Tidbury) – 9 July 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of seven-year-old Mary-Ann Gangell
    • Thomas Wicksett – 9 July 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Ayres at Port Arthur
    • James Gannon – 7 August 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for a rape committed near Richmond
    • Thomas Smith – 7 August 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of overseer William Perry at Port Arthur
    • James Boyle – 7 August 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of overseer William Perry at Port Arthur
    • Richard Jackson – 1 May 1845 – Hanged at Oatlands for the rape of Elizabeth Davis
    • Anthony Kedge – 8 August 1845 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Charles Shepherd between George Town and Low Head
    • Francis Maxfield – 12 August 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of sub-overseer Joseph Ellis at Port Arthur
    • Thomas Gomm – 23 September 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • William Taylor – 23 September 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • Isaac Lockwood – 23 September 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • Eliza Benwell – 2 October 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • Thomas Gillan – 1 November 1845 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery at Breadalbane (Cocked Hat)
    • Michael Keegan (Keogan) – 31 December 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of sub-overseer Joseph Ellis at Port Arthur
    • Job Harris – 31 December 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his involvement in the pack-rape of a fellow-convict at the Coal Mines, Saltwater River
    • William Collier – 31 December 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his involvement in the pack-rape of a fellow-convict at the Coal Mines, Saltwater River
    • John Phillips – 4 February 1846 – Hanged at Oatlands for setting fire to the magistrate’s oatstacks following a conviction for sly grog selling
    • Daniel McCabe – 24 March 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for cutting and wounding, with intent to kill, Francis Scott at Impression Bay
    • Charles Woodman – 24 March 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and attempted murder of Elizabeth Jones in Davey Street
    • Henry Food – 28 April 1846 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Revd Dr Browne
    • Henry Cooper – 13 May 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Richard Beech at Impression Bay
    • Michael Roach – 24 September 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for wounding with intent to murder catechist Roger Boyle at Port Arthur
    • Michael Lyons – 11 November 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for committing an ‘unnatural crime’ with a goat at Port Cygnet
    • Peter Kenny – 24 March 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of James Goodall Francis[GR9]  at Battery Point. Kenny, a former Point Puer boy, attacked Francis with a tomahawk while attempting burglary. Francis went on to become Premier of Victoria twenty-five years later
    • William Bennett – 24 March 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of fellow-prisoner Thomas Shand at Port Arthur
    • George Wood – 29 June 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Taylor at Port Arthur
    • Charles Benwell – 14 September 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of George Lowe near Bagdad. He was the brother of Eliza Benwell, hanged in 1845.
    • Laban Gower – 23 November 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Ann Mayfield at Old Beach
    • Hugh Glacken – 25 November 1847 – Hanged at Launceston for bushranging
    • James Hill – 4 January 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of an elderly lady named Alice Martin at Brighton
    • Henry Whelan – 4 January 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Robert Mann at Berriedale
    • James Kennedy – 4 January 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of William Millar at Port Arthur
    • James Connolly – 22 February 1848 – Publicly hanged at Hobart for arson (setting a barn on fire) at Impression Bay.
    • Nathaniel Westerman (Weston) – 4 April 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of fellow-prisoner Joseph Blundell at Port Arthur
    • James Sullivan – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Constable James Kelly at Swanston, near Andover
    • Patrick Shea – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Constable James Kelly at Swanston
    • James McGough – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Constable James Kelly at Swanston
    • John Shale – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for wounding John Connell with intent to murder
    • Thomas Smith – 4 August 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for stabbing with intent to murder Constable Clough at Jericho
    • Jeremiah Maher – 4 August 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for stabbing with intent to murder Constable Clough at Jericho
    • Thomas Liner – 8 August 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the stabbing murder of Hugh Gilmore in Kelly St
    • John Jordan – 7 November 1848 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Zimran Youram at Norfolk Plains
    • Matthew Mahide – 7 November 1848 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery at Snake Banks (present-day Powranna)
    • Michael Rogers- 3 January 1849 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Joseph Howard at Port Sorell
    • William Stamford – 3 January 1849 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Thomas Lovell at Brushy Plains (Runnymede)
    • John Russell Dickers – 20 March 1849 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of Constable Samuel Withers on the corner of Fitzroy Crescent and Davey St, South Hobart
    • James Holloway – 25 June 1849 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of Edwin Beckett at Prosser’s Plains (present-day Buckland)
    • John Stevens – 24 July 1849 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Margaret Buttery at Longford
    • James McKechnie – 31 December 1849 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Francis Sockett in Davey St, Hobart
    • John King – 21 March 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of Alexander Smith at Port Arthur
    • James Howarth – 21 March 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Joshua Jennings at New Town
    • James Mullay – 26 July 1850 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of fellow-constable John McNamara at Perth
    • Joseph Squires – 26 July 1850 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of four-year-old Horatio James
    • Christopher Hollis – 24 September 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Couchman at Bridgewater
    • John Woods – 6 November 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Constable Bernard Mulholland at Franklin
    • Joseph Brewer – 11 February 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Ann Hefford at Campbell Town
    • Thomas Burrows – 13 February 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Thomas Parsons at Nile
    • William Parker – 13 February 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Thomas Parsons at Nile
    • Henry Hart – 13 February 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the attempted murder of Harriet Grubb at Cressy
    • Thomas Dalton – 21 March 1851 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for highway robbery of William Corrigan at Constitution Hill
    • William Henry Stevens – 25 April 1851 – Convict. Hanged at Oatlands for Assaulting James Moore, being armed with a gun on the high road between Antill Ponds and Tunbridge
    • Buchanan Wilson – 3 May 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Patrick Cooney on the Huon Road, two miles out of Hobart
    • George Mackie – 21 July 1851 – Hanged at Oatlands for the murder of Thomas Gilbert at Waters Meeting, near Cranbrook
    • John Crisp – 27 October 1851 – Hanged at Oatlands for Wounding with Intent Constable William Donohoo at Swansea
    • Francis Duke – 31 October 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of William Smith at Fern Tree Hill, near Deloraine
    • James Yardley – 31 October 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for attempted murder of Robert Hudson at Deloraine
    • William Henry Stephens – 25 April 1851 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Thomas Moore at Antill Ponds
    • Thomas Callaghan (Callaher, Gallagher, Collahon, Collohan, Callahan) – 6 October 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of Ann Curtis at Grasstree Hill
    • Michael Conlan – 22 December 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Francis Burt at Franklin
    • Patrick Callaghan – 22 December 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Francis Burt at Franklin
    • William Porter – 29 December 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of William Andrews at Sandy Bay
    • Charles Lockwood – 28 January 1852 – Hanged at Launceston for the attempted murder of William Gaffney at Longford
    • John Castles – 22 June 1852 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Hibbard at Kangaroo Point
    • Mary Sullivan – 5 August 1852 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of two-year-old Clara Adeline Fraser in Campbell St. Sullivan was sixteen when she went to the gallows.
    • Patrick McMahon – 28 October 1852 – Hanged at Oatlands for rape of a child
    • John Kilburn – 11 February 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of overseer Charles Weatherall at Pittwater
    • John Wood – 11 February 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Kate Toole in Goulburn St
    • James Dalton – 26 April 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Constable Tom Buckmaster at Avoca
    • Andrew Kelly – 26 April 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Constable Tom Buckmaster at Avoca
    • Samuel Jacobs – 29 April 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of six-year-old Nathaniel Poole at Deloraine
    • Samuel Maberley – 18 May 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of the Rev Dr Stephen Aldhouse in Church St
    • Francis McManus – 21 June 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of Elizabeth Roscoe on Bruny Island
    • Levi McAlister – 21 June 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of six-year-old Jane Hughes at Bridgewater
    • William Brown (alias Stockton) – 25 October 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for stabbing with intent to murder James Stephens
    • Thomas Kenney – 31 July 1854 – Hanged at Launceston for setting fire to a haystack at Kings Meadows
    • Thomas Hall – 31 July 1854 – Hanged at Launceston for the attempted murder of his wife Jane Hall at Table Cape
    • George Whiley – 3 November 1854 – Hanged at Launceston for the robbery and assault of James Smith near Westbury
    • Peter Connolly – 26 June 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery of William Kearney
    • John “Rocky” Whelan[GR10]  – 26 June 1855 – Bushranger. Confessed to five murders. Hanged at Hobart
    • Edward Heylin – 26 June 1855 – Hanged at Hobart for shooting with intent at Constable Robert Allison in Victoria St, Hobart
    • John Parsons Knights – 26 June 1855 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary of the house of Thomas Nicholson in Victoria St, Hobart
    • John Mellor – 19 Feb 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and attempted murder of Hugh Simpson at St Peter’s Pass, near York Plains
    • Thomas Rushton – 19 Feb 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and attempted murder of Hugh Simpson at St Peter’s Pass, near York Plains
    • Richard Rowley – 25 June 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of nine-year-old Isabelle Johnson in Brisbane St
    • Michael Casey – 5 August 1856 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of John Hewitt at Falmouth
    • George Langridge – 19 September 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of his wife Jane Langridge at Richmond
    • John O’Neill – 19 September 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery of James Rowland at Constitution Dock
    • Anthony Clarke – 12 November 1856 – Hanged at Launceston for murder of John Kendall near Deloraine
    • Michael Barry (alias Moloney) – 25 November 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the assault and robbery of Edward Adams at Old Beach
    • William Woolford – 25 November 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Constable William Burton at Port Arthur
    • George Nixon – 3 March 1857 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of fourteen-year-old Henry Chamberlayne at Kingston
    • John Higgins – 12 August 1857 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Henry Dales on the Evandale Road near Clairville
    • James Waldron – 12 August 1857 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Henry Dales on the Evandale Road near Clairville
    • Alexander Cullen – 18 August 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol
    •  for the murder of Betsy Ross in a house behind the Red Lion, Liverpool St
    • Abraham Munday – 27 October 1857 – Hanged at Oatlands for attempted murder by poison of George White at Courland Bay
    • Richard “Long Mick” Ennis – 27 October 1857 – Hanged at Oatlands for the murder of George Sturgeon at Kitty’s Corner, near Antill Ponds
    • James Kelly – 28 November 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Coleman O’Loughlin at Avoca
    • Timothy Kelly – 28 November 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Coleman O’Loughlin at Avoca
    • William Maher – 28 November 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of his wife Catherine Maher at Brown’s River, Kingborough
    • Thomas Callinan – 20 April 1858 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Amelia Murray at Three Hut Point
    • Henry Madigan – 5 May 1858 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his brother John Madigan at Prosser’s Forest, Ravenswood
    • Matthew Burns (Breen) – 5 August 1858 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of three-year-old Eliza MacDonald at Avoca
    • George Young – 5 August 1858 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Esther Scott in High Street Windmill Hill
    • Thomas Gault – 21 December 1858 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Felonious Assault and Robbery of John Duffy, Isabella Brown and Archibald Stacey at the Mount Nelson Signal Station
    • William Anderson – 31 January 1859 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of James Chapman at Distillery Creek
    • John McLaughlin – 31 January 1859 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of George Cooper on Westbury Road
    • William Gibson – 31 January 1859 – Hanged at Launceston for committing sodomy on ten-year-old Tom Gilligan on the road between Fingal and Avoca
    • John King – 16 February 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol
    • for the murder of Rebecca Hall at the Bull’s Head, Goulburn Street
    • Peter Haley (“Black Peter”) – 16 February 1859 – Bushranger. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Shooting with Intent at Richard Propsting on the road between Ross and Tunbridge
    • Daniel (“Wingy”) Stewart – 16 February 1859 – Bushranger. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Shooting with Intent at Richard Propsting on the road between Ross and Tunbridge
    • William Ferns (alias Flowers) – 16 February 1859 – Bushranger. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Shooting with Intent at Richard Propsting on the road between Ross and Tunbridge.
    • William Davis – 16 February 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Andre Cassavant at Black River
    • Robert Brown – 4 May 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the rape of a three-year-old at Triabunna
    • Bernard Donahue – 12 July 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of James Burton near Kingston
    • John Vigors – 31 January 1860 – Hanged at Oatlands for Shooting with Intent at John Baker at Ellerslie
    • Henry Baker – 7 February 1860 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Ellen Gibson at Sandhill
    • John Nash – 4 May 1860 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of William Iles near Cleveland
    • Julius Baker – 10 May 1860 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for shooting with intent at Port Arthur. Baker was a constable who took money from two prisoners Stretton and Donohue to assist their escape, he then shot them in their attempt
    • Michael Walsh – 29 May 1860 – Hanged at Launceston for the assault and rape of Eleanor Ward at Longford
    • Martin Lydon – 25 September 1860 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol
    • for the rape of nine-year-old Hannah Norah Handley at Port Cygnet
    • Thomas Ross – 30 January 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for an ‘unnatural crime’ on a boy named William Saunders at Bishopsbourne
    • John Hailey – 23 May 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of William Wilson at Cullenswood
    • John Chapman – 23 May 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for assault with intent to murder Daniel Webb at Avoca
    • Patrick Maloney – 23 May 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Richard Furlong at Evandale
    • Margaret Coghlan – 18 February 1862 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of her husband John Coghlan in Goulburn St, Hobart, near the corner of Harrington St
    • Charles Flanders – 24 June 1862 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of ten-year-old Mary Ann Riley at Bagdad
    • William Mulligan – 18 November 1862 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the rape and robbery of Johanna Harrbach at Bagdad
    • Hendrick Whitnalder – 20 February 1863 – (Described as a ‘little Kaffir’). Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for sodomy with fourteen-year-old Cornwall Collins (Collard)
    • Dennis Collins – 11 August 1863 – Hanged at Launceston for ‘an unnatural crime’ with seven-year-old Joseph Palmer
    • Robert McKavor – 16 February 1864 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the felonious assault and robbery of Edward Coningsby on the Oatlands Road
    • James Lynch – 23 May 1865 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of his ten-year-old step-daughter Cathy Nichols at Port Sorell
    • William Griffiths – 2 December 1865 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of eight-year-old George and six-year-old Sarah Johnson at Glenorchy
    • Daniel “Little Dan” Connors – 17 March 1868 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Ellen Moriarty at Longford
    • Patrick Kiely – 17 November 1869 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his wife Bridget at Paddy’s Scrub, Deloraine
    • John Regan (46) – 28 June 1870 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his sixteen-year-old wife Emma on the Westbury Road
    • Job Smith (55) – 31 May 1875 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the rape of Margaret Ayres, the chaplain’s housemaid, at Port Arthur
    • John Bishnahan (46) – 19 November 1877 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Thomas Rudge at Evandale
    • Richard Copping (19) – 21 October 1878 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Susannah Stacey at Bream Creek
    • George Braxton (60) – 10 July 1882 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Ellen Sneezwell in York Street
    • James Ogden (20) – 4 June 1883 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of William Wilson at Cleveland
    • James Sutherland (18) – 4 June 1883 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of William Wilson at Cleveland
    • Henry Stock (22) – 13 October 1884 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Kent and her daughter near Ouse
    • Timothy Walker (76) – 10 January 1887 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Benjamin Hamilton at Deloraine. Walker was the last transported convict to be executed in Tasmania. This was hangman Solomon Blay‘s last execution
    • Arthur Cooley (19) – 17 August 1891 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Mary Camille Ogilvy near Richmond
    • Joseph Belbin (19) – 11 March 1914 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Margaret Ledwell at Deloraine
    • George Carpenter (27) – 27 December 1922 – Murdered three people at Swansea. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of his cousin Thomas Carpenter
    • Frederick Thompson (32) – 14 February 1946 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of eight year old Evelyn Maughan. The last person executed in Tasmania.

     [GR1]Alexander Pearce (1790 – 19 July 1824) was an Irish convict who was transported to the penal colony in Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania), Australia for seven years for theft. He escaped from prison several times. During one of these escapes he allegedly became a cannibal, murdering his companions one by one. In another escape, with one companion, he allegedly killed him and ate him in pieces. He was eventually captured and was hanged in Hobart for murder, and later dissected

     [GR2]Musquito (c. 1780, Port Jackson – 25 February 1825, Hobart) (also rendered MosquitoMusquettaBush Muschetta or Muskito) was an Indigenous Australian resistance leader, latterly based in Van Diemen’s Land

     [GR3]Thomas Jeffries (Jefferies) was an English bushrangerserial killer and cannibal in the early 19th century in Van Diemen’s Land (now TasmaniaAustralia). Jeffries was transported for seven years from Dorset on Albion, arriving in Van Diemen’s Land on 21 October 1823. He was sentenced to 12 months in Macquarie Harbour, the penal settlement on the colony’s west coast in June 1824 for threatening to stab Constable Lawson. By August 1825 he had been appointed a watch house keeper and flagellator (flogger) at Launceston Gaol.

     [GR4]Edward Broughton (1803 – 5 August 1831) was an English convict who was transported to Van Diemen’s Land for fourteen years for house-breaking. He escaped from Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour with four other convicts and he later confessed to murdering three of his companions and resorting to cannibalism. He and the other survivor Matthew MacAvoy were hanged in Hobart for their crimes.

     [GR5]Edward Broughton (1803 – 5 August 1831) was an English convict who was transported to Van Diemen’s Land for fourteen years for house-breaking. He escaped from Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour with four other convicts and he later confessed to murdering three of his companions and resorting to cannibalism. He and the other survivor Matthew MacAvoy were hanged in Hobart for their crimes.

     [GR6]The Cyprus mutiny took place in 1829 off the British penal settlement of Van Diemen’s Land (now TasmaniaAustralia). Convicts seized the brig Cyprus and sailed her to CantonChina, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so.

    The mutineers were eventually captured. Two of them, George James Davis and William Watts, were hanged at Execution DockLondon on 16 December 1830, the last men hanged for piracy in Britain. Their leader, William Swallow, was never convicted of piracy because he convinced the British authorities that, as the only experienced sailor, he had been forced to remain onboard and coerced to navigate the ship. Swallow was instead sentenced to life on Van Diemen’s Land for escaping, where he died four years later.

    Swallow wrote an account of the voyage including the visit to Japan, but this part of the journey was generally dismissed as fantasy until 2017, when he was vindicated by an amateur historian’s discovery that the account matched Japanese records of a “barbarian” ship flying a British flag whose origins had remained a mystery for 187 years.

     [GR7]The 51st (2nd Yorkshire West Riding) Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 105th Regiment of Foot (Madras Light Infantry) to form the King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry in 1881

     [GR8]George Jones (c. 1815 – 30 April 1844) was a convict bushranger who, with Martin Cash and Lawrence Kavenagh, escaped from Port ArthurVan Diemen’s Land, in late 1842. The three men took to bushranging for a six-month period, robbing homesteads and inns with seeming impunity. After Kavenagh and Cash were captured, Jones remained at large for a further seven months, committing a number of robberies in company with two other escaped convicts. In April 1844 he was captured in a shoot-out with police, convicted and executed.

     [GR9]James Goodall Francis (9 January 1819 – 25 January 1884), Australian colonial politician, was the 9th Premier of Victoria. Francis was born in London, and emigrated to Van Diemen’s Land (later Tasmania) in 1847, where he became a businessman. He moved to Victoria in 1853 and became a leading Melbourne merchant. He was a director of the Bank of New South Wales and president of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce. He married Mary Ogilvie and had eight sons and seven daughters.

    Francis was elected as a conservative for Richmond in 1859, and later also represented Warrnambool. He was seen as a leading representative of business interests. He was Vice-President of the Board of Land and Works and Commissioner of Public Works 1859–60, Commissioner of Trade and Customs 1863–68 in the second government of James McCulloch and Treasurer in the third McCulloch government 1870–71. When the liberal government of Charles Gavan Duffy was defeated in June 1872, Francis became Premier and Chief Secretary.

    Francis’s government, like most of its predecessors, was dominated by the education and land issues, and by conflict between the Assembly and the Legislative Council. His government passed the 1872 Education Act, but was defeated when it tried to pass a bill establishing a procedure for resolving deadlocks between the two Houses. He resigned as a result in July 1874. He was later a minister without portfolio in the government of James Service in 1880. He retired from politics in 1884, declining a knighthood. He died in Queenscliff in 1884.

     [GR10]John Whelan was an Irish-born bushranger and serial killer operating in the Huon Valley in 1855 in Van Diemen’s Land (now the Australian state of Tasmania). He was a tall man for his times, standing at 6’1” (185cm) and of heavy build, and was nicknamed Rocky for the crags and deep pock marks of his face

    List of people legally executed in South Australia

    Pencil on paper sketch of the execution of Michael Magee. He was the first man executed in South Australia, for shooting Sheriff Smart. Artwork is inscribed, “Sketched on the ground by J. M. Skipper” which suggests the artist witnessed the execution. Artwork is inscribed with pencil on verso, with two figures of women. The costume worn by each figure has been carefully studied Held at the State Library of South Australia, call no. B 7797.

    • Michael Magee – 2 May 1838 – The first public execution in South Australia. A runaway convict, hanged from a tree on Montefiore Hill for shooting at with intent to kill Sheriff Smart
    • Wang Nucha (Tommy Roundhead) – 31 May 1839 – Hanged in front of the government iron stores (very close to the site of Magee’s hanging) for the murder of James Thompson on the Para
    • Yerr-i-Cha (George) – 31 May 1839 – Hanged for the murder of William Duffield in the Gilles Plains area
    • George Hughes – 16 March 1840 – Hanged outside the Horse Police Barracks for theft and firing with murderous intent at the Para River
    • Henry Curran – 16 March 1840 – Hanged outside the Horse Police Barracks for theft and firing with murderous intent at the Para River
    • Mongarawata – 25 August 1840 – Hanged by Major O’Halloran on the Coorong in retribution for the massacre of over fifteen passengers wrecked on the Maria
    • Pilgarie (Moorcan-gac) – 25 August 1840 – Hanged by Major O’Halloran on the Coorong in retribution for the massacre of fifteen passengers wrecked on the Maria
    • Joseph Stagg – 18 November 1840 – Hanged for the murder of John Gofton near Torrens Island. The first public execution to be conducted outside Adelaide Gaol, with a crowd of roughly seven hundred in attendance.
    • Ngarbi (Nultia) – 1 August 1843 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Stubbs at Port Lincoln
    • Wera Maldera – 28 March 1845 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of George McGrath at McGrath’s Flat, on the Coorong
    • Thomas Donnelly – 29 March 1847 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Kingberrie, an indigenous local, at Rivoli Bay
    • Keelgulla – 9 November 1849 – Hanged at the scene of the crime for the murder of Captain James Beevor at Mount Drummond
    • Neulalta – 9 November 1849 – Hanged at the scene of the crime for the murder of Captain James Beevor at Mount Drummond
    • James Yates – 5 September 1850 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of a shepherd named Jack Mansforth at Skillagolee Creek
    • William Wright – 12 March 1853 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of a man known as Robert Head, committed at East Wellington
    • William Bell – 27 December 1854 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Augustus Valrecht at Port Adelaide. This was the last public execution at Adelaide Gaol, with approximately three thousand onlookers.
    • Weenpulta – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Weellanna – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Yardulunulkarna – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Eelanna – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Manyetta – 5 October 1860 – Hanged at Streaky Bay for the murder of John Jones at Mount Joy
    • Pilti Miltinda (Bobby) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd (sometimes Reinbert) and her two children near Kapunda
    • Tankaworty (Alick or Jimmy) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd and her two children near Kapunda
    • Warretya (Kop Robert) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd and her two children near Kapunda
    • Warretya (Gogeye Jimmy) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd and her two children near Kapunda
    • Nilgerie – 1861 – Hanged near the scene of the crime at Fowler’s Bay for the murder of Thomas Berggoist
    • Tilcherie – 1861 – Hanged near the scene of the crime at Fowler’s Bay for the murder of Thomas Berggoist
    • Mangiltie – 1861 – Hanged at Port Lincoln for the murder of Margaret Impey (Impett) at Mount Wedge
    • Karabidnie – 1861 – Hanged at Port Lincoln for the murder of Margaret Impey at Mount Wedge
    • John Seaver – 11 March 1862 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Police Inspector Richard Pettinger at a ball at Government House, Adelaide
    • [GR1] Walker near Cherado
    • Malachi Martin – 24 December 1862 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Jane Macmanamin at Salt Creek
    • Carl Jung – 10 November 1871 – Hanged at Mount Gambier for the murder of Assistant Bailiff Thomas Garraway at Deep Gully, near Mount Gambier
    • Elizabeth Woolcock – 30 December 1873 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Thomas Woolcock at North Yelta. The only woman executed in South Australia.
    • William Ridgeway – 1 January 1874 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Frederick Burt at Coonatto
    • William Page – 27 October 1875 – Hanged at Mount Gambier for the murder of Mary Julia Buchan
    • Charles Streitman – 24 July 1877 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Robert Woodhead at Wallaroo
    • Hugh Fagan (alias James Lynch) – 15 April 1878 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Patrick Bannon at Saltire
    • Jonathan Prest – 16 July 1878 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Prest near Port Adelaide
    • Robert Johnson (alias William Nugent) – 18 November 1881 – Hanged at Mount Gambier for the murder of Trooper Harry Pearce
    • William Burns – 18 January 1883 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Henry Loton on the high seas, off the Cape Verde Islands. “While waiting his doom, he formed an attachment to a young sparrow, which he tamed perfectly. He was greatly affected by the sight of the bird flitting about the scaffold while the preparations for his execution were in progress”
    • Mah Poo (alias Charlie Bow) – 10 November 1883 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Tommy Ah Fook in Hindley Street
    • William Brown (alias Allen, alias Lane)– 24 August 1894 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of George Morowsky at Waukaringa
    • George Lynch – 6 November 1895 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Donald Ross at Balaklava
    • Joshua Beard – 10 July 1897 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Walter Hall at Streaky Bay
    • Lolli Kayser Singh – 17 January 1900 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Sunda Singh at Denial Bay
    • Thomas Horton – 12 May 1904 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Florence in Rundle Street
    • Albert Bonfield – 5 January 1905 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Caroline Hinds at Kensington Gardens
    • Notella Habibulla – 16 November 1906 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Edith in Bristol Street (off Cardwell St)
    • James (Joe) Coleman – 2 July 1908 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Constable Albert Ring at Glenelg
    • John Robins – 16 March 1910 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Robert Ownsworth in Moonta St Adelaide
    • Hadji Khan – 5 April 1910 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Said Mahommed at Frome Creek
    • Carlos Augustus Bonello – 5 May 1910 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Norma Plush at Siegersdorf
    • Percival Budd – 24 April 1919 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Harold Jacques at Crystal Brook
    • Alexander Newland Lee – 15 July 1920 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Muriel at Rhynie. Lee was the nephew of Martha Needle[GR2] 
    • William Francis – 22 November 1927 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Myra at Rosaville, Mount Gambier
    • William Haines – 16 December 1927 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Devina Schmidt at Bridgewater
    • Frederick Carr – 12 November 1929 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Maude at Birkenhead
    • Thomas Blythe – 9 January 1930 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Sarah at Unley
    • Harold James Box – 26 April 1944 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Albert Edmund (Lance) Brown at Gawler Place, Adelaide
    • Charles O’Leary – 14 November 1946 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Walter ‘Spoggy’ Ballard at Nangwarry, near Penola
    • Alfred Griffin – 22 March 1950 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Elsie Wheeler at a Hutt Street boarding house
    • John Balaban – 26 August 1953 – Murdered at least four people. Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Zora Kusic at Torrensville
    • William Feast – 23 March 1956 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Eunice Gwynne at Wingfield
    • Raymond John Bailey – 24 June 1958 – Convicted for the Sundown Murders. Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Thyra Bowman
    • Glen Sabre Valance – 24 November 1964 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Richard Stang at Kooroon Station. Last person to be executed in South Australia.

     [GR1]Malachy Martin (also Malachi Earl Martin) (c.1831 – 24 December 1862) lived in South Australia in the 19th century and was convicted and executed for committing a willful murder in 1862. Although in most official records his given name is written as “Malachi” it is clear that his parents actually gave him the traditional Irish form of the name, popularised through the veneration of St. Malachy, a twelfth-century Bishop of Amagh

     [GR2]Martha Needle was an Australian serial killer known for poisoning her husband, three children and future brother-in-law. She was hanged on 22 October 1894 at the age of 31. Needle was convicted for the murder of Louis Juncken, brother of her fiancé Otto Juncken, on 15 May 1894. Although Needle collected substantial sums of insurance money, her exact motive for murdering her family has not been determined. Several times she stated her innocence, but was eventually hanged.