The Story Of The Chernobyl Disaster And The Radioactive Ghost Town Of Pripyat It Left Behind

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

The Chernobyl disaster of April 26, 1986 in Pripyat, Ukraine remains the most catastrophic nuclear accident of the 20th century.

The Chernobyl disaster of April 25 and 26, 1986, was the most catastrophic nuclear accident of the 20th century. It has shaped and inspired nuclear policy, influenced environmentalist and activist groups, and left a direct, physiological impact on Pripyat, Ukraine and the Eastern European regions it contaminated.

The event happened due just as much to negligence as inevitability — with no fail-safes to prevent radiation from escaping in case of an accident, improperly trained personnel, and no enacted safety measures to ensure that those mistakes wouldn’t occur in the first place, the disaster was arguably lying in wait.

When a late-night safety test went awry and subsequent human error interfered with preventative measures, Chernobyl’s Reactor 4 became unmanageable. Water and steam merged together which lead to an explosion and a resulting open-air graphite fire. Two plant workers died that night and arguably suffered the least out of all those who eventually died from radiation or grew up with birth defects.

The Pripyat Amusement Park was set to open on May 1, 1986 — a week after the Chernobyl disaster.

Over the next few days, 134 servicemen involved with the clean-up in and around Pripyat were hospitalized, 28 died of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in the following weeks, and 14 died of radiation-induced cancer within the next ten years. Indeed, the complete effects the disaster had on the health of the public in Pripyat and the surrounding area is still not totally known.

A simple miscalculation in safety measures during a late-night test quickly became the biggest nuclear disaster of the modern era. Brave souls on the ground sacrificed everything to stop it as the rest of the world watched in horror. 33 years later, the radioactivity of the Chernobyl disaster still lingers.

Emergency workers cleaning up radiated materials with shovels in Pripyat, 1986.

Ground Zero: A Timeline Of Events That Led To The Chernobyl Disaster

The accident occurred a full year before President Reagan famously ordered USSR General Secretary Gorbachev to “tear down that wall.” The Pripyat Amusement Park was set to open on May 1st as part of the May Day celebrations, but that opportunity never came.

It was 1:23 A.M. local time when Reactor 4 suffered a fateful power increase too high to handle. This was before nuclear reactors were encased in a now standardized, protective containment vessel.

Workers hosing the plant down with a decontaminant, 1986.

Chernobyl’s failings allowed vast amounts of radioactive isotopes to billow out into the atmosphere, covering parts of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and the American east coast in varying amounts of fallout.

Areas closest to the site, like Pripyat, were affected most drastically, with Ukraine’s capital Kiev receiving around 60 percent of the fallout while a significant amount of Russian territory sustained considerable contamination as well. UNICEF estimated that over 350,000 people evacuated their homes in Pripyat and far beyond between 1986 and 2000 specifically due to Chernobyl’s after effects.

The Design Flaws And Misuse Of Reactor 4

The Soviet Union’s Chernobyl nuclear plant is about 65 miles north of Kiev on the banks of the Pripyat River. The town of Pripyat or Prypyat was founded in 1970 to serve the nuclear plant specifically as a closed, nuclear city. It only became an official city nine years later.

But today, save for the startling emergence of wildlife, Pripyat remains a ghost town.

Chernobyl had four reactors and each was capable of generating 1,000 megawatts of electric power. For context, the California Independent System Operator which oversees the bulk of the state’s electric power system, says one megawatt is capable of producing enough electricity for the instantaneous demand of 1,000 homes at once.

Recording radiation levels during construction of a new sarcophagus for Reactor 4, August 1986.

Chernobyl’s four reactors were different than most others worldwide. The Soviet-designed RBMK reactor, or Reactor Bolsho-Moshchnosty Kanalny meaning “high-power channel reactor,” was water-pressurized and intended to produce both plutonium and electric power and as such, used a rare combination of water coolant and graphite moderators that made them fairly unstable at low power.

If the reactors lost cooling water, they’d dramatically decrease power output which would rapidly facilitate nuclear chain reactions. What’s more, the RBMK design didn’t have a containment structure which is exactly what it sounds like: a concrete and steel dome over the reactor itself meant to keep radiation inside the plant even if the reactor fails, leaks, or explodes.

These design flaws compounded with the staff of untrained operators made for the perfect storm of Nuclear failures.

The rather inadequately trained personnel working on the Number 4 reactor late that night on April 25 decided to complicate a routine safety test and conduct an electrical-engineering experiment of their own. Their curiosity of whether or not the reactor’s turbine could operate emergency water pumps on inertial power, unfortunately, got a hold of their judgment.

First, the team disconnected the reactor’s emergency safety systems as well as its essential power-regulating system. Things quickly worsened when they set the reactor at a power level so low that it became unstable and removed too many of its control rods in an effort to regain some control.

At this point, the reactor’s output reached over 200 megawatts. At that fateful hour of 1:23 A.M., the engineers shut the turbine engine off completely to confirm whether or not its inertial spinning would force the reactor’s water pumps to kick in. Tragically, it did not. Without the requisite water-coolant to maintain temperatures, the reactor’s power level spiked to unmanageable levels.

The Chernobyl Disaster

In an effort to prevent the situation from rapidly getting worse, the engineers reinserted all the control rods — about 200 — taken out earlier in the hopes of recalibrating the reactor and bringing it back to reasonable levels. Unfortunately, they reinserted those rods all at once, and because the rods’ tips were made of graphite, this set off a chemical reaction which resulted in an explosion that was then ignited by steam and gas.

The explosion ripped through the 1,000-metric-ton concrete and steel lid and reportedly ruptured all 1,660 pressure tubes as well — thereby causing another explosion that ultimately exposed the reactor core to the world outside.

The resultant fire allowed more than 50 tons of radioactive material to waft into the sky where it was inevitably carried away and spread across the continent by wind currents. The graphite moderator, leaking radioactive material, burned for 10 days straight.

It didn’t take long for the Soviets to order an evacuation of Pripyat’s 30,000. Authorities scrambled to problem-solve their way out of the fiasco on their hands and began with an attempted cover-up that failed a mere day later. Sweden’s radiation monitoring stations over 800 miles northwest of Chernobyl detected radiation levels 40 percent higher than standard levels just a day after the explosion. The Soviet news agencies had no choice but to admit to the world what had happened.

The amount of radiation relinquished into the skies from the Chernobyl disaster was several times that of U.S. atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. With the help of global air currents, the nuclear disaster affected Eastern and Northern Europe and contaminated millions of acres of pristine farmland in the region.

A crumbling school building in Pripyat, 2018.

The “Suicide Squad” Makes A Sacrifice For The Greater Good

Unbelievably, the events of the Chernobyl disaster could have been even worse if not for real-life hero Alexander Akimov and his brave team.

Akimov was the first to declare an emergency in the plant as soon as the reactor was shut down, though by then the damage had already been done. He realized too late the extent of the damage; already the reactor had exploded and began to leak extremely high levels of radiation.

Rather than evacuate the plant as the explosion ensued, Akimov stayed behind. He and his crew of Valeri Bezpalov, Alexi Ananeko, and Boris Baranov entered the reactor’s chamber in waist-high radioactive waters beside the exploded reactor to release water. Bezpalov, Ananeko, and Baranov comprised a ‘Suicide Squad’ that descended into the water even deeper to turn on the emergency feedwater pumps to flood the reactor and stave off the release of more radioactive materials.

They manually pumped emergency feedwater into the reactor without any protective gear. The work of the engineers ended up costing them their lives from radiation poisoning, but they dramatically changed the impact of the disaster. Their sacrifice saved countless others from a resulting fallout that would have covered most of Europe.

The Toll Of Cleanup Operations In Pripyat

While the physical illnesses and disease were reportedly difficult to specifically tie to the disaster itself, the short- and long-term efforts to minimize any harrowing consequences were substantial.

The initial explosion resulted in the death of two workers and 28 firemen and emergency clean-up workers, including 19 others, died within three months of the explosion from Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS). Around 1,000 on-site reactor staff and emergency workers were heavily exposed to high-level radiation as well as more than 200,000 emergency and recovery operation workers.

Managing Reactor 4 proved more difficult and complex compared with the relatively basic task of moving people from one place to another. Soviet estimates have calculated that 211,000 workers took part in the cleanup activities during the first year with anywhere between 300,000 and 600,000 people participating within the first two.

Evacuations began 36 hours after the incident with Soviet authorities having successfully relocated everyone in the 30-kilometer exclusion zone within a month. About 116,000 people had to pick up their things and find new homes — or potentially die from radiation-induced illnesses.

But a 2005 United Nations Report maintains that “the largest public health problem created by the accident” was its effect on the mental health of the 600,000 people living in areas impacted by the event.

The Nuclear Energy Institute claimed Chernobyl’s failings resulted in about 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer, with some deaths occurring as late as 2004 — while the UN study argued that less than 50 deaths could be guaranteed to have resulted from the event’s radiation exposure.

‘Liquidators’ preparing for cleanup, 1986.

Children in contaminated areas were given high doses of thyroid medication in order to combat the increase in radioiodine — a contaminant isotope that had seeped into the regional milk. This isotope had a half-life of eight days. Meanwhile, the soil was found to be contained by cesium-137 — which has a half-life of 30 years.

The efforts appeared to be to little avail. Numerous studies found that the number of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age in Belarus as well as Russia and Ukraine in general, showed a steep, concerning spike. Many of these children had developed a particular form of cancer from drinking milk — as cows grazed on contaminated soil, and produced contaminated milk.

A mural in Pripyat depicting children before the meltdown, 2018.

It hadn’t yet become clear, in the frenzy of day to day cleanup operations in those first months following the Chernobyl disaster, but an entire generation of children would grow up permanently changed by the event.

The Prince and the Diggers Daughter-

By Moya Sharp 

Copied & edited by George W Rehder


A TALE OF THE GOLDFIELDS
written by JAMES GRAYSON for the “Nambucca News”

When gold is calling, however tortuous the road, civilised men all the world over (and some women, too) will overcome all apparent impossible obstacles, reaching their objective often in the last stage of endurance. How strange it is, but nevertheless true, that the richest of the Midas ‘ hoards are more often found in places of a nightmare access.
The West Australian Goldfields, for instance, with which this tale is linked, could tell many pitiful stories of suffering and death in that cruel desert land that still its secrets keeps of many who ventured but came not through. Tortured by thirst, chasing the beautiful mirage lakes so real-like. Surely it cannot possibly be that these realistic waters, vast lake areas extending away the miles, beyond, up the shadowy vales, eddying around the distant foothills, with the great fleecy clouds in a blue dome above, and with the white gum-trunks along the hillside so clearly reflected in these inviting pools, can “be but deception—death snares of the badlands. The little waves of deception even are there, rippling the surface of these lakes of grandeur ever beckoning their thirst-parched victims to a desert grave.
And so, my readers, we can easily imagine the spark of hope that flickers in the dying eyes, and the slight flutter to the heart of feeble beats that come when the stricken one first sights these lakes of doom. Many are the graves where lost ones sleep, with no rail to guard or stone to tell who rests there beneath the salt-bush in the water less region of the golden state. Things became so bad at one period in the early days of the Western gold rush, that a police camel corps, as we called them, were continuously scouring the bush, more especially out in the Siberia district. Many were the timely rescues, but often, too often, there were graves to dig.Then for a spell men were

detained in Southern Cross, which was at the time the furthest out civilisation — the jumping off place for the dash across the no-man’s-land of West Australia, 130 miles where no dingoes howled between the Cross and the “Camp of Rest” Coolgardie.

When Bailey and Ford ventured out into the unknown and discovered gold “lumps of it” on the first fringe of what subsequently was proved to be the largest and richest tract of gold-bearing country in the world, the railway line from Northam to the Cross, the out-post mining camp, was in course of completion. From there, however, to Bailey’s new strike was the desert crossing of another 130 miles of dry going. This newly discovered belt extended practically from south to north of the State. On the one square mile of Kalgoorlie, discovered by Paddy Hannan and friends, 25 miles east again from Coolgardie, 450 tons of gold has been smelted.

However, to get on with the story. West Australia was  — burning thirst, long dry stages in blistering heat, 115 in the shade at times, and the cradle home of the “bung-eye” fly. Wagon and horse teams, were the first mode of transport from the Cross, and still are used in many parts of the north-west. We had the cycle express and the donkey teams, but had it not been for the camel, things would have been much worse. It was ideal for these ancient ships of the desert, for level sandy going could always be found in a winding way.
An abundance of camel feed, quandong and mulga scrub, enabled the out-back storekeeper to keep up his stock. These beasts of burden have been known to go 9 to 10 days without a “reviver” and to carry at the same time from 4 to 6 hundredweight average to the connected “train” — nose-line to tail. To drive these thousands of camels, quite an army of Afghans were required, by which means the barrier of the desert land was overcome and the richest gold-fields that as yet man has known was thrown open to the world, and to where flocked the mighty hordes of the nations.

Most of these rich mines have petered out now — treasures torn from old mother earth’ so speedily with modern equipment, by the old mining methods the fields would have lived for another half century. At the time of which I speak the appearance of a woman ,in Coolgardie was an event of excitement and of much speculation. So when Rowles and his family one day arrived in the camp there was quite a stir, for this was the pioneer family east of the badlands. The little girl Rowles, whom I had last seen in Western Queensland, was now about 15, and with good looks, tall and well developed. The thousands of dinkum prospectors who were there, most of them having daughters of their own, mothers or sisters back east, admired this “Daughter of the Diggers,” as we named her. She was like a link with our home life. She was looked upon as only a kid by the white population.

Unfortunately, not so by the black, Prince Shah Mahomet. This meeting of the East with West was tragic, the beginning of a feud which covered 16 years of suffering and shame, taking toll of six human lives.  At the time the Rowles and family, consisted of his wife and daughter Stella, with two little brothers, Billy was about eleven while Peter was nine years old. They struck camp near where there were three large camel owners in Coolgardie, owning thousands of camels each. They controlled the whole of the goldfields transport trade, so naturally freight rates were high, which same were paid without a murmur, the storekeeper passing it on to the digger. It had to be rich, with tin-dog at 5/- per lb. tin, water 5/-per gallon. These three camel men became very wealthy. The richest of the three, however, was Tagh Mahomet, who with his brother Faiz Mahomet, owned many thousands of these beasts of burden, and in commission on every part of the field. Tagh Mahomet was a cousin of the then Amir of Afghanistan, and was really a prince in his own land, being treated as such in Coolgardie by his fellow countrymen. Thus, with royal blood and plenty of money he was easily the camel transport king of the West.


Then there was Shah Mahomet, another prince of the blood. He was Tagh Mahomet’s nephew, and looked every inch what a prince should be, tall and well proportioned, of commanding bearing, black of beard, and without doubt a splendid specimen of manhood. A man that many a girl might easily have fallen in love with. One did, but with what terrible results! When the Rowles family struck the field, Shah had just turned his 21st year. There had been a full week of feasting and merry-making in the Afghan encampment down on Fly Flat, where there was never less than 100 men under canvas at the one time. On many occasions, however, there might be anything up to 200 as it often happened, numbers of incoming camel trains arrived in Coolgardie at the same time. For the birthday party of this black prince, incoming camel drivers urged their string onwards, some doing double stages. This merry-making, like the joy time of a Ghan Christmas, was kept up night and day for one week. The whole population of the field were free, to come and go. A ton of fruit was distributed among the white crowd in the first two nights. I don’t know how much on the following nights, but there was fruit everywhere which must have cost a fortune. In Afghanistan, from time immemorial, the young women, girls, of 9 and 10 years, take to themselves the responsibility of a husband and home. Perhaps the men there become of age before the 21st milestone on the road of life. However, I know the black Prince at the time of the celebration was 21 years old. It was some three months later that Bob Rowles and family arrived on the camp. The girl was considered by the white population to be little more than a child — the Eastern race, though, look upon woman’s age from a different angle altogether.
So when the bomb burst among us that Shah Mahomet had abducted Stella Rowles, a white girl of only 15, the diggers were stirred to murdering point. How the news spread is unknown, but in less than half an hour more than 5,000 diggers, armed to the teeth, surrounded the camp of Shah Mahomet. “String him up!” was heard on every hand, Police inspector McKinna and Warden Finnerty (both have now passed through golden gates)  rushed with all available troopers to the rescue, but they had as much chance of staying the rush as they would have had of stopping a flood. The encampment consisted of many drivers canvas dwellings, with old Prince Tagh Mahomet’s residence — a rather big affair of canvas, hessian, galvanised iron, rusty kerosene tins — squatting in the centre.

The young Prince had shared the “royal palace” with the old chap of money and rank. However, “royalty” counted nothing with the sons of white fathers on this occasion, anyway. It was an ugly situation, the birth of this riot on Fly Speck Flat. Then, when big Paddy McGrath, with his mate Paddy Whelan, arrived on the scene and took charge of things with a mighty shout of “bush law,” the thousands “charged like rushing steers through the “royal” encampment, which they flattened to the ground. The ‘Ghans didn’t show any of the “white feather,” Wrestling is the noble art in Afghanistan, as the bare knuckles act as arbitrator in many British disputes among men. The black Prince was an amateur champion in his own land, and among the hundreds of camel drivers on the field there was only one better man at the game than he that one was a professional named Adgie, whom Mahomet brought specially from ‘Ghan land to wrestle any white man in West Australia.

In a very few moments the scene was as likened to an earthquake visitation. Then somehow it was learned that the young Prince, like a Lochinvar, had mounted his fastest trotting camel, and in the dusk of the evening had carried away the maiden to parts unknown. The broken-hearted Rowles now appealed to the old Prince, who was just as mad with his nephew as the father of the girl was. But what could he do that would avail? However, he put at the immediate service of Rowles and his party any reasonable number of his best riding camels, also Gould Mahomet as interpreter, who could speak half -a-dozen languages fluently. As the father (Rowles) had sworn to shoot the abductor on sight a trooper went along in the name of the law, the girl being under the age of 16. The old Prince issued a mandate to be proclaimed by Gould Mahomet to all Afghans, wherever met, that anyone found harboring Shah Mahomet, who had disgraced his nations honour and offended the Prophet, would be struck off the pay-sheet of the transport king. It was then rumored that an Afghan rider had been seen heading towards the old 90-mile road, early in the night, with what was thought to be a second Ghan riding double, no notice was taken at the time of this every-day sight, so now it was calculated that he was making for some outback Afghan encampment or a cross country dash for some mid-North West sea port, and on this slight clue the chase started without the slightest hope in the world of ever overhauling the runaways. At the time of the abduction I was away from Coolgardie on a flying trip with a mate, Jack Pickering, through the outback country of Murrin Murrin and the Hawk’s Nest 120 miles north-west.

We had said good-bye to little Stella before starting only a week previously. We were now returning, following a compass track which would take us to the little gnamma hole, known as Split Rock. Camels make no hoof-beats, and we came out through a thick patch of mulga right into a small Afghan camp at the Rock, had come right up close before we were noticed (there were no camp dogs on the fields in those days), and I could have sworn that I caught the. whisk of a female’s dress disappearing into a tent. Under similar circumstances the Ghans greet the traveler in a friendly way, but on this occasion we were at a loss to account for the coolness, the lack of welcome. I was struck with some kind of suppressed excitement among them, which they evidently had been discussing upon our arrival. They were civil enough, but seemed anxious. They had been spelling their string for a few days, they said, but were about to move on. We struck the 90-mile road shortly after this arid camped that night at the Flying Pig “specking patch.” Early next morning, when within about 25 miles of Coolgardie on the 90-mile road, we proceeded along, Jack in the lead (poor old Jack- he was a wonderful bushman, but a few years after this he was speared by the natives) suddenly called out, “What’s this coming?’ it must be the advance party of a new gold rush!” We could see a small party of camel riders about a mile distant. “We’ll wait here, Jim,” he advised. “They are coming up fast— we’re in luck, we’ll join the party!” And it was there, with anger and regret that we heard of the pitiful occurrence which sounded to me as a tale of fiction, and I thought of the little kid of the Queensland diggings who, in her trust of men, wanted to show to me where her daddy had all his worldly possessions hidden.

The Rowles party numbered half-a-dozen. Besides Rowles and the trooper, there was Smiler Hales, a writer, no doubt some of you have read his books. Then there was “Rocky Mountain” Bill, a rather, spectacular sort of cuss, a friend of Smiler’s, who claimed to have put up a miner’s timbering record of 6 miles close sets at Cripple Creek, Rocky Mountain, U.S.A. The others were McGrath and Paddy Whelan, with Gould Mahomet. After we had talked the matter over and I had explained what I thought I had seen at Split Rock, Jack Pickering decided to continue on to Coolgardie while I went back to the Rock camp with the party just to ease the father’s mind. McGrath and Whelan turned their faces to the south and accompanied Pickering home. We reached Split Rock long after nightfall, and, as I expected, the Ghans had moved on. We camped well away from where I thought I saw the whisk of a woman’s dress the day previous. As soon as light dawned next morning, while the others were making ready for an early start still onward, the trooper and myself made a thorough investigation, but no girl’s footprints could we find. The policeman was a real bushman and good tracker, and I was pretty good myself in those days. However, I had a strong sense of conviction upon me that the little lass had been there. Gone to destruction at the age of 14 years and 9 months, her father told me. Ularing mining camp lay 22 miles due north.  The Split Rock camel party had passed through late the previous day but there was no girl with them. So at last, giving up all hope of finding his daughter, the brokenhearted father agreed to return home, but kept repeating aloud, “What will her mother say to me?”

Things settled more peacefully in a few days. New gold strikes were being reported from every quarter, and old chums scattered, in many cases never to meet again. Old ‘ Uncle Tagh Mahomet confiscated all of the young Prince’s property, and issued a decree forbidding him ever to return to West Australia.
Rowles and his wife’ still stuck to the old camp in the hope that little Stella some day would return. It was not, however, until 12 months after that a letter came one day from the girl, telling that Shah Mahomet had taken her to a place in India and there had legally married her in accordance with Mohammedan custom, and with this slight comfort they had to be content.
As these camel owners were growing wealthy in West Australia and Shah dare not return, the members of his clan plotted for vengeance. Suddenly, the first blow was struck in this tragic feud, which had begun 15 months before. The old Prince, Tagh Mahomet, chief of the local Afghans, was murdered by a member of an awful Indian cult, which the British Raj had failed to stamp out, and one morning, when the whole camp were engaged in worship a strange Ghan, Goulah  Mahomet, bowed low behind the kneeling old Prince, pressed a revolver against his ribs and shot him dead. it was Friday January 10, 1896, Then he walked up to the police station and gave himself up, he had fulfilled his mission.

Stella’s family were never to see her again.

List of people legally executed in Western Australia

Long Island, Houtman Abrolhos

  • Jeronimus Corneliszoon[GR1]  – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Lenert Michielsz – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Mattys Beijr – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Jan Hendricx – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children

  • Allert Janssen – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Rutger Fredericxsz – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Andries Jonas – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children

York

York
  • Doodjeep – 7 July 1840 – Hanged in chains at the site of the crime, for the murders of Sarah Cook and her 8-month-old child on 18 May 1839 at Norrilong, York
  • Barrabong – 7 July 1840 – Hanged in chains at the site of the crime for the murders of Sarah Cook and her 8-month-old child on 18 May 1839 at Norrilong, York

Mullewa

Mullewa
  • Wangayackoo – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Yermakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Garolee – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Charlakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Williakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott

Kellerberrin

Kellerberrin
  • Ngowee – 19 January 1866 – For the murder of Edward Clarkson on 21 August 1865, hanged at the site of the crime, at Dalbercuttin, near Kellerberrin
  • Egup (Condor) – 21 April 1866 – For the murder of Edward Clarkson on 21 August 1865, hanged at the site of the crime, at Dalbercuttin, near Kellerberrin

Roebourne

Roebourne
  • Cooperabiddy – 20 March 1893 – Hanged for murder of James Coppin, described as a ‘half-caste’, at the Hamersley Ranges
  • Doulga – 28 December 1896 – Hanged for the murder of John Horrigan at Lagrange Bay on 28 March 1896
  • Caroling – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station
  • Poeling – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station
  • Weedabong – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station

Derby

Derby
  • Lillimara – 21 October 1899 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of Thomas Jasper on 17 March 1897 on Oscar Range Station, Fitzroy Crossing
  • Mullabudden – 12 May 1900 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of John Dobbie on 12 March 1899 at Mount Broome
  • Woolmillamah – 12 May 1900 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of John Dobbie on 12 March 1899 at Mount Broome

Halls Creek

Halls Creek
  • Tomahawk – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891
  • Dicky – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891
  • Chinaman (Jerringo) – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891

Geraldton

Geraldton
  • Sing Ong – 29 October 1884 – Hanged for the murder of Chung Ah Foo on 11 May 1884 at Shark Bay

Albany

Albany
  • Peter McKean (alias William McDonald) – 12 October 1872 – Hanged for the murder of William “Yorkie” Marriott on 30 June 1872 at Slab Hut Gully (Tunney), between Kojonup and Cranbrook

Perth

Perth
  • Midgegooroo[GR2]  – 22 May 1833 – Executed at the Perth Gaol by firing squad on a death warrant issued summarily by Lieutenant Governor Frederick Irwin, for the murders of Thomas and John Velvick at Bull’s Creek on 31 March 1833
  • Mendik – 14 October 1841 – Hanged at the site of the crime for the murder of twelve-year-old John Burtenshaw on the Canning River at Maddington on 16 July 1839
  • Buckas (lascar[GR3] 

A group of people

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  • ) – January 1845 – Hanged at Perth for rape on a child under ten years of age
  • James Malcolm – 14 April 1847 – Hanged at the site of the crime, the Burswood Estate (Victoria Park), for highway robbery and murder of Clark Gordon on 6 January 1847
  • Kanyin – 12 April 1850 – Hanged at Redcliffe for the murder of Yadupwert at York. This was the first public execution in Western Australia for inter se
  •  murder
  • Edward Bishop – 12 October 1854 – Hanged at South Perth for the murder of Ah Chong, a chinaman, at York. Protested his innocence to the end. Three years later William Voss confessed to the crime. Voss was hanged in 1862 at Perth Gaol for the murder of his wife
  • Samuel Stanley – 18 April 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Catherine Dayly on the York Road
  • Jacob – 18 April 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Bijare at Gingin on 25 September 1854
  • Yoongal – 14 July 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Kanip at the Hotham River
  • Yandan – 14 July 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder by spearing of a ten-year-old girl named Yangerdan near York

Hanged at the Perth Gaol:

  • Bridget Hurford – 15 October 1855 – for the murder of her husband John Hurford at Vasse
  • William Dodd – 15 October 1855 – for the murder of John Hurford at Vasse
  • George Williams – 15 October 1855 – for wounding Warder James McEvoy with a shovel at the Convict Establishment
  •  on 26 September 1855
  • John Scott – 14 January 1856 – for the murder of William Longmate at Vasse
  • Daniel Lewis (Convict # 2972)- January 1857 – for the rape of Ellen Horton at Woorooloo
  • John Lloyd – 29 October 1857 – for wounding with intent to kill John Brown at Port Gregory in June 1857
  • Richard Bibbey – 17 October 1859 – for the murder of Billamarra at Upper Irwin in March 1859. First European executed for murder of an aboriginal in Western Australia
  • Thomas Airey – 13 October 1860 – for the rape of five-year-old Lydia Farmer at Perth in July. Had been granted ticket-of-leave 4 June 1860.
  • John Caldwell – 13 October 1860 – for rape and murder of an aboriginal girl at Champion Bay. A ticket-of-leave man.
  • Thomas Clancy – 10 January 1861 – for the rape of seven-year-old Ellen Jane White at Bunbury
  • Joseph McDonald – 10 January 1861 – for rape at Toodyay
  • Robert Thomas Palin[GR4]  – 6 July 1861 – for robbery with violence of Susan Harding at Fremantle
  • William Voss – 9 January 1862 – for the murder of his wife Mary Moir at York on 11 November 1861
  • Kewacan (Larry) – 24 January 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Long Jimmy – 24 January 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Narreen – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of an Indigenous girl called Nelly at Victoria Plains
  • Eenue – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of an Indigenous girl called Nelly at Victoria Plains
  • Finger – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Thomas Pedder – 21 March 1863 – for the murder of Thomas Sweeny, a shepherd, at Irwin River on 1 December 1862
  • John Thomas – 8 September 1863 – for the murder of Duncan Urquhart at Peninsula Farm on 6 June 1863
  • Joseph White – 21 October 1863 – for rape of 13 yo Jane Rhodes, at Greenough on 18 August 1863
  • Teelup – 21 October 1863 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Narrigalt – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Martha Farling, a 31/2 year-old ‘half-caste’ girl, near York on 26 May 1865
  • Youndalt – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Martha Farling, a 31/2 yo ‘half-caste’ girl, near York on 26 May 1865
  • Nandingbert – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Quatcull near Albany on 14 May 1865
  • Yardalgene (also called Jackey Howson) – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Quatcull near Albany on 14 May 1865
  • Daniel Duffy – 11 January 1866 – an escaped convict, hanged for the murder of Edward Johnson on 5 November 1865 at Northam
  • Matthew Brooks – 11 January 1866 – an escaped convict, hanged for the murder of Edward Johnson on 5 November 1865 at Northam
  • Bernard Wootton (also called MacNulty) – 8 October 1867 – an escaped convict, hanged for the attempted murder of Police Sgt. John Moye after his recapture at Murramine, near Beverley. Hanged at Perth Gaol.
  • James Fanning – 14 April 1871 – for the rape of thirteen-year-old Mary Dawes on the Albany Road on 24 November 1870. The first private execution and the last execution for rape in the colony
  • Margaret Cody – 15 July 1871 – for the murder of James Holditch, at North Fremantle on 4 March 1871
  • William Davis – 15 July 1871 – for the murder of James Holditch, at North Fremantle on 4 March 1871
  • Briley (Briarly) – 13 October 1871 – for the murder of Charley (Wickin) at Albany
  • Noorbung – 13 October 1871 – for the murder of Margaret Mary McGowan at Boyanup on 30 June 1871
  • Charcoal (Mullandaridgee) – 15 February 1872 – for the murder of Samuel Wells Lazenby at Port Walcott on 7 August 1871
  • Tommy (Mullandee) – 15 February 1872 – for the murder of Samuel Wells Lazenby at Port Walcott
  •  on 7 August 1871
  • Yarradeee – 16 October 1873 – for the murder and cannibalism of three-year-old Edward William Dunn at Yanganooka, Port Gregory on 5 October 1865
  • Muregelly – 16 October 1873 – for the murder and cannibalism of three-year-old Edward William Dunn at Yanganooka, Port Gregory on 5 October 1865
  • Robert Goswell – 13 January 1874 – for murder of Mary Anne Lloyd at Stapelford, Beverley on 1 December 1873
  • John Gill – 4 April 1874 – hanged for the murder of William Foster at Narrogin on 13 February 1874
  • Bobbinett – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Police Lance-Corporal William Archibald Armstrong near Kojonup on 14 January 1875
  • Wanaba (or Wallaby) – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Tommy Howell (or Moul), a police native assistant, near Yalgoo on 10 July 1874
  • Wandagary – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Tommy Howell (or Moul), a police native assistant, near Yalgoo on 10 July 1874
  • Kenneth Brown[GR5]  – 10 June 1876 – for the murder of his wife Mary Ann on 3 January 1876 at Geraldton
  • Yarndu – 16 October 1876
  • Chilagorah – 29 April 1879 – for the murder of Pintagorah at Cossack on 31 January 1879
  • Ah Kett – 27 January 1883 – for the murder of Foo Ah Moy, at Cheritah Station, Roebourne on 2 July 1883
  • John Collins – 27 January 1883 – for the murder of John King at the Kalgan River near Albany on 2 October 1882
  • John Maroney – 25 October 1883 – for the murder of James Watson at Yellenup, Kojonup on 1 May 1883
  • William Watkins – 25 October 1883 – for the murder of James Watson at Yellenup, Kojonup on 1 May 1883
  • Henry Benjamin Haynes – 23 January 1884 – for the murder of his wife Mary Ann Haynes at Perth on 12 October 1883
  • Thomas Henry Carbury – 23 October 1884 – for the murder of Constable Hackett at Beverley
  • Beverley
    • on 12 September 1884
    • John Duffy – 28 January 1885 – for the murder of his wife Mary Sultana McGann at Fremantle on 21 November 1884
    • Henry Sherry – 27 October 1885 – for the murder of Catherine Waldock at Quinderring, Williams on 16 September 1885
    • Franz Erdmann – 4 April 1887 – for the murder of Anthony Johnson at McPhee’s Creek, Kimberley on 27 October 1886
    • William Conroy [GR6] – 18 November 1887 – for the murder of John Snook at Fremantle Town Hall on 23 June 1887

    Rottnest

    Rottnest
    • Tampin – 16 July 1879 – Hanged for the murder of John Moir at Stokes Inlet on 29 March 1877
    • Wangabiddi – 18 Jun 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Charles Redfern at Minni-Minni on the Gascoyne River in May 1882 
    • Guerilla – 18 June 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Anthony Cornish at Fitzroy River on 12 December 1882
    • Naracorie – 3 August 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Charles Brackell at Wandagee on the Minilya River on 31 July 1882 
    • Calabungamarra – 13 June 1888 – Hanged for the murder of a Chinese man, Indyco, at Hamersley Range

    Fremantle

    List of executions at Fremantle Prison

    Hanged at the Round House:

    • John Gaven[GR7]  – 6 April 1844 – Hanged for the murder of George Pollard at South Dandalup

    Hanged at Fremantle Prison:

    • Long Jimmy (alias Jimmy Long) – 2 March 1889 – A Malay, hanged for the murder of Claude Kerr on board the pearling lugger ‘Dawn’ at Cossack on 7 September 1888
    • Ahle Pres (alias Harry Pres) – 8 November 1889 – A Singapore Malay, hanged for the murder of Louis, a Filipino, near Halls Creek, on 9 June 1889
    • Ah Chi (alias Li Ki Hong) – 16 April 1891 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Gin at Daliak, York on 3 March 1891
    • Chew Fong – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Lyee Nyee – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Yung Quonk (Young Quong) – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Sin Cho Chi – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of George E.B Fairhead, at a Mill Stream out-station, near Roebourne
    • [GR8] – 2 May 1896 – Hanged for the murder of Tagh Mahomet in the mosque at Coolgardie on 10 January 1896
    • Jumna Khan – 31 March 1897 – Hanged for the murder of William Griffiths in High Street, Fremantle on 3 December 1896
    • Pedro De La Cruz – 19 July 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Captain John Arthur Reddell of the brigantine Ethel, his 19-year-old son Leslie, the mate James Taylor, and two crew-members (Ando, who was Japanese, and Jimmy, who was Indigenous), at the La Grange Bay pearling grounds, near Broome, on 19 October 1899
    • Peter Perez – 19 July 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Captain John Arthur Reddell of the brigantine Ethel, his 19-year-old son Leslie, the mate James Taylor, and two crew-members (Ando, who was Japanese, and Jimmy, who was Indigenous), at the La Grange Bay pearling grounds, near Broome, on 19 October 1899
    • Samuel Peters – 9 September 1902 – Hanged for the murder of his wife Trevenna Peters at Leederville on 3 July 1903
    • Stelios Psichitas – 15 April 1903 – Greek national, hanged for the rape and murder of his sister-in-law Sophia Psichitas (nee Leadakis) and murder of his 4-month-old nephew Emanuel at Lawlers on 20 December 1902
    • Fredric Maillat – 21 April 1903 – French national, hanged for the murder of Charles Lauffer, at Smith’s Mill, Glen Forest, on 4 February 1903
    • Sebaro Rokka – 7 July 1903 – Hanged for the murder of Dollah and another Malay at Point Cunningham, near Derby on 20 February 1903
    • Ah Hook – 11 January 1904 – Hanged for the murder of Yanoo, a Japanese laundryman, at Carnarvon on 26 August 1903
    • Manoor Mohomet – 4 May 1904 – Hanged for the murder of Meer, an Afghan, at Kensington, near Menzies on 16 November 1903
    • Simeon Espada – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome on 30 August 1905
    • Charles Hagen – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome on 30 August 1905
    • Pablo Marquez – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome
    Broome
    • on 30 August 1905
    • Antonio Sala – 19 November 1906 – Hanged for the murder of Battista Gregorini at Mt Jackson on 13 September 1906
    • Augustin De Kitchilan – 23 October 1907 – Hanged for the murder of Leah Fouracre at Peppermint Grove Farm, Waroona on 15 or 16 August 1907
    • Harry G. Smith – 23 March 1908 – Hanged for the murder of William John Clinton at Day Dawn on 5 January 1908
    • Iwakichi Oki – 22 October 1908 – Hanged for the murder of James Henry Shaw at West Murray, Pinjarra on 23 August 1908
    • Martha Rendell
    •  – 6 October 1909 – Hanged for the murder of her 14-year-old stepson Arthur Morris by poisoning on 8 October 1908, suspected of killing two younger stepchildren
    • Peter Robustelli – 9 February 1910 – Hanged for the murder of Giovanni Forsatti in a lane between Bayley and Woodward streets, Coolgardie
    Coolgardie
    • on 19 October 1909
    • Alexander Smart – 7 March 1911 – Hanged for the murder of Ethel May Harris at 5 Cowle Street, West Perth on 10 March 1910
    • David H Smithson – 25 July 1911 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 18-year-old Elizabeth Frances Compton at Woodlupine on 13 May 1911
    • Charles Spargo – 1 July 1913 – Hanged for the murder of Gilbert Pickering Jones at Broome on 23 January 1913
    • Charles H. Odgers – 14 January 1914 – Hanged for the murder of Edith Molyneaux at Balgobin, Dandalup on 3 October 1913; also charged with murder of Richard Thomas Williams at Waroona on 14 September 1913
    • Andrea Sacheri (alias Joseph Cutay) – 12 April 1915 – Hanged for the murder of 11-year-old Jean Bell at Marrinup, near Dwellingup, on 12 January 1915
    • Frank Matamin (alias Rosland) – 12 March 1923 – Hanged for the murder of Zareen at Nullagine on 27 August 1922
    • Royston Rennie – 2 August 1926 – Hanged for the murder of John Roger Greville on the train between East Perth and Perth stations on 3 June 1926
    • William Coulter – 25 October 1926 – Hanged for the murders of Inspector John Walsh and Sergeant Alexander Pitman
    •  near Boulder on 28 April 1926
    • John Sumpter Milner – 21 May 1928 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Ivy Lewis at Darkan on 28 February 1928
    • Clifford Hulme – 3 September 1928 – Hanged for the murder of Harold Eaton Smith at Wubin on 22 June 1928
    • Antonio Fanto – 18 May 1931 – Hanged for the murder of Cosimo Nesci (sometimes Nexi, Xesci) at Latham on 20 March 1931
    • John Thomas Smith (Snowy Rowles[GR9] 
    Extract from The Mirror on the story of Snowy Rowles and the Murchison Murder. Page 6 19 March, 1932.
    • ) – 13 June 1932 – Hanged for the murder of Louis George Carron near the 183 mile gate on the No. 1 Rabbit-proof fence
    • , near Youanmi, on or about 20 May 1930
    • Karol Tapci – 23 June 1952 – Hanged for the murder of Norman Alfred Perfect at Wubin on 17 March
    • Robert Jeremiah Thomas – 18 July 1960 – Hanged for the murder of taxi-driver Keith Mervyn Campbell Wedd at Claremont on 22 June 1959. Also charged with the murder of John and Kaye O’Hara in Jimbell St, Mosman Park.
    • Mervyn Fallows – 6 June 1961 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Sandra Dorothea Smith at North Beach on or before 29 December 1960
    • Brian William Robinson – 20 January 1964 – Hanged for the murder of Constable Noel Ileson at Belmont on 9 February 1963
    • Eric Edgar Cooke[GR10]  
    • – 26 October 1964 – Hanged for murder of John Lindsay Sturkey at Nedlands on 27 January 1963

     [GR1]Jeronimus Cornelisz (c. 1598 – 2 October 1629) was a Dutch apothecary and Dutch East India Company merchant who sailed aboard the merchant ship Batavia which foundered near Australia. Cornelisz then led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history.

    After the ship was wrecked on 4 June 1629, in the Houtman Abrolhos, a chain of coral islands off the west coast of Australia, Francisco Pelsaert, the expedition’s commander, went to get help from the Dutch settlements in Indonesia, returning several months later.

    While Pelsaert was away, Cornelisz led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history, for which he was eventually tried, convicted and hanged.

     [GR2]Midgegooroo (died 22 May 1833) was an Aboriginal Australian elder of the Nyungar nation, who played a key role in Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in the area of Perth, Western Australia. Everything documented about Midgegooroo (variously spelled in the record as “Midgeegaroo”, “Midgegarew”, “Midgegoorong”, Midgegoroo”, Midjegoorong”, “Midjigoroo”, “Midgigeroo”, Midjigeroo”, “Migegaroo”, “Migegaroom”, “Migegooroo”, “Midgecarro”, “Widgegooroo”) is mediated through the eyes of the colonisers, some of whom, notably G.F. Moore, Robert Menli Lyon and Francis Armstrong, derived their information from discussions with contemporary Noongar people, in particular the son of Midgegooroo, Yagan. Largely due to his exploits in opposing colonisation and his relationship with Lyon and Moore, Yagan has a much sharper historical profile than his father. Midgegooroo was executed by firing squad and without trial under the authority of Lieutenant Governor Frederick Irwin in 1833.

     [GR3]lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian SubcontinentSoutheast Asia, the Arab worldBritish Somaliland, or other land east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 20th century.

    The word lascar derives ultimately from lashkar, the Persian word for “army.” In Mughal and Urdu culture the word is used to describe a “swarm like formation in any army” (lashkar); however this word originates via Portuguese language. The Portuguese adapted this term to “lascarim“, meaning Asian militiamen or seamen, specifically from any area east of the Cape of Good Hope. This means that IndianMalayChinese and Japanese crewmen were covered by the Portuguese definition. The British of the East India Company initially described Indian lascars as ‘Topazes‘, but later adopted the Portuguese name, calling them ‘lascar’. Lascars served on British ships under “lascar agreements”. These agreements allowed shipowners more control than was the case in ordinary articles of agreement. The sailors could be transferred from one ship to another and retained in service for up to three years at one time. The name lascar was also used to refer to Indian servants, typically engaged by British military officers

     [GR4]Robert Thomas Palin (c.1835 – 6 July 1861) was a convict transported to Western Australia. His execution in 1861 was the only time in the convict era of Western Australia that Ordinance 17 Victoria Number 7 was used to secure the capital punishment of a convict for a crime not normally punishable by death.

    Born around 1835, nothing is known of Robert Palin’s early life except his criminal record. In 1851, he was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment for housebreaking; in 1853, he was tried but acquitted of murder; and in March 1856, he was convicted of “burglary from the person” and sentenced to penal servitude for life. At the time of his sentencing, he was described as a shoemaker by trade.

    Palin was transported to Western Australia on the Nile, arriving in January 1860. His behaviour was good both during and after the voyage. In April 1860, he was appointed a probationary constable and received his ticket of leave in January 1861. At that time he had a house in Fremantle from which he worked as a shoemaker and took in lodgers.

    On 29 May 1861, Palin was charged with having broken into the home of Samuel and Susan Harding. Susan Harding gave evidence that her husband had been away and that she had woken during the night to find a man standing at the side of her bed. The man seized her by the arm and demanded money. When she said she had none, “he pulled the bedclothes down and felt about the bed… I thought he was going to commit some assault.” Harding then gave the man a number of valuables and he left. The following morning, the police followed a set of footprints to Palin’s house, where they found some wet boots whose tread matched the prints. They also recovered a number of the valuables that had been stolen.

    Palin claimed to have been set up by William Cockrane, another ticket-of-leave man whom Palin said had a grudge against him. However, he was not believed and the jury found him guilty of robbery with violence, the violence being the “battery on the person of Mrs. Harding by seizing her by the arm while she was in bed.” Chief Justice Archibald Burt passed a sentence of death and Palin was hanged three days later on 6 July 1861.

     [GR5]While in Melbourne, Brown married Mary Ann Tindall (born 1849). They re-located to New Zealand and for some time operated the Courthouse Hotel in Thames (outside of Auckland). In the years 1874 and 1875, they produced two children, Rose and Amy. In Thames, Brown showed a range of anti-social behavior that included two court appearances for assault on a local shop keeper and threatening to kill his wife. The family returned to Western Australia in September 1875, by which time the marriage was in trouble, and there are a range of further references to them constantly and openly quarrelling. On their return journey from Melbourne to Fremantle, the couple had a physical altercation that was witnessed by John Forrest. The couple and their children arrived in Champion Bay in October 1875. During this time, Brown continued to show a range of anti-social behaviours, and, on Monday 3 January 1876, during the process of packing up their house to move to other accommodation, he shot his wife dead.

    At trial, he elected not to provide any explanation or excuse for his actions and his legal team mounted a defence based on diminished responsibility. The prosecution succeeded in proving the charge at the third trial (the first two trials resulting in hung juries). Brown was found guilty of wilful murder and sentenced to death by the Chief Justice Archibald Burt and hanged on 10 June 1876 at Perth Gaol. The record of inquest proclaimed by Police Magistrate E Landor states that Brown died by hanging.

    Many years later, Rose Burges, the eldest daughter of Brown’s second marriage, claimed that while travelling in America she had met her father in a hotel. Because of this, a story persists that Brown’s older brother had arranged Brown’s escape to the United States. This is considered as improbable, and there is a newspaper report describing how Maitland Brown stood next to Brown on the dock when the bolt was drawn and that Brown’s body had to be cut free from the rope and was later buried by relatives, possibly at Guildford (where his mother resided at the time).

    Brown’s second child by his first marriage was Edith Cowan (nee Brown). Edith’s grandson was Peter Cowan, a celebrated Western Australian author who wrote detailed biographies on Maitland Brown and Edith Cowan. Julie Lewis has suggested that Brown’s life and death:

     [GR6]William Conroy (1857 – 18 November 1887) was the last person executed at the Perth Gaol. Conroy was convicted of murdering Fremantle Town Councillor John Snook.

    Conroy had immigrated from Ireland about ten years earlier, and before going to Fremantle was the licensee of the Victoria Hotel, located at the corner of James Street and Melbourne Road in Perth. On 6 September 1886 Conroy became the first publican of the new National Hotel on High Street in Fremantle.

    On 23 June 1887 Conroy went to the Fremantle Town Hall where there was a children’s ball in progress. He demanded entrance, as he was a licensee of the National Hotel, but was told by Snook that only ladies and children were to be admitted. He persisted in his demands and finally the door was slammed on him. Conroy later gained admittance to the Town Hall. When Snook left the supper room, Conroy followed him, drew a revolver from his pocket, shot Snook and put the gun back in his pocket. Conroy was arrested immediately. Snook died three months later. The trial took place at Perth and he was sentenced to death on 7 October 1887. After he was sentenced a petition was raised and signed by approximately 1500 people, including all members of the jury who had at the time of passing the verdict asked the judge to be lenient. This was then given to Governor Broome. A further call to the governor for clemency occurred during a public meeting attend by 1000 people at the Perth Town Hall. Governor Broome then reviewed the case with two judges and medical people who had previously been part of Conroy’s trial, but the governor decided to let the law take it course. Conroy was hanged at Perth Gaol at 8 am on 18 November 1887. The execution however was not swift as when Conroy was hanged the initial fall failed to break his neck and it took approximately 15 minutes for him to die of strangulation. Conroy was buried at Fremantle Cemetery

     [GR7]Born in 1829, John Gavin was convicted of an offence while still a juvenile, and was transported to Western Australia as a Parkhurst apprentice, arriving on board the Shepherd in October 1843.

    On 3 April 1844, he was tried for the murder of his employer’s son, 18-year-old George Pollard. He confessed to killing the sleeping victim with an adze, but he seemed unaware of a rational motive. Three days later he was publicly hanged outside the Round House in Fremantle. After a death mask had been taken and his brain studied for “scientific purposes” he was buried in the sand hills to the south without a ceremony.

     [GR8]In the Fremantle Gaol on Saturday morning Goulam Mahomet, the murderer of Tagh. Mahomet at Coolgardie on January 10 was hanged, at the age of 27 years. Death was almost instantaneous and certainly was inflicted without pain. Just over three weeks ago Goulam Mahomet was sentenced by Mr. Justice Stone to undergo capital punishment for the murder of a fellow Afghan, Tagh Mahomet, a member of the wealthy trading and camel owning firm of Faiz and Tagh Mahomet, of Coolgardie. It seems peculiar that, of all places, the deed was perpetrated inside the Mahommedan mosque, and at a time when, to a Muslim, the victim was engaged in the solemn act of prayer.

     [GR9]The Murchison Murders were a series of three murders, committed by an itinerant stockman known as “Snowy” Rowles (born John Thomas Smith), near the rabbit-proof fence in Western Australia during the early 1930s. Rowles used the murder method that had been suggested by author Arthur Upfield in his then unpublished book The Sands of Windee, in which he described a foolproof way to dispose of a body and thus commit the perfect murder.

     [GR10]Eric Edgar Cooke (25 February 1931 – 26 October 1964), nicknamed The Night Caller and later The Nedlands Monster, was an Australian serial killer. From September 1958 to August 1963, he terrorised the city of Perth, Western Australia, by committing at least twenty-two violent crimes, eight of which resulted in deaths.[

    List of people legally executed in New South Wales

    From 1788 to 1830

    Precise location of execution not indicated

    • Samuel Mobbs – 16 March 1797 – Hanged for burglary.
    • James Reece – 8 February 1799 – Hanged for bestiality with a sow. Reece tried to cut his own throat on the morning of his execution.
    • John Hardy – 2 June 1800 – Hanged for vagrancy and theft.
    • William Jones – March 1803 – Hanged for robbing Thomas Harley, a settler from Prospect.
    • James Lovell – 22 February 1805 – Hanged for forging and uttering.
    • George Holland – 11 October 1806 – Hanged for breaking into the house of Laughlane Gallighcoghan at Parramatta and stealing 10 shillings. Holland had assaulted the occupant of the home, described as a “feeble old man”.
    • Dennis Kaneen – 27 November 1806 – Hanged for breaking into the house of James Hogsen and stealing six bushels of maize, some meat, sugar and a copper coin amounting to nine shillings and three pence.
    • William Page – 15 December 1806 – Hanged for burglary from the house of William Tracey at Fennel Farm.
    • Abraham Smith – 15 December 1806 – Hanged for burglary from the house of William Tracey at Fennel Farm.
    • William Poxam – 4 April 1807 – Hanged for sheep stealing.
    • John Hughes – 4 April 1807 – Hanged for entering the house of Edward Redmond and stealing a chest containing cash, bills and other property.
    • Hugh Dowling – 28 September 1808 – Hanged for armed burglary of the house of William Styles at Nepean and stealing cash and clothing.
    • William Davis – 11 June 1813 – Hanged for cutting and maiming William Mason with a knife during a drunken brawl at Ultimo.
    • Thomas Thorpe – September 1813 – Hanged for assaulting and robbing John Galligan of a silver watch on the King’s Highway.
    • William Gray – March or April 1814 – Hanged for highway robbery. Stopped the cart of Edward Powell Jr and John Beckwith on the King’s Highway and robbed them of ten gallons of spirits and other items.
    • Dennis Donovan – 12 July 1814 – Hanged for burglary of the house of John Cowley at Surry Hills, the murders of William Alder, Thomas White and Hannah Sculler on the Hawkesbury, and for rape. His body was handed over for anatomisation and dissection.
    • Patrick Dawson – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomized.
    • Philip McGee – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomized.
    • Henry Laycock – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomised.
    • Thomas Hill – 1 March 1816 – Hanged for cutting and maiming police constable Thomas Smith near Parramatta.
    • William Langford – 1 March 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery on the Parramatta Road, robbing William Wright of a silver watch.
    • Elizabeth Anderson – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for the murder of her husband, John Anderson, at Pitt Town. Her body was handed over to surgeons to be dissected and anatomised.
    • James Stock – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for the murder of John Anderson at Pitt Town. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Nicholas Knight – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery of Mrs Pearce on the Liverpool Rd, of two gallons of rum and a quantity of barley.
    • Thomas Collins – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery having violently assaulted and robbed the cart of John Andrews on the Parramatta Road.
    • Hugh MacAlaire – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery having violently assaulted and robbed the cart of John Andrews on the Parramatta Road.
    • Moowattin (also called Daniel Mowatty) – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for the rape of a fifteen-year-old girl at Parramatta. The first indigenous person legally hanged in Australia.
    • Patrick Ryan – 19 December 1825 – Hanged for arson in setting fire to the house of Richard Thompson at Bathurst.
    • John Judd – 30 April 1830 – Hanged for robbery and putting in fear of John Smith in the Singleton area. After receiving sentence of death from Judge Dowling, Judd remarked to the court “My Lord and Gentlemen of the Jury, it is only five minutes choking.”
    • John Roach – 30 April 1830 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear in the Singleton area.

    Sydney Cove

    • Thomas BarrettA person wearing a hat

Description automatically generated with low confidence – 27 February 1788 – Barrett was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing or conspiring to steal from government stores. He was the first person hanged in the colony of New South Wales.
    • John Bennett – 2 May 1788 – A 20-year-old convict who was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for theft.
    • Samuel Payton – 28 June 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing shirts, stockings and combs. He was a 20-year-old convict and stonemason.
    • Edward Corbett – 28 June 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for the theft of four cows.
    • James Daly – December 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of a handkerchief from a fellow convict using force and arms.
    • James Baker – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • James Brown – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Richard Lukes – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Thomas Jones – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Luke Haines/Haynes – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Richard Askew/Asky – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Ann/Anne Davis (alias Judith Jones) – 23 November 1789 – The first woman hanged in Australia. A First Fleet convict, she was found guilty of theft from a fellow convict at Sydney Cove. She claimed to be pregnant to avoid the noose and some old women were instructed to inspect her. One of the women told the court, “Gentlemen, she is as much with child as I am.”

    Sydney

    • Thomas Sanderson – 10 January 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing with force of arms flour, beef, pork, associated chattels and goods from Thomas Steel and Joseph Bishop.
    • William Chafe – 20 April 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of James Sunnyhill in Sydney Cove.
    • Hugh Low – 24 August 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing. He had behaved with merit during the shipwreck of the Guardian[GR1] ; a letter of pardon arrived from His Majesty 12 months after his execution.
    • James Chapman – 28 July 1791 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking into the house of John Patree and stealing a shirt.
    • James Collington – 8 February 1792 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking into the hut of the baker John Campbell and stealing bread, flour and a check apron. At the hanging tree he addressed the assembled convicts before his execution, warning them to avoid the path he had pursued; but said that he was induced by hunger to commit the crime for which he suffered.
    • John Crowe/Crow – 10 December 1793 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Archibald Macdonald – 14 July 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • John Hemming – 17 July 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Robert Spriggs.
    • John Bevan – 6 October 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Fielder.
    • John Hill – 16 October 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for murder in the course of robbery. He had fatally stabbed Simon Burn in the left side of the chest at Parramatta.
    • William Smith – 16 November 1795 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Parrish at Prospect Hill.
    • John Fenlow – 8 August 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his servant David Lane at Mulgrave, on the Hawkesbury.
    • Francis Morgan – 30 November 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Simon Raven. Following his execution his body was gibbeted on Pinchgut Island A picture containing outdoor, water, sky, day

Description automatically generatedin Sydney Harbour. His skeleton was still hanging there four years after his execution.
    • John Lawler/Lawor – 30 November 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the public stores.
    • Martin McEwan – 30 November 1796 – Soldier, hanged at Sydney for robbing the public stores.
    • John Rayner – 31 July 1797 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Johnathan Boroughbridge – April 1798 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy after he and accomplices stole two boats with the intent of escaping the colony.
    • Michael Gibson – April 1798 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy after he and accomplices stole two boats with the intent of escaping the colony.
    • Samuel Wright – February 1799 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Simeon Lord in High St (Lower George St). Wright had been reprieved at the gallows in 1793, when previously sentenced to hang for burglary.
    • Thomas Jones – 6 July 1799 – Publicly hanged in Sydney on the site of the crime for the murder of missionary Samuel Clode in the brickfields. A soldier in the NSW Corps, he had owed the missionary money but when the man came to collect he was murdered by Jones with his wife and two neighbors as accomplices. Clode was stabbed, his throat cut and his skull fractured with an axe. The Jones house was pulled down and burned on orders of the governor, the gallows were erected on its spot and he and two of his accomplices were hanged. Jones’ corpse was later gibbeted.
    • Elizabeth Jones – 6 July 1799 – Wife of Thomas Jones. Hanged at Sydney for her part in the murder of missionary Samuel Clode at the brickfields in Sydney. After being hanged her body was handed over for surgical dissection.
    • William Elberry – 6 July 1799 – Hanged at Sydney for his part in the murder of Samuel Clode, executed where the murder took place then gibbeted.
    • William Meredeth – 4 July 1800 – Hanged at Sydney for escaping from custody.
    • Thomas Thompson – 4 July 1800 – A corporal in the New South Wales Corps. Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
    • James Riley – December 1800 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary. However another source indicates that he may not in fact have been executed.
    • Charles Davis – February 1801 – Hanged at Sydney
    • David Burton – 5 December 1801 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mary Hailey
    • Laughlan Doyle – 14 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • John Lynch – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • John Francis Morgan – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Patrick Ross – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Thomas Shanks – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Michael Wollaghan – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Laurence Dempsey – 19 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Timothy Mulch/Mulcahy/Malahoy – 25 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • John Brown – 26 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • James Connors – 26 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Charles Crump – 20 February 1804 – Hanged in Sydney for the theft of nine pieces of chintzes and printed calicoes from William Tough in Sydney Cove.
    • John Brannan – 10 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Sydney.
    • Timothy Hogan – 10 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Sydney.
    • James Bevan (known as ‘Warminster’) – 21 May 1804 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of eight-year-old Elizabeth Douglas.
    • John Green – 21 November 1804 – Hanged at Sydney for rape near Parramatta on 11 November 1804. Green was African-American, born in Pennsylvania.
    • William Miller – 30 September 1805 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Bridget Kean at Hawkesbury.
    • Herbert Keeling – 28 April 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for forging and uttering two promissory notes purporting to be drawn by Henry Kable.
    • James Dabbs – 16 May 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the home of Rowland Hassall at Parramatta.
    • Elias Davis – 4 September 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the dwelling house of Robert Broughton, Parramatta.
    • William Organ – 11 October 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing nine sheep from his employer John Palmer [GR2] between the Hawkesbury and Sydney.
    • Joseph Moreton – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of Henry Williams near Castle Hill.
    • William Mason – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the house of John Prosser and stealing a cart and an article of clothing.
    • John Murphey – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the house of Michael Connor at North Boundary.
    • James Halfpenny – 17 December 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for bushranging and theft of livestock, four muskets and a chest.
    • Stephen Halfpenny – 17 December 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for bushranging and theft of livestock, four muskets and a chest.
    • Joseph Eades – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
    • John Higgins – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
    • William Morgan – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
    • Robert Murray – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing from the property of James Larratts.
    • Benjamin Yeates – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing from the property of James Larratts.
    • John Brown – 30 May 1808 – Hanged at Sydney. A convict who escaped from custody and remained at large in the Van Diemen’s Land wilderness for some 20 months. During this time, with John Lemon (Lemon was shot dead while resisting capture) he was involved in the murder of three soldiers, Corporal John Curry, Private Robert Grindstone and Private James Daniels. For his involvement in the crimes Brown was transported from Van Diemen’s Land to Sydney to stand trial. His body was dissected and gibbeted.
    • Alexander Wilson (alias Charles Boyle) – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Moad.
    • John MacNeal – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery upon his master, having stolen two half casks and two quarter casks of gunpowder from the house of Robert Campbell.
    • Mary Grady – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Charles Stuart at Parramatta.
    • Richard Broughton – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing two head of horned cattle from John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
    • John Cheeseman – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing two head of horned cattle from John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
    • Charles Flynn – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing from on board the ship Hero, lying in Sydney Cove, two spy glasses valued at 40 shillings and a table cloth valued at 10 shillings.
    • Joseph Moreton – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for forging and uttering a promissory note thereby defrauding Benjamin South of Richmond Hill the sum of £21.
    • Thomas Doolan (Dowlan) – 26 August 1809 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of John Styles on the Hawkesbury.
    • John Campbell – June 1810 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Elizabeth Macarthur[GR3] .
    • James Hutchinson – 26 February 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from the shop of Thomas Abbott. Hutchinson was originally condemned to death in June 1810 for burglary however he escaped from custody, upon being recaptured his sentence was reduced to hard labour. In February 1811 he was convicted along with James Ratty of stealing from commercial premises and both were hanged together.
    • James Ratty – 26 February 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cloth, muslin etc. from the shop of Thomas Abbott.
    • Martin Egan – 10 May 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Cooney. After being executed his body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Thomas Clough – 13 May 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Cooney. After being executed his body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Gould – 9 March 1812 – A soldier of the 73rd Regiment of Foot. Hanged in Sydney for the murder of Margaret Finnie, the wife of a fellow soldier.
    • Peter Gory – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • John McCabe – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • John Townsend – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • Matthew Kearns – 24 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Kearns (the Elder) – 24 March 1813 – (Brother of Matthew Kearns). Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Kearns (the Younger) – 24 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Richard Berry – 31 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
    • John Mahony – 31 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing (brother of Thomas Mahony who was hanged on 24 March 1813 in Paramatta for a separate offence).
    • Angelo (Giuseppe) LeRose – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of Samuel Larkin on Parramatta Road, Iron Cove.
    • Francis Barry – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing three oxen that were the property of the crown.
    • Richard Dowling – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing three oxen that were the property of the crown.
    • Thomas John Turner – 12 July 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Elizabeth, whom he stabbed to death at Port Dalrymple, Van Diemen’s Land. His body was given up for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Bartholomew Foley – 14 July 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing at Launceston, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • John White – 22 July 1814 – Hanged for his part in the murders of Rowland Edwards and William Jenkins during a botched robbery of the house at the Parramatta Toll Gate. He was accompanied by Dennis Donovan (hanged for other offences on 12 July 1814); it was Donovan who fired the fatal shots. But for his part in the robbery John White was found equally guilty. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Patrick Collins – 20 December 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for his part in the murder of William Alder & Thomas White on the Hawkesbury. Body dissected and anatomised.
    • John Shepherd – 20 December 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mary Bryant in The Rocks, Sydney. His body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Styles – 7 July 1815 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Roberts at Botany Bay. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Colin Hunter – 4 November 1816 – Hanged in Sydney for the murder at Canterbury of John Miller who was shot during a burglary of his home. Body was dissected and anatomised pursuant to sentence.
    • Thomas Dooley – 4 November 1816 – Hanged in Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of John Miller. The prisoner’s body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation after he was executed.
    • Michael Ryan (real name John Mahony) – 4 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of John Miller. Body was dissected and anatomised pursuant to sentence.
    • James Flavell – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Thomas Reeds in Castlereagh St.
    • William Tripp – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Thomas Reeds in Castlereagh St.
    • John Palmer – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a bullock from the herd of Capt. Eber Bunker [GR4] at Liverpool.
    • Samuel Smith – 3 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Randall at George Town, Van Diemen’s Land
    • John Walker – 10 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Suddis at Wilberforce.
    • Ralph Pearson – 10 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Suddis at Wilberforce.
    • Thomas McGiff – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of John Parkes at Petersham.
    • Thomas Brown – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a mare, the property of Thomas Arkill.
    • Patrick Ducey – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a cow, the property of Patrick Devoy.
    • Bartholomew Roach – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing two heifers, the property of John Croker.
    • William Wallis – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery in the house of John Harris[GR5] .
    • Edward Haley – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a horse, cart and other sundries near Parramatta.
    • Samuel Pollock – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a horse, cart and other sundries near Parramatta.
    • James Fitzpatrick – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the house of John Brown at Portland Head.
    • Pedro Aldanoes (also called Peter Adams) – 7 December 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Joseph Yeates outside Parramatta.
    • Timothy Buckley – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of district constable William Cosgrove at South Creek.
    • David Brown – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of William Cosgrove.
    • Timothy Ford – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of William Cosgrove.
    • Thomas Ray – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • John Jones – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • Thomas Smith – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • John Green – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for housebreaking and attempted murder at Cockle Bay.
    • John Brennan – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for housebreaking and attempted murder at Cockle Bay.
    • John Petree (alias McIntosh) – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery outside Liverpool.
    • Matthew Dace – 31 December 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Dennis Guiney on the Parramatta Road.
    • Robert Parsons – 31 December 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Dennis Guiney on the Parramatta Road.
    • William Taylor – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in Castlereagh Street.
    • James Ingley – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in Castlereagh Street.
    • James Garland – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery of store receipts at Parramatta.
    • Thomas McGowran – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
    • Daniel (or David) Bell – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing. Originally transported on the Friendship (1800) for his role in the Irish Rebellion.
    • Annesley McGrath – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
    • George Rouse – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the residence of Lieutenant Hector Macquarie.
    • Dennis Malloy – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle.
    • Thomas Ford (alias Ward) – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the residence of Anne Robinson on the Parramatta Road.
    • John Kirby – 18 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Burragong, also called Jack, an indigenous tracker, in the Newcastle district.
    • George Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
    • James Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
    • Solomon Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
    • James Clancy (Clency) – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from a house and violent robbery of a child.
    • John Bagnell – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for house-breaking and highway robbery.
    • Nicholas Cooke – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from the house of James Seville near Constitution Hill, and assaulting Constable Edward Dillon with a stone.
    • Edward Luffin – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle duffing.
    • Michael Tracey – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at the house of John Waite.
    • John Sullivan – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Daniel O’Brien – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery.
    • John O’Brien – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle duffing.
    • William Swift – 17 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Maria Minton at Richmond.
    • James Robinson – 17 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer Charles Linton. Robinson was from Angola.
    • Francis Pascoe – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Michael Donnelly.
    • John Ryan – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • Miles Jordan – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in the Hawkesbury district.
    • Pasco Haddycott – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Michael Donnelly.
    • William McGeary (Geary) – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for a string of highway robberies on the Windsor Road.
    • Thomas Smith – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • John Whiteman – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • William Kennedy – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary & theft of a hat, comb and razor from Henry McAlister near Prospect.
    • John Mills – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • Charles Young – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • John Cochrane – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • Francis Murphy – 6 April 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Nicholas Devine[GR6]  (former Superintendent of Convicts) at what is now Erskineville.
    • William Harris – 6 April 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of James Cribb on the Parramatta Road.
    • John Maloney – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
    • William Varley – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
    • Thomas Roach – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
    • George Young – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of a cart belonging to John Blaxland at South Creek.
    • James Dowden – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of John Sunderland, south of Parramatta.
    • Joseph Knowles – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from John Price’s residence at the Parramatta Toll-House.
    • George Barke – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from John Price’s residence at the Parramatta Toll-House.
    • Thomas Barry – 14 October 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel and Esther Bradley at Birchgrove.
    • Valentine Wood – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing Sergeant Barlow on the Prospect Road.
    • William Baxter – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of Robert Hawkins on the Dog Trap Road.
    • Thomas Till – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a boat at Port Macquarie.
    • William Poole – 22 May 1823 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally sentenced to death for leading a party of convicts in escape into the hinterland, in the hope they could walk to Timor.
    • Edward Gorman – 13 October 1823 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Wells during a robbery at Minto. Gorman was recognizable for his “remarkable tooth”.
    • Robert Grant – 15 January 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally condemned to death in 1822 for horse theft.
    • Thomas Harley – 4 March 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally sentenced to death in 1822 for burglary from the house of Robert Campbell [GR7] in George St.
    • Cornelius Fitzpatrick – 28 June 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Bentley outside Newcastle.
    • John Donovan – 23 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Tom Brown at Emu Plains.
    • John Hand – 30 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Minton at Richmond.
    • James Stack – 30 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Minton at Richmond.
    • Martin Benson – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek near Windsor.
    • Eliza Campbell – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of her master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • James Coogan – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • Anthony Rodney – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • John Sprole – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • Jeremiah Buckley – 4 April 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Canterbury.
    • Edmond Bates – 11 April 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for beating his wife Julia to death during a Christmas Day drunken rage at Kissing Point.
    • James Wright – 30 May 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe murder of his wife Mary Ann at the Hawkesbury.
    • James Webb – 19 August 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Robert Collett at Toongabbie.
    • Patrick Moloney – 12 September 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Elliott at Port Macquarie.
    • Daniel Leary – 12 December 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for rape of Mary Grainger at Wallis Plains.
    • John Burke – 6 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Cogan at Mulgoa.
    • William Corbett – 6 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Great Western Road.
    • Duncan McCallum – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • Peter Roberts – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • William Patient – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • William Morrison – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • Andrew White – 1 May 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Taggart at Grant’s Creek, outside Bathurst.
    • William Cusack – 3 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Campbelltown.
    • John Hossle – 3 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of John Blackman at Bathurst.
    • Bridget Fairless – 12 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in what is now the Leichhardt section of Parramatta Road.
    • John Connolly (Collins) – 12 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in what is now the Leichhardt section of Parramatta Road.
    • Charles Butler – 3 August 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Kitty Carman (Catherine Collins) at Portland Head.
    • Joseph Lockett – 7 August 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road near Cabramatta.
    • Isaac Smith – 11 September 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable William Green at Captain John Brabyn’s estate, Clifton, Windsor.
    • George Worrall (Fisher’s Ghost Murder[GR8] ) – 5 February 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Frederick Fisher at Campbelltown.
    • William Leddington – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • James Smith – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • John Edwards – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • Richard Johnson – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • Edward Coulthurst – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington A ship in the water

Description automatically generated with low confidenceat Norfolk Island
    • William Ward – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of Michael Foley at Bringelly
    • Thomas Power – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of Michael Foley at Bringelly
    • John Curry – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joseph Cox on the road between Liverpool and Parramatta
    • William Webb – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery and putting in fear of the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill
    • John Lynch – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the burglary of the house of Thomas Parnell at Richmond. Lynch was also involved in the Wellington mutiny.
    • Michael Coogan – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery. Coogan was an American who had also attempted piracy of a ship called The Liberty
    • Thomas Quinn – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill. Before the noose was fastened Quinn kicked off his boots “and they fell with a hollow sound on his coffin, which lay directly under”.
    • Patrick Geary – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill
    • John Goff – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
    • Edward Moore – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
    • William Watson – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
    • Black Tommy – 31 December 1827 – (sometimes called Jackey-Jackey) Wiradjuri man from Bathurst district, hanged at Sydney for the murder of Geoffrey Connell at Reedy Swamp, near Bathurst.
    • William Lee – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
    • Jon Carrington – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
    • James Charlton – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
    • William (or Michael) Pearce – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery in the house of Francis Forbes at Liverpool.
    • Charles Connor – 13 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of James Mackenzie at Windsor.
    • Lot McNamara – 17 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Janet Mackellar at Minto.
    • William Johnson – 24 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for the murder of Morris Morgan at Moreton Bay.
    • George Kilroy (Kildray, Gilroy, Kilray) – 24 March 1828 – An associate of Jack Donahue. Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Plomer on the Richmond Road.
    • William Smith – 24 March 1828 – An associate of Jack Donahue[GR9] . Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Plomer on the Richmond road. On the first attempt the rope snapped and Smith fell to the ground. He was taken away until Kilroy and Johnson were declared dead and their corpses removed, then he was hanged again.
    • William Regan – 5 May 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Davis in Castlereagh St.
    • John Timmins – 11 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • Thomas Ford – 11 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • John Curtis – 16 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a cow from the herd of William Wentworth,[GR10]  at Bringelly.
    • James (or Joseph) Johnson (also called Philip Macauley, Phillip Gawley) – 16 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of George Tills outside Liverpool.
    • John Welsh – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and attempted murder of George Barber at Picton.
    • Joseph Bradley – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
    • Patrick Troy – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
    • Patrick Kegney (sometimes Stegney) – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
    • Joseph (John) Spicer – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
    • John (James) Tomlins – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
    • James Henry – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a cow at Stone Quarry Creek.
    • Samuel Clarke – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • Thomas Quigley – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • Alexander Browne – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for sodomy with William Lyster on the whaler Royal Sovereign.
    • John Welch – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and the armed assault of Constable William Wade at Bong Bong. Welch was about sixteen at the time of his execution. “He cried bitterly”.
    • William Bayne – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and armed assault of Constable Wade at Bong Bong.
    • Thomas Whisken (or Wiscott) – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
    • William Owens – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
    • James Holmes – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
    • John Iron – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery of John Browne at Botany.
    • Thomas Ryan – 29 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James McGrath just north of Richmond.
    • Michael Green – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
    • John Payne (sometimes Paid) – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill.
    • Edward Whelan – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill.
    • George Skinner – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
    • John Price – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
    • Michael Lynch – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Thomas Kendall at Pitt Town.
    • Florence (or Henry) Driscoll – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Isaac Cornwall at Richmond.
    • Lot Molds – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Thomas Kendall at Pitt Town.
    • William Riddell – 23 March 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Heley in the Muswellbrook district. Riddell apparently desired Heley’s wife; Heley was found dismembered in a stump hole. Riddell was an atheist, republican, radical, autodidact. He ran up the steps to the gallows, took snuff and said “I prefer death to living in chains and fetters in such a country as this”.
    • Charles White – 8 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Murphy at Luskintyre.
    • John Brunger (also called Brugan/Burgen) – 18 Apr 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Perfoot (also called Parfitt) at Moreton Bay.
    • Thomas Matthews – 18 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Connolly, a fellow work-gang member, at Moreton Bay.
    • Thomas Allen – 18 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Connolly, a fellow work-gang member, at Moreton Bay.
    • Patrick Sullivan – 20 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Condron at Moreton Bay.
    • William Bowen – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Leslie Duguid at Wallis Plains (East Maitland).
    • Peter Reilly – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Ellis Hall at Wallis Plains.
    • James Smart – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the home of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
    • James Gallagher – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
    • John Crowther – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
    • Thomas Slater – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for assault on Betty Griffiths with a tomahawk in Cumberland St. Sydney.
    • William Yemms (Jems) – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the government stores at Port Macquarie.
    • James Gardiner – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the government stores at Port Macquarie.
    • William Davison – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
    • John Whelan – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
    • John Shorter – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
    • George Smith – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Illawarra district.
    • John Allwright – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Illawarra district.
    • George McDonald – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Illawarra district.
    • James Naughton – 25 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Elizabeth Watson. He was previously charged, with Edward Gorman, with murder in 1823.
    • Timothy Murphy – 1 June 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow-convict John Monaghan at Mt York while they were working on the road to Bathurst.
    • John Slack (alias York) – 22 June 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary at the house of Timothy Beard at Cabramatta.
    • George Groves – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Richard Brooks at Denham Court.
    • James McColville – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Richard Brooks at Denham Court.[GR11] 
    • John Salt – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
    • Richard Peacock – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
    • William Pitts – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
    • John Neilson – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Windsor.
    • James Barnes – 13 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joshua Moore on the Liverpool Road.
    • Joseph Stephenson – 13 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joshua Moore on the Liverpool Road.
    • Daniel Grier – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Charles Penson (Tinson, Tinsal) – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary
    • Joseph Parker – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John “Kangaroo Jack” Hazeldine at Gibraltar Creek in the Cox’s River district.
    • George Williams – 22 October 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery, assault and battery of William Hickey
    • John Sly – 28 December 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery
    • Thomas Finley – 11 January 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of overseer Edward Walsh at Bathurst.
    • Stephen Smith – 5 April 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow convict William Davis at Moreton Bay
    • John Hawes – 5 April 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow convict William Davis at Moreton Bay
    • Henry Muggleton – 31 May 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mark King at Moreton Bay
    • Daniel Kirwan (Curwen) – 7 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of a constable on the Windsor Road
    • John Martin – 7 June 1830 – Known as ‘Jack the Drummer’. Hanged at Sydney for the rape of seven-year-old Eliza Deering in a yard off George Street
    • Michael Toole – 7 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear at Pitt Water
    • Thomas McCormick – 21 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting the occupants in fear
    • Jack Field – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Toongabbie
    • Henry O’Neil – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Toongabbie
    • Harry Cade – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Prospect. Cade was transported at the age of fourteen and executed after he turned sixteen
    • William Dalton – 28 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Ellison near Parramatta
    • William Coleman – 13 December 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing his master Samuel Terry[GR12] . Coleman stole money and buried it in a bottle in Terry’s garden.

    Rose Hill

    • George Mitton – 1788 – Hanged at Rose Hill (Parramatta) for robbery.
    • William Harris – 28 October 1790 – Broke into a house in Rose Hill and assaulted one of the occupants, stole three pounds of beef and one pound of flour, a frock and a book. He was publicly hanged at Rose Hill.
    • Edward Wildblood – 28 October 1790 – A co-offender with the aforementioned William Harris, he was convicted of breaking into a house in Rose Hill, assaulting one of the occupants and stealing three pounds of beef and one pound of flour, a frock and a book. He was publicly hanged at Rose Hill.

    (Rose Hill was officially renamed Parramatta in June 1791)

    Parramatta

    • James Derry – 19 September 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
    • Matthew McNally – 1 December 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
    • Thomas Doyle – 1 December 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
    • Simon Taylor – 20 May 1799 – Hanged at Parramatta for the murder of his wife Anne Taylor.
    • Richard Weston – May or June 1800 – Hanged at Parramatta for vagrancy and theft.
    • Charles Hill – 8 March 1804 – Freeman who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Parramatta
    • Samuel Humes/Hughes – 8 March 1804 – Convict, a principal and informant who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Executed at Parramatta, then gibbeted.
    • John Place – 8 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Parramatta.
    • Patrick McDermot – 19 May 1806 – Hanged at Parramatta for burglary from the house of Matthew Pearce at Seven Hills and theft of clothing items.
    • John Kenny – 24 January 1807 – Hanged and gibbetted at the scene of the crime in Parramatta for the murder of Mary Smith.
    • Michael Bagan – 20 June 1808 – Entered the house of Jane Codd near Parramatta, assaulted her and stole items from her home. Hanged at the Parramatta brickfields.
    • Felix Donnelly – 20 June 1808 – Entered the house of Jane Codd near Parramatta, assaulted her and stole items from her home. Hanged at the Parramatta brickfields.
    • John Dunn – 25 August 1811 – Hanged at Parramatta for the murder of Mary Rowe, his body was handed over to the medical officer at Parramatta General Hospital for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Pearce Conden – 24 March 1813 – Publicly hanged at the site of the crime in George St Parramatta for the murder of Joseph Sutton. Body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Thomas Mahony – 24 March 1813 – Publicly hanged at the site of the crime in George St Parramatta for the murder of Joseph Sutton. Body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Matthew Craven – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged outside Parramatta for ‘divers robberies’.
    • Thomas Cavanaugh – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged outside Parramatta for armed robberies.
    • Thomas (John) Ashton – 2 December 1829 – Hanged at Parramatta for rape of ten-year-old Elizabeth Price.

    Castle Hill

    • Patrick Gannon – 23 March 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for rape, attempted murder and robbery.
    • Francis Simpson – 23 March 1803 – Hanged along with Patrick Gannon at Castle Hill for robbery.
    • John Lynch – 27 September 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for the assault and robbery of Samuel Phelps at Hawkesbury.
    • James Tracey – 27 September 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for the assault and robbery of Samuel Phelps at Hawkesbury.
    • William Johnston – 9 March 1804 – Convict, a principal along with Phillip Cunningham in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Executed at Castle Hill, then gibbeted.
    • John Neal – 9 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at the Government Farm, Castle Hill.
    • George Harrington – 9 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at the Government Farm, Castle Hill.

    Hawkesbury & Windsor

    • Thomas McLaughlane (the elder) – 7 October 1803 – Hanged at Hawkesbury, for robbery with violence at the house of John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
    • Phillip Cunningham – 5 March 1804 – Convict, leader of the Castle Hill Rebellion.[GR13]  Summarily hanged on the steps of the government storehouse at Greenhills (present day Windsor).
    • James Davis – 19 June 1810 – Hanged at Portland Head (Hawkesbury) for burglary from the house of John Cox.
    • Thomas Begley – 31 August 1829 – Hanged at Windsor for burglary at Mulgoa.
    • Michael Rafter – 29 January 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for a litany of burglaries in the Portland Head district.
    • John Smith – 29 January 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for rape of his seven-year-old daughter.
    • John Tiernan – 25 August 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for highway robbery, horse theft and stealing. Aged seventeen, Tiernan objected to being interrupted in his prayers on the scaffold and wrestled the executioner over the edge of the platform.

    Newcastle

    • John Pagan – 7 January 1820 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of James White.
    • William Smith – 7 January 1820 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of James White.

    Burwood

    • Daniel Watkins – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for the armed robbery of Thomas Bartie Clay at Burwood.
    • Thomas Mustin (Muston) – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for robbery and putting in fear at the house of Richard Morgan on the Liverpool Road.
    • John Brown – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for robbery and putting in fear at the house of Richard Morgan on the Liverpool Road.

    Bankstown

    • Patrick Sullivan – 18 October 1826 – Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown (‘Irish Town’, now Bass Hill) for bushranging[GR14] .
    • James Moran – 18 October 1826 – Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown (‘Irish Town’, now Bass Hill) for bushranging.

    Campbelltown

    • John Holmes – 21 August 1829 – Hanged at Campbelltown for setting fire to a barn belonging to James Bean at Campbelltown.
    • Richard McCann – 6 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for theft, assault and putting in fear in the Goulburn district
    • Thomas Beasley – 8 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary with assault in the Airds district
    • Joseph Moorbee (Mowerby, alias Nuttall) – 8 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary with assault in the Airds district
    • Mark Byfield – 8 March 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a silver watch
    • Broger – 30 August 1830 – Indigenous. Publicly hanged at Campbelltown for the murder of John Rivett at Kangaroo Valley
    • Peter Dew (alias Saunders) – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary and putting in fear at Goulburn
    • William Haggerty – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for cattle theft from Francis Lawless in the Liverpool district
    • John Spellary – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for cattle theft from Francis Lawless in the Liverpool district
    • James Welsh – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary from the house of David Reece at Burra Burra, near Taralga.

    Maitland

    • Michael Brown – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • Patrick Corcoran – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • Andrew Cullen – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • Richard Turnstyle – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • William Chandler – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for horse theft from Peter Cunningham at Merton (near Denman).

    Liverpool

    • Jean Herman Maas – 1 September 1830 – Hanged at Liverpool for forgery.
    • James McGibbon – 1 September 1830 – Hanged at Liverpool for forgery.

    Bathurst

    • Ralph Entwistle (“The Ribbon Gang”[GR15] ) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood near present-day Georges Plains, bushranging and horse theft
    • Thomas Dunne (“The Ribbon Gang”)- 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Dominic Daley (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
    • James Driver (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
    • William Gahan (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Patrick Gleeson (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Michael Kearney (“The Ribbon Gang”)- 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • John Kenny (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
    • John Shepherd (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Robert Webster (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft.

    1831-1839

    • William Bubb – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island.
    • John Cook – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island.
    • James Murphy – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island
    • John Mason – 15 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for armed robberies at Kingdon Ponds (near Scone) and Liverpool Plains
    • Edward Bowen – 15 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the house of John Town, Upper Hunter (Goulburn River).
    • Hugh Duffy – 15 January 1831 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear at the house of John Town.
    • Patrick Feeney – 15 January 1831 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear at the house of John Town.
    • Lawrence Moore – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
    • Thomas Kite – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
    • Dennis Kelly – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
    • Anthony Connor – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong.
    • David O’Hara – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the house of James Raymond.
    • Thomas Woolley – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the house of James Raymond.
    • John Welch – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for attempted murder at Norfolk Island.
    • Joseph Crampton – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for highway robbery with violence of George Cubitt at Parramatta.
    • Charles McManus – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of John Norman at Moreton Bay.
    • John Thomas – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing in the Menangle Park area.
    • James Ready – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Annandale.
    • William Webber – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the road from South Creek to Parramatta.
    • John Roberts – 5 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James McIlroy (James Michael Roy) at Patterson’s Plains. Roberts was Welsh and spoke little English. His corpse was sent for dissection but the remains were crudely discarded and were found scattered in the Domain.
    • John Leadbeater (alias Onions) – 23 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Maxwell at Patterson’s Plains.
    • Thomas Lucas – 23 September 1831 – Hanged for the murder of Constable Robert “Long Bob” Watersworth in the West Pennant Hills area.
    • David Pegg – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Hunter Valley.
    • Richard Anscombe – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Hunter Valley.
    • Hugh Carberry – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for theft of a horse and cattle.

    Skeleton and chains used to gibbet a man (William Mooney or John White) convicted of murder and hung at Goulburn in 1831 William Mooney – 16 November 1831 – Publicly hanged on the outskirts of Goulburn for the murder of his overseer Maurice Roach near Crookwell. Body hung in gibbet until ordered buried by Governor Bourne in 1833.

    • John White – 16 November 1831 – Publicly hanged on the outskirts of Goulburn for the murder of his overseer Maurice Roach near Crookwell. Body hung in gibbet until ordered buried by Governor Bourne in 1833.
    • Edward Slingsby – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for the murder of William Payne at Dunn’s Plains, outside Rockley.
    • Michael Lynch – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for aiding and abetting the murder of William Payne.
    • Denis O’Brien – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for aiding and abetting the murder of William Payne.
    • Charles Smithwick – 27 February 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of George Miller at Razorback.
    • Patrick McGuire – 5 March 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of fellow convict Matthew Gallagher at Moreton Bay.
    • Thomas Wood (alias Carberry) – 8 March 1832 – Hanged for highway robbery outside Parramatta.
    • Patrick Burke – 14 March 1832 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at the scene of his crime for highway robbery at Appin.
    • Thomas Brennan – 6 April 1832 – Shot by military firing squad at Dawes Battery, Sydney. A private soldier of His Majesty’s 39th Regiment of Foot, Brennan had fired at his sergeant with the intent of killing him.
    • John Hammell – 7 May 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer George Williamson with a spade at Grose Farm (today Sydney University).
    • John Fitzsimmons – 14 June 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for arson. (Fitzsimmons set ablaze a stack of wheat at Penrith).
    • John Troy – 18 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and burglary at Canterbury.
    • Thomas Smith – 18 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and burglary at Canterbury.
    • Edward Kennedy – 23 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for divers highway robberies at Parramatta and Cabramatta.
    • Edward Fordham – 5 November 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Bradford at Lower Minto.
    • Russell Crawford – 8 December 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Suttor[GR16]  on the Windsor Road.
    • James Lockhard – 4 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Murdoch Campbell in the Narellan area.
    • Patrick Brady – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Daniel Stewart at Webb’s Creek, Windsor.
    • John Walsh – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Henry Kenyon at Bathurst.
    • James Dwyer – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Henry Dawkins at Bathurst.
    • John Bowen – 7 March 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear at Inverary.
    • Joseph Coleman – 18 March 1833 – Hanged at Old Banks, Paterson Plains for the attempted murder of Edward Cory.
    • William Carney – 20 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Keith at Penrith.
    • William Jones – 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road.
    • Robert Mullins – 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road.
    • Patrick Neagle (Nangle, Naigle)– 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road
    • Edward Green – 27 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Edwards at a shop in Pitt St.
    • Richard Long – 11 July 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Dog Trap Road.
    • Henry Cook – 11 July 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Dog Trap Road.
    • John Richardson – 5 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Maitland.
    • Henry Beard – 5 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Maitland.
    • William Johnstone – 6 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Prospect Hill.
    • Joseph Clifford – 6 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Prospect Hill.
    • Terence Byrne – 12 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Ann Davis at Lane Cove.
    • Edward Giles – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at Sutton Forest.
    • Jonathan Jones – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of an elderly lady, Mary Larkin, of silver, handkerchiefs and jewlery on the Liverpool Road.
    • John (“Flash Kiddy”) Elliott – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of a butcher named Mason in Liverpool St.
    • George Giddons – 28 November 1833 – Hanged for attempted murder of Thomas Millbourne at Port Macquarie.
    • Anthony Hitchcock (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Castle Forbes for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach at Patrick’s Plains, Hunter Valley.
    • John Poole (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Castle Forbes for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach at Patrick’s Plains, Hunter Valley.
    • James Riley (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach
    • John Perry (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach
    • James Ryan (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach.
    • Michael Kearns – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault on the person of James Podman at Bathurst.
    • Bryant Kyne – 13 January 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Gavarin (Gevan, Gavan, Gavanagh, Govarin) at the Balmain residence of the solicitor-general, John Plunkett.
    • Patrick Gallagher – 23 January 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Ellen Walsh in the vicinity of St Mary’s Rd, Domain.
    • William Elliott – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of police corporal James McNally on Parramatta Road near Concord.
    • William Gills – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Donald McIntyre[GR17]  at Invermein, near Scone.
    • William “Blue Stockings” Johnson – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of David Ramsay at Fish River in the Bathurst district.
    • John Elliott – 14 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Frances Cunningham at Sutton Forest
    • Michael Carey – 19 May 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for sexual assault on ten-year-old Michael Minton (son of Michael Minton, murdered in the Richmond district in 1824) on the Parramatta Rd. Minton and his younger friend (who was witness to the crime) were ordered by the magistrate to attend the hanging.
    • William Chapman – 18 August 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel Chapman (alias Priest) at Snails Bay in 1831
    • Henry Mills – 18 August 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel Chapman (alias Priest) at Snails Bay in 1831
    • Thomas Tattersdale – 10 November 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dr Robert Wardell in the Marrickville-Petersham area.
    • John Jenkins – 19 November 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dr Robert Wardell[GR18] .
    • Michael Gallagher – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of John Hinton in the Bargo Brush.
    • John Edwards – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of Corporal John Cock of the Mounted Police in the Lake Bathurst area.
    • John Walton – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the attempted murder of Corporal Cock.
    • Edward McManus – 9 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of sly-grog providore Alice Cooper (Bunton) at Emu Plains.
    • William Weatherwick – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Smith on the North Shore.
    • William Phineas Bowles – 16 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Sarah in Bathurst St.
    • Charles Norford – 20 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Patrick Lynch. Norford was shaving Lynch when he suddenly cut his throat.
    • Mickey Mickey – 28 February 1835 – Indigenous. Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Margaret Hanswall at Watagan.
    • John McCarthy – 4 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable Duncan Kennedy near Carcoar.
    • Patrick Kilmartin – 11 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Hamilton on the Botany Road.
    • Henry Barlow – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • John Carter – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • John Bryant – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • James Barton – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool coach at Penrith.
    • William Scannell (alias Daniel Hughes) – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • John Molloy – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of Alexander Paine.
    • John Stocking – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of Alexander Paine.
    • Lawrence Whelahan – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for assault on Mary Kelly at Canterbury.
    • Joseph Keys – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Charles Fisher Shepherd at Long Flats, Monaro.
    • James Masterman – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo (Stonemason’s Arms).
    • William Salter (Sawder, Solder) – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo.
    • James Thompson – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo.
    • James Green – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting at Constable James Brown in the Braidwood district.
    • John Gould (Joseph Gold) – 24 August 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife at Bar Point. “One of the children of this unfortunate man was carried on the shoulders of a spectator, to witness the dying struggles of his parent.”
    • Charley – 4 September 1835 – Gringai[GR19]  man, actual name not recorded. Hanged at Dungog for his involvement in the murder of five white settlers at Rawdon Vale as part of the frontier conflict in the Barrington River district (“The Mackenzie Murders”). In Charley’s case, he was named specifically for being responsible for the death of Fred Simmons.
    • George Bagley – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Newcastle for the attempted murder of Hugh McIntyre near Maitland.
    • Patrick Cassidy – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Newcastle for the attempted murder of Hugh McIntyre near Maitland.
    • William O’Neill – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery.
    • Thomas Solder – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Hugh Caffey – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Peter Doyle – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of William Akers outside Bathurst.
    • Martin Byrne – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of William Akers outside Bathurst.
    • William Jeffries – 9 November 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Richard Somerville at Port Macquarie.
    • Richard Bayliss – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
    • John Williams – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
    • Thomas Connolly – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
    • John Maher – 8 December 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Peter Robinson at Maitland.
    • Thomas Arundell – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Margaret Fitzpatrick at Lewis Ponds, near Bathurst.
    • Edward Jones – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Margaret Fitzpatrick at Lewis Ponds, near Bathurst.
    • William Doyle – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Molloy near Mount York.
    • William Baker – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Mary at Penrith.
    • Robert Duffy – 15 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the stabbing murder of his wife Mary Duffy in Phillip St.
    • John Whitehead – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Lane Cove.
    • John Hare – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Major William Elrington at Bathurst.
    • John Treish (Frisk, Fish, Trish, Frish) – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Lane Cove.
    • John Smith – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Hunter Valley.
    • William Kitchen – 9 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Ann in Harrington St.
    • John Wales (also called Watt) – 10 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and putting in bodily fear of Constable Daniel Riley near Bong Bong.
    • Timothy Pickering – 10 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and putting in bodily fear of Daniel Riley near Bong Bong.
    • Joseph Free – 11 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Brown at Invermein.
    • James Tobin – 16 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fox at Marks’ Farm, Illawarra.
    • Michael Maloney – 17 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Richard Hamlyn at Goulburn.
    • James Hare – 17 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Richard Hamlyn at Goulburn.
    • Terence Lavell – 21 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Honora Davey at Williams River.
    • James Sproule (alias Fraser) – 21 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Honora Davey at Williams River.
    • John Gore – 10 August 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Thomas Wood at Cassilis.
    • William Walker – 10 August 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Wood at Cassilis.
    • John Gregg – 2 September 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in the Penrith district.
    • James Smith – 14 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Jack Haydon between Marulan & Bungonia. Smith was the first non-Indigenous Australian-born person to be executed.
    • Thomas (or James) Walker – 18 November 1836 – Hanged for murder of fellow bushranger John Poole in the Hunter Valley.
    • John Mead – 29 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape and sodomy of Julius Rudder, aged ten, on the Old Botany Road.
    • William (or James or Thomas) Cook – 29 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Alice Kent in the Upper Hunter Valley.
    • Andrew Gillies – 15 February 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Kelly near Yass.
    • George Capsey – 7 March 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and assault of Henry Jarvis near Berrima.
    • John Jones – 8 May 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Private Thomas O’Brien, a soldier of the 50th Regiment, on the highway outside Berrima.
    • John Cooper – 9 June 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder on Dominic Gannon at Port Macquarie.
    • William Taylor – 9 June 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for aggravated highway robbery of Mr Thomas Hyacinth Macquoid on the road between Berrima and Mittagong.
    • Michael Cagney (or Cogner) – 1 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Hughes at Maitland.
    • Louis Williams – 1 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John McCormick at the Gwydir River.
    • Philip Hennessy – 5 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Alexander Hamilton in the Hunter Valley.
    • Dennis Broslughan (sometimes Brossley) – 5 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Alexander Hamilton in the Hunter Valley.
    • John Cary Willis – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dennis Maloney at Port Macquarie.
    • Edward Doyle – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and putting in fear at the house of James Wright, Bay of IslandsNew Zealand[GR20] .
    • George Woolf – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting and wounding with intent to kill Patrick Sheedy, a police corporal who was attempting to arrest him at Bathurst.
    • William Moore – 22 February 1838 – Publicly hanged in High St, Maitland for the murder of his master John Hoskyns.
    • Patrick Cuffy – 20 March 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and assault on William Vivers at Bureen.
    • John Toole – 20 March 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and assault on William Vivers at Bureen.
    • Edward Tufts – 29 April 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Jones at Taree.
    • George Comerford – 30 May 1838 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable Matthew Thompkins at Deep Creek, near Eganstown in the Port Phillip District. Comerford had murdered (or been involved in the murder of) at least seven men.
    • Bryant Flannigan – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Nagle, “Big Mary” Nagle and Patrick Riley at Bunbejong, near Mudgee.
    • Daniel Maloney – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Mahoney at Hassan’s Walls.
    • Dennis Haberlin (Haverden) – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at the house of John and Sarah Rawles and the attempted rape of Sarah Rawles, at Woodford Bay, Longueville.
    • Thomas Ribbands – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Ann Jones, at Taree. Ann’s husband John had been stabbed to death by one of their servants, Edward Tufts, earlier that year.
    • William Wilkins – 4 September 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for assault and robbery of Thomas Humphries near Maitland.
    • William Worthington (“Bumblefoot”) – 4 September 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe murder of Jack Swan at Port Macquarie.
    • William Hawkins – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • John Johnson – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • Edward Foley – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre[GR21] .
    • Jim Oates – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • James Parry – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • Charlie Kilmeister – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • John Russell – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • William Price – 21 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John “My Lord” Dunn in Sorrell Street Parramatta. The victim was well known in the district at the time; he was seventy years old, a convict who had been in the colony thirty years, “very deformed” and less than a metre tall.
    • Timothy O’Donnell – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Alexander McEdwards at Mt Campbell.
    • Michael Walsh – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Alexander McEdwards at Mt Campbell.
    • Edward Hall – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fitzpatrick at Currawang.
    • James Mayne – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fitzpatrick at Currawang
    • James Magee – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Catherine at Cowpastures (Camden)
    • Thomas Sumner – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • George Cooke – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • Ryder Gorman – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • Dennis Dacey – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • Thomas Finney – 20 August 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Elizabeth at Cockfighter’s Creek (Wollombi)
    • Patrick Quilken – 6 September 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William MacLaren at Barrington Tops
    • William Morris – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for murder of Thomas Renton at the Bargon River
    • Peter Scullion (Scallyen) – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and murder of Andrew Shanley at Sutton Forest
    • Joseph Saunders – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Andrew Shanley
    • George Carey – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for having stolen property in possession and abetting the murder of Shanley
    • George (John) Gorman – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Ann Daly at Maitland
    • James Davies – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Maher at Black Creek (Branxton)
    • Alexander Telford – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of James Maher
    • Archibald Taylor – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of James Maher
    • Llewellyn Powell – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Abraham Meares near Gilgandra
    • James Lynch – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding & abetting the Meares murder
    • Charles Clipp – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding & abetting the Meares murder.

    1840s

    • John (or James) Hunt (“The Doctor”) – 10 March 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for murder of Dan McCarthy at Regentville
    • Thomas Whitton – 19 March 1840 – Publicly hanged at Goulburn for the murder of John Hawker and arson at Oak Park, Crookwell. Whitton had earlier murdered John Kennedy Hume, brother of the explorer Hamilton Hume
    • William Newman – 8 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Harry Hodgson at Rosemount station, Patrick’s Plains (Singleton).
    • James Martin – 8 December 1840 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Jack Johnston at Gammon Plains
    • James Mason – 8 December 1840 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for being an accessory to the murder of Jack Johnston
    • Michael Monaghan (sometimes recorded as Hinnigan, Minighan) – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer Robert Archer at Glendon
    • Enoch Bradley – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of George Woodman at Yass
    • John Francis Legge – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Sarah Brooks, his wife’s four-year-old child
    • John Shea (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Graham at Scone
    • Edward Davis[GR22]  (“Teddy the Jew Boy”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham. The “Jew Boy” Gang terrorised the Hunter River district with numerous robberies and murders.
    • Robert Chitty (“Jew Boy Gang“) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • James Everett (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • John Marshall (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • James Bryant (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • Richard Glanville (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • Michael Bradley – 5 April 1841 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Catherine Harrison near Morpeth
    • Charles Cannon – 25 May 1841 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Robert Bulmer at Cherry Tree Hill, near Carcoar
    • Michael Lynch – 4 June 1841 – Hanged for murder of Matthew Sullivan near Jamberoo. Lynch is assumed to be the last person hanged on the gallows at the Old Sydney Gaol, George Street
    • Patrick Curran – 21 October 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Berrima for attempted murder of constable Patrick McGuire at the Black Range, Molonglo, and rape of Mary Wilsmore at Bungendore
    • Robert Hudson – 29 October 1841 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering fellow convict Dean West at the hospital, Macquarie St
    • George Stroud (Stroode) – 29 October 1841 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering his wife Sarah at Concord. Stroud and Hudson were the first men executed at Darlinghurst Gaol
    • Thomas Horner – 5 April 1842 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of his overseer James Stone near Shannon Vale. Stone was the former wrestler known as “Little Elephant”
    • Patrick Kleighran (Clearehan, Clerehan, Clearham) – 22 April 1842 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of Timothy Murphy on the Murrumbidgee.
    • John Lynch [GR23] (alias Dunleavy) – 22 April 1842 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of Kearns Landregan near the Ironstone Bridge on the edge of Berrima. Confessed to ten murders.
    • John Walsh – 3 May 1842 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Catherine Collitt at Mt Victoria.
    • Henry Sears (Seen) – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • John Jones – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • Nicholas Lewis – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • George Beavers – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • Stephen Brennan – 9 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Pat Lynch on Norfolk Island.
    • George Wilson – 24 April 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for the malicious wounding of Francis Bigge at the Peel River.
    • Thomas Forrester (“Long Tom”) – 24 April 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for aiding and abetting the malicious wounding of Francis Bigge at the Peel River.
    • Matthew Whittle – 2 May 1843 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the attempted murder of Patrick Grady near Oberon.
    • Benjamin Harris – 17 October 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Constable John Rutledge near Denman.
    • Lucretia Dunkley – 22 October 1843 – Hanged at Berrima Gaol for the murder of her husband Henry Dunkley near Gunning.
    • Martin Beech – 22 October 1843 – Hanged at Berrima Gaol for the murder of Henry Dunkley near Gunning.
    • Therramitchie – 24 October 1843 – Indigenous. Confessed to at least two murders. Publicly hanged at Port Macquarie for the murder of John Pocock.
    • Harry – 8 November 1843 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of a baby named Michael Keoghue near Glendon.
    • Melville – 8 November 1843 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of a baby named Michael Keoghue near Glendon.
    • John Knatchbull – 13 February 1844 – Former Royal Navy captain, publicly hanged in front of Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of shopkeeper Ellen Jamieson with a tomahawk in Margaret Street.
    • Joseph Vale – 17 April 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of John Thornton near Mulbring.
    • Mary Thornton – 17 April 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of her husband John Thornton near Mulbring.
    • Frederick (or Abraham) Gasten (or Gaston) – 31 October 1844 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Elizabeth Price near Kanimbla.
    • George Vigors – 13 August 1844 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Noble in Clarence St.
    • Thomas Burdett – 13 August 1844 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Noble in Clarence St.
    • Henry Atkins – 8 October 1844 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of John Daly near Tumut.
    • Benjamin Stanley – 7 November 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Robert Campbell at Williams River.
    • John Vidall – 7 February 1845 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Thomas Warne in George St.
    • John Ahern – 12 August 1845 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his niece Mary-Anne Clark in the area that subsequently became Railway Square.
    • James Fitzpatrick – 24 October 1845 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Peter McCormick, a fellow-convict at the Newcastle Stockade.
    • William Shea – 17 April 1846 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Andrew Menzies at Hillsborough.
    • John Kean (Liddell) – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Ellen Hyndes near Campbelltown.
    • Peter Pigeon – 4 November 1847 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of William “Coachey” Taylor at Morpeth.
    • William Fyfe (Foyle in Prison Records) – 4 July 1848 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for murder of Robert Cox at Kangaroo Point, Moreton Bay.
    • Francis Dermott (or Diamond or Durham) – 22 September 1848 – African-American. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of Mary Green on the Shoalhaven.
    • Patrick Bryan – 1 November 1848 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Eliza Neilson at Clarence Town.
    • Charles Henry Mackie – 10 November 1848 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of a nine-year-old girl.
    • George Waters Ward – 19 March 1849 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Richard Connolly (or King) at Muswellbrook.
    • James Richardson – 7 May 1849 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Elizabeth Richardson at Campbelltown. He had also murdered Elizabeth’s daughter and nine-month-old grandchild and attempted to murder a four-year-old grandchild.
    • Owen Molloy – 18 September 1849 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of John Leonard at Moreton Bay.
    • Patrick Walsh – 2 November 1849 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Benjamin Fox on the Turon River.

    1850s

    • Mogo Gar – 5 November 1850 – Bundjalung man, hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Daniel Page at the Bellinger River.
    • James Whelan – 5 November 1850 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Catherine Byrnes near Kent St.
    • William Hayes – 26 April 1851 – Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of Benjamin Cott near present-day Gillieston.
    • Michael Collihane (alias “Mickey Bad-English”) – 8 October 1851 – Publicly hanged at Maitland for the rape of Anne Milsom at Aberdeen
    • Patrick McNamara – 29 March 1852 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Rose McNamara at Aberglasslyn.
    • Thomas Wilmore – 14 April 1852 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of Phillip Alger in the Wellington District.
    • Francis Thomas Green – 21 September 1852 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of John Jones at Buckley’s Creek. This was the last public hanging in NSW.
    • Timothy Sullivan – 30 September 1852 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Daniel Harrington at King’s Plains, near Carcoar. This execution was badly botched.
    • John Newing – 30 September 1852 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Hing, another Chinese man, on 17 October 1851, at Brown’s Station on the Castlereagh
    • Paddy – 8 April 1853 – Wiradjuri man, hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Catherine Schmidt at Oakey Creek in the Mudgee district.
    • Patrick McCarthy – 8 April 1853 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Henry Williamson at Bookimbla.
    • Billy Palmer – 9 May 1854 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Jane Bradley near Obley.
    • James McLaughlan – 9 May 1854 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Sarah Atkins at Kikiamah, near Grenfell.
    • James Talbot – 30 May 1854 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of James Barry at Kangaloola Creek, near Yass.
    • Daniel Gardiner – 4 April 1854 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Catherine at Rocky River.
    • Christopher Walsh – 28 September 1854 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Mary Walsh at Lidney Park, near Millers Forest.
    • William Ryan – 28 February 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Catherine near the corner of Hay and Castlereagh Sts.
    • William Rodgers – 5 July 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Joseph Allsopp at Baulkham Hills.
    • Samuel Wilcox – 5 July 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Johanna Smith in Liverpool St, Sydney.
    • Mary-Ann Brownlow −11 November 1855 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of her husband George Moore Brownlow at Gundaroo.
    • Henry Curran – 12 May 1857 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape and violent assault of Bridget Watkins at Dirty Swamp (Locksley).
    • Addison Mitchell – 12 May 1857 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of William Ablett between Carcoar and Cowra.
    • Patrick Walsh – 4 November 1857 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of William Graham at Balranald.
    • James Moyes – 7 September 1858 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Alden on board the Oliver Jordan, berthed at Sydney.
    • John Arrow – 11 May 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Catherine Leary at Summer Hill Creek, Orange.
    • Thomas Ryan (alias William Martin) – 11 May 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Leah England in the Wellington Valley.
    • Harry – 18 May 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Goulburn for the rape and attempted murder of fifteen-year-old Margaret McMahon at Coolamatong near Berridale.
    • John Norris – 22 July 1859 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of six-year-old Harriet Curren near Prospect.
    • Robert Davis – 3 November 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Roger Flood (or Robert Quinn) at Dubbo.
    • William Ross – 22 November 1859 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Jack Hamilton at Walcha.
    • Jemmy – 22 November 1859 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Sam Pong at Gunnedah.

    1860s

    • John Jones – 26 April 1860 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Rebecca Bailey outside Maitland.
    • Jim Crow – 26 April 1860 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the rape of Jane Delantry at Thalaba, outside Dungog.
    • Ellen Monks – 8 May 1860 – Hanged at Goulburn for the hammer murder of her husband Thomas Monks at Longnose Creek, near Crookwell.
    • Frederick Clarke – 8 May 1860 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Walter Angel in the Moppity Range, near Murringo.
    • William Goodson – 16 May 1860 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Mary Goodson at Kissing Point.
    • Black Harry (also called Sippey Shippy, Sippy, Sheepy, Lippy) – 6 November 1861 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Mary Mills at Hall’s Creek, near Merriwa.
    • William Johnson (Baldwin) – 3 December 1861 – Hanged at Goulburn for the rape of Alice Hutchings at Rossiville, outside Goulburn.
    • Jackey Bullfrog (alias “Flash Jack”) – 25 April 1862 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of William Clark near Condobolin.
    • John Peisley – 25 April 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder (fatal wounding) of William Benyon at Bigga. An associate of the Ben Hall[GR24]  – Frank Gardiner[GR25]  Gang.
    • Henry Keene – 5 May 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of James Lawrie on Billabong Creek.
    • Benjamin Allerton – 5 May 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Goulburn for the robbery and wounding with intent of David Elliott at Wakool.
    • John Smith (alias Regan) – 4 June 1862 – Hanged at Goulburn for attempted murder on Alfred Bishop at Tipperary Gully, near Young.
    • Jackey – 23 October 1862 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Louisa Brown at Winburndale.
    • Alexander Ross – 18 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of Harry Stephens at Caloola, near Blayney.
    • Charles Ross – 18 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of Harry Stephens at Caloola, near Blayney.
    • Henry Manns – 26 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for his part in the highway robbery of the gold escort at Eugowra Rocks. An associate of the Ben Hall – Frank Gardiner Gang.
    • Charles Robardy – 20 May 1863 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Daniel Crotty on the Boorowa-Murringo Road, near Willawong Creek.
    • Mahommed Cassim – 2 June 1863 – Circus Juggler, born in India. Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of a fellow juggler (name lost) at Sawpit Gully, near Queanbeyan.
    • Henry Wilson – 2 October 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Peter Clarke near Murrurundi.
    • Thomas McCann – 1 February 1864 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of William Saville near Cordeaux Creek, Berrima.
    • James Stewart – 22 November 1864 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Charles Verdhun near Bourke.
    • George Gibson (alias Paddy Tom) – 20 May 1865 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Alec Musson at Pyramul.
    • Sam Poo [GR26] – 19 September 1865 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Snr Constable John Ward at Barney’s Reef near Birriwa.
    • Ah Luan – 21 November 1865 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Nee Jack at Bald Hills Creek.
    • John Dunn – 19 March 1866 – Bushranger, member of the Ben Hall Gang. Hanged at Darlinghurst for robbery and the murder of Constable Sam Nelson at Collector
    • James Crookwell – 14 April 1866 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Constable William Raymond in the Bargo Brush.
    • Michael Green – 11 June 1866 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Andrew Shearer at Rushcutter’s Bay.
    • Spider – 26 November 1866 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Elizabeth Anderson at Canonbar, near Nyngan.
    • Michael Maher – 3 December 1866 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Richard Higgins at Garrawilla, near Coonabarabran.
    • Harry Suis – 10 December 1866 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Ah Wong at Goulburn.
    • William Henry Scott – 18 March 1867 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Anne Ramsden (Scott) in Sussex St.
    • Thomas Clarke – 25 June 1867 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable William Walsh at Jinden.
    • John Clarke – 25 June 1867 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable William Walsh at Jinden.
    • William Peters – 26 June 1867 – Hanged in Bathurst for the attempted murder of eight-year-old Faith Perkins at Orange.
    • Henry James O’Farrell – 21 April 1868 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted assassination of Prince Alfred Duke of Edinburgh on 12 March 1868 at Clontarf.
    • Albert Barnes – 26 May 1868 – Hanged in the old gaol at Bathurst for the murder of James Casey at Hassan’s Walls.
    • John McEvitt – 26 May 1868 – Hanged in the old gaol at Bathurst for the murder of a boy named Francis Evans at Clark’s Creek.
    • John Munday (alias Collins)- 2 June 1868 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of John Conroy, Bridget Conroy, Thomas Smith, a shepherd surnamed White and another shepherd, name not recorded, near Bowning.
    • Ah Sung – 24 November 1868 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Ralph Lee and Amelia Lee (aged five), near Avisford.

    1870s

    • John Baker – 1871 – Bushranger hanged at Bathurst for murder and other crimes. A partner of Wiliam Bertam, who was hanged at Toowoomba on 29 August 1870. They stuck up Mount Murchison Station, Cobham’s station and a Poolamacca resident and stole horses, etc. Also committed other robberies on the road and entered homes; in Oct 1869 on the Barrier Ranges they bailed up a hawker, Charles Young, whom they murdered.
    • Robert Campbell (alias Palmer) – 10 January 1871 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of John and Louis Pohlman at Yanco.
    • Chong Gow – 6 June 1871 – Hanged at Deniliquin for the murder of Tommy Ah Gun at Hay.
    • Michael McMahon – 12 December 1871 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Jack Jones at Hall’s Creek.
    • Thomas Kelly – 2 January 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Superintendent William McLaren at Parramatta Gaol.
    • George Robert Nichols (The Parramatta River Murders) – 18 June 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Percy Walker (and John Bridger) in upper Sydney Harbour.
    • Alfred Lester (alias Froude)(The Parramatta River Murders) – 18 June 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Percy Walker (and John Bridger) in upper Sydney Harbour.
    • John Conn – 11 June 1872 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Aveline Littler near Wyndeyer.
    • William McCrow – 8 April 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Margaret Ward at a residence on the corner of Crown and Stanley streets, Woolloomooloo.
    • John Scource – 8 April 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Lee on Sydney Harbour.
    • Julius Krauss (also called William Cross) – 1 July 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Captain John Longmuir on board HMS Rifleman.
    • Henry Vincent Jarvis – 23 December 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of James Muggeridge on the Orange-Bathurst Road near Evans Plains Creek.
    • John Hawthorne (alias Perry, real name Sherrin) – 19 May 1874 – Bushranger. Believed to have committed at least four murders. Hanged at Goulburn for the robbery & attempted murder of James Slocombe near Wheeo.
    • John Glover – 19 May 1874 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of William Piety at Bolaro, near Adaminaby.
    • Gottlieb Eichhorn – 23 June 1874 – Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the rape of seventy-two-year-old Eliza Chapman at Saumarez Ponds. Mrs Chapman died from the injuries received. Eichhorn was sixteen at the time of the crime.
    • John McGrath – 10 September 1875 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for rape of Sarah Murfin at Warragubra, near Bega.
    • George Rope – 7 December 1875 – Hanged at Mudgee Gaol for the murder of his sister-in-law Hannah Rope at Lawson’s Creek.
    • Ah Chong – 18 April 1876 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Po Tie at Parramatta Gaol.
    • George Pitt – 21 June 1876 – Hanged at Mudgee for the murder of Ann Martin at Guntawang.
    • Michael Connelly – 28 June 1876 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Connelly at Carroll Gap.
    • Daniel Boon – 19 July 1876 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Alexander McMullan at North Wagga.
    • Thomas Newman – 29 May 1877 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of a child, Mary-Ann McGregor, near Coonabarabran.
    • Peter Murdoch (Murdick, alias Higgins) – 18 December 1877 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Henry Ford near Cartwright’s Hill.
    • Ing Chee – 28 May 1878 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of Li Dock in Goulburn.
    • Alfred – 10 June 1879 – Indigenous. Hanged at Mudgee for the rape of Jane Dowd at Three Mile Flat, near Wellington.

    1880s

    • Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlite[GR27] ) – 20 January 1880 – (Bushranger) Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Constable Webb-Bowen at Wantabadgery.
    • Thomas Rogan – 20 January 1880 – (Bushranger) A member of the Moonlite Gang, hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Constable Webb-Bowen at Wantabadgery.
    • Albert – 26 May 1880 – Indigenous stockman, hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the shooting murders of Nugle Jack and Sally at a camp at Baradine.
    • Daniel King – 11 June 1880 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Lizzie Hart (alias Rolk, alias Betts) at Tamworth.
    • William Brown – 29 March 1881 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the rape of his twelve-year-old daughter Ann at Yappa Brush, The Bight, across the Manning from Wingham.
    • Henry Wilkinson – 1 June 1881 – Hanged at Albury Gaol for the murder of Mary Pumpa at Lyster’s Gap, near Jindera.
    • John McGuane – 22 November 1882 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Thomas Smith at Inverell.
    • Charles Cunningham – 29 November 1882 – Hanged at Goulburn for the attempted murder of his warder Walter Izard at Berrima Gaol. “His last moments were marked by the expression of undiminished hatred to authority, which he personified to Her Majesty the Queen.”
    • Henry Tester – 7 December 1882 – Hanged at Deniliquin for the murder of seven-year-old Louisa Preston at Moira.
    • George Ruxbourne – 23 May 1883 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Jimmy Young at Armidale.
    • William Rice- 23 April 1884 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Griffin at 51 Phelps St, Surry Hills.
    • Joseph Cordini – 13 June 1884 – Hanged at Deniliquin Gaol for the murder of George Mizon on the Hay road outside Deniliquin.
    • Charles Watson – 14 April 1885 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Matthews at Wyadra, near Hillston.
    • Frank Johns – 14 July 1885 – (Bushranger) A member of the Moonlite Gang, hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted murder of William Roberts at Parramatta Gaol.
    • Matthew Friske – 10 December 1885 – Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murder of Matt Matteson at Coffs Harbour.
    • William Liddiard – 8 June 1886 – Hanged at Grafton for the murder of Pat Noonan at Wardell.
    • Alfred Reynolds – 8 October 1886 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Rhoda at Gowrie St, Newtown.
    • Robert Read – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.[GR28] 
    • George Duffy – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
    • William Boyce – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
    • Joseph Martin – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
    • John Creighan (alias Grace) – 29 May 1888 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Jack Stapleton at Hillgrove.
    • Robert Hewart – 11 September 1888 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Thomas Park in a cell at the Central Police Court.
    • Louisa Collins[GR29]  – 22 January 1889 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the poisoning of her husband at Botany. She was the last woman hanged in New South Wales.
    • James Morrison – 19 July 1889 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Constable David Sutherland in Macleay St, Potts Point.
    • Thomas Reilly – 6 November 1889 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Christian Eppel on the Wagga Common. Reilly was a cousin of Ned Kelly.

    1890s

    • Albert Schmidt – 18 November 1890 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of John Young Taylor near Old Junee. Believed to have committed at least two other murders.
    • Lars Peter Hansen – 2 June 1891 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of Charles Duncker on the Peak Hill road.
    • Maurice Dalton – 17 November 1891 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Catherine at 1 Foveaux St Surry Hills.
    • Harold Dutton Mallalieu – 26 November 1891 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of Jerome Casey on the Moonagee Road near Nyngan.
    • Jimmy Tong – 29 November 1892 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Harry Hing at Walcha.
    • Edward Smedley – 14 June 1893 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Phoebe at Qurindi.
    • George Archer – 11 July 1893 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Emma Harrison at a house on the corner of Burton and Bourke streets, Darlinghurst. This hanging was mishandled and Archer suffocated to death on the rope.
    • John Makin – 15 August 1893 – (“The Macdonaldtown Baby Farmer[GR30] “). Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of the infant Horace Murray.
    • Woy Hoy (Jimmy Ah Hoy) – 24 November 1893 – Hanged at Mudgee for the murder of Ah Fook in Lewis St, Mudgee.
    • Herbert Edward ‘Bertie’ Glasson (sometimes Edwin Hubert) – 29 November 1893 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John William Phillips and Frances Letitia ‘Fanny’ Cavanough at Carcoar on 23 September 1893. The first prisoner executed at Bathurst Gaol on its present site (opened 1888).
    • Charles Montgomery – 31 May 1894 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable Fred Bowden near the corner of Bridge and Macquarie streets.
    • Thomas Williams – 31 May 1894 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable Fred Bowden near the corner of Bridge and Macquarie streets.
    • Alexander Lee – 20 July 1894 – Hanged at Tamworth for the murder of William McKay at the CBC bank at Barraba.
    • John Cummins – 20 July 1894 – Hanged at Tamworth for the murder of William McKay at the CBC bank at Barraba.
    • Frederick Paton (alias Frederick Dennis) – 11 December 1894 – Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of John Hall at Fifield on 6 May 1894.
    • Alfred Grenon – 7 February 1895 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Thomas Heavey at Elizabeth Bay.
    • Thomas Meredith Sheridan – 7 January 1896 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Jessie Nicholls, who died at Castlereagh St from the effects of an illegal abortion.
    • Charles Hines – 21 May 1897 – Hanged at Maitland for the rape of his thirteen-year-old stepdaughter Mary Emily Hayne at Gundy
    • Thomas Moore – 24 June 1897 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Edward (or Edwin) Smith at Brennan’s Bend on the Darling River below Bourke in November, 1896.
    • Frank Butler – 17 July 1897 – (“The Glenbrook Murders”) Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Arthur Preston and Lee Weller at Penrith and Glenbrook.
    • Wong Min – 13 December 1898 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Joe Mong Jong (or Woung) at Warren, New South Wales on 16 August 1898. Also stabbed Alice Spong during same incident.
    • Stewart Wilson Christopher Briggs – 5 April 1899 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Margaret Miller and Margaret Dutt at 89 Douglas St Petersham (now Stanmore).

    1900s

    • John Sleigh (alias Ward) – 6 December 1900 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Frank “Bones” Curran at Back Creek, near Bombala.
    • Jackie Underwood – 14 January 1901 – Indigenous. Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Percival Mawbey at Breelong. He and Jimmy Governor also killed Helen Josephine Kerz, Mrs Sarah Mawbey, Grace Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey in the same incident.
    • Jimmy Governor[GR31]  – 18 January 1901 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Helen Josephine Kerz at Breelong. In the same incident he and Jackie Underwood also killed Mrs. Sarah Mawbey, Grace Mawbey, Percival Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey. Jimmy and his brother Joe also killed Alexander McKay near Ulan, Elizabeth O’Brien and her baby son at Poggie, near Merriwa, and Keiran Fitzpatrick near Wollar.
    • Joseph Campbell – 20 December 1901 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of nine-year-old Violet Oldfield at Queanbeyan. He had also raped another nine-year-old at Ramsay’s Bush (Haberfield)
    • Thomas Moore – 14 April 1903 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape and murder of ten-year-old Janet Irene Smith at Ramsay’s Bush, Leichhardt (now Haberfield).
    • Digby Grand – 7 July 1903 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn.
    • Henry Jones – 7 July 1903 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn.
    • Ah Check – 28 June 1904 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of William Tregaskis at Peak Hill, NSW. He was the last person executed at Old Dubbo Gaol.
    • John Raymond Brown – 11 December 1906 – Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murders of Daniel O’Keefe, Margaret O’Keefe and Patrick Gillick at German Creek, near Ballina (now called Empire Vale).
    • Peter Sadeek – 11 June 1907 – Hanged at Broken Hill Gaol for the murder of Mary Cooney (or Jewson) at White Cliffs.
    • Nicholas Baxter – 29 October 1907 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Mary MacNamara at 2 Sarah St Enmore.
    • George Toffts – 26 November 1907 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Eliza Maud Fletcher at Quirindi.

    1910s

    • William Frederick Ball – 17 June 1912 – Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the murder of Louisa Ball at Bingara.
    • ·       [GR32]  20 December 1916 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham.
    • Roland Nicholas Kennedy – 20 December 1916 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham.
    • James Wilson – 31 May 1917 – Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of George Pappageorgi at Haymarket, Sydney.
    • Christian William Benzing – 16 June 1917 – Hanged at Long Bay for the rape and murder of eleven-year-old Dorothy Myra Small at Rockdale.

    1920 onwards

    • Edward Williams – 29 April 1924 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of his three children, five-year-old Rosalie, three-year-old Mary and two-year-old Cecillia at Underwood St Paddington.
    • William George Gordon Simpson – 10 December 1924 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murders of Guy Chalmers Clift and Police Constable James Flynn at Appin.
    • William Cyril Moxley – 17 August 1932 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murders of Dorothy Ruth Denzel and Frank Barnby Wilkinson at Moorebank.
    • Edwin John Hickey – 14 May 1936 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of former Conciliation Commissioner Montague Henwood on the train between Faulconbridge and Linden. Hickey was seventeen at the time of the crime.
    • James Leighton Massey – 15 June 1936 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of Norman Samuel McLaren Stead at Darlinghurst.
    • Alfred Spicer – 26 May 1938 – Hanged at Long Bay for the rape and murder of six-year-old Marcia Hayes at Windsor.

    John Trevor Kelly – 24 August 1939 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of Marjorie Constance Sommerlad at Tenterfield. He was the last person to be judicially executed in the state of New South Wales


     [GR1]HMS Guardian was a 44-gun Roebuck-class fifth-rate two-decker of the Royal Navy, later converted to carry stores. She was completed too late to take part in the American War of Independence, and instead spent several years laid up in ordinary, before finally entering service as a store and convict transport to Australia, under Lieutenant Edward Riou. Riou sailed Guardian, loaded with provisions, animals, convicts and their overseers, to the Cape of Good Hope where he took on more supplies. Nearly two weeks after his departure on the second leg of the journey, an iceberg was sighted and Riou sent boats to collect ice to replenish his water supplies. Before he could complete the re-provisioning, a sudden change in the weather obscured the iceberg, and Guardian collided with it while trying to pull away. She was badly damaged and in immediate danger of sinking. The crew made frantic repair attempts but to no apparent avail. Riou eventually allowed most of the crew to take to Guardian‘s boats, but refused to leave his ship. Eventually through continuous work he and the remaining crew were able to navigate the ship, by now reduced to little more than a raft, back to the Cape, a nine-week voyage described as “almost unparalleled”. Riou ran Guardian aground to prevent her sinking, but shortly afterwards a hurricane struck the coast, wrecking her. The remains were sold in 1791.

     [GR2]John Palmer (17 June 1760 – 27 September 1833) was a commissary of New South Wales, responsible for the colony’s supplies. He arrived with the First Fleet in 1788, and was opposed to those who plotted against Governor William Bligh.

     [GR3]Elizabeth Macarthur was born in Bridgerule, Devon, England, the daughter of provincial farmers, Richard and Grace Veale of Cornish origin. Her father died when she was aged four years. Her mother remarried when she was 11, leaving Elizabeth in the care of her grandfather, John, and friends.

    Elizabeth married Plymouth soldier John Macarthur in 1788. In 1790, with her newborn son Edward, she accompanied John and his regiment, the New South Wales Corps, to the recently established colony of New South Wales, travelling on the Second Fleet.

     [GR4]Eber Bunker (1761–1836) was a sea captain and pastoralist, and he was born on 7 March 1761 at Plymouth, Massachusetts. He commanded one of the first vessels to go whaling and sealing off the coast of Australia. His parents were James Bunker and his wife Hannah, née Shurtleff.

     [GR5]Harris arrived in New South Wales as a surgeon’s mate on the Surprize charter, one of the six ships arriving as a part of the second fleet in 1790. During his time in New South Wales, he played a very active role in his community by growing in his profession and purchasing land.

    Due to the extent of the number of civil responsibilities Harris held, he became involved with traders and officers and was asked by Lieutenant Colonel William Patterson to be relieved of his duties that conflicted with his military duties. Harris actions as a Naval Officer included reporting private conversations from the King about his dissatisfaction of the military and this led to Harris being charged with ungentlemanlike conduct and faced an additional court martial six months later for supposedly disclosing voting actions. Harris was acquitted in both occasions and was debarred from the civil office and was not up until 1804 that Harris was reinstated as a Naval Officer and was later re-sworn as a magistrate and supervisor of the police force.

    In 1807, Harris was dismissed as a Naval Officer and from the bench by Governor William Bligh which lead to Harris becoming a bitter opponent of Governor William Bligh, portraying him as “avaricious, dishonest and tyrannical” and his hostility towards Bligh won’t back the military officers who was espoused in the Rum Rebellion. However, Major George Johnston reinstated Harris as a magistrate in January 1808, however Johnston was quick to lose favour in Harris from his criticism of John Macarthur, a pioneer of the wool industry. Johnston dismissed Harris again in April 1808 and Harris was ordered to London to deliver the rebel case against the British government, however, Harris pleaded sick and in January 1809, he was appointed once again as a magistrate. Harris left for England and Ireland in April 1809 for two years and returned accompanied by his newly wedded wife, 25 year old Eliza Jones, which married at the Covent Garden’s.

    In 1814, Harris resigned and returned to Port Jackson with his wife Eliza Jones and became a private settler. Harris kept his properties in control and devoted the final years of his life farming and stock raising while actively being involved in public affairs and served in many committees, including supporting the establishment of the Bank of New South Wales and became one of the first directors. In 1819, he participated on John Oxley‘s Bathurst expedition as a surgeon. Within the same year of participating in John Oxley‘s expedition, he was once again elected as a magistrate.

    In 1830s, Harris developed a hip problem which confined him to a wheelchair and he dropped out of community activities and began managing his pastoral and agricultural holdings and worked until his death on 27 April 1838.

     [GR6]Nicholas Devine, also spelled Divine (1739? County Cavan, Ireland – May 29, 1830), was an Irish prison official who was superintendent of convicts for New South Wales, Australia, from 1790 to 1808.

    Devine obtained land grants in what was to become Erskineville.

    After Devine’s death, a legal battle occurred over his estate. This led to Doe dem Devine v. Wilson and Others, popularly known as the “Newtown Ejectment Case”.

     [GR7]Campbell was born in GreenockInverclydeScotland and at the age of 27 moved to India to join his older brother John. In India, he and his brother were partners in Campbell Clark & Co., merchants of Calcutta, which in July 1799 became Campbell & Co. when the Clarkes gave up their interest in the firm. In 1798, Robert Campbell, with a cargo from Calcutta, visited Sydney to develop a trading connexion there, and he also purchased some land at Dawes Point, near the western entrance of Sydney Cove. In February 1800, he returned to Sydney with another cargo to both settle in Sydney, and to establish a branch of Campbell & Co. In 1801 he married Commissary John Palmer‘s sister Sophia Palmer (1777–1833). After settling in Sydney he built the private Campbell’s wharf and warehouses on his land at Dawes Point, and developed a large business as a general merchant

     [GR8]On 17 June 1826 an English-born Australian farmer from Campbelltown named Frederick Fisher (born 28 August 1792 in London) suddenly disappeared. His friend and neighbour George Worrall claimed that Fisher had returned to his native England, and that before departing had given him power of attorney over his property and general affairs. Later, Worrall claimed that Fisher had written to him to advise that he was not intending to return to Australia, and giving his farm to Worrall.

    Four months after Fisher’s disappearance a respectable local man named John Farley, ran into the local hotel in a very agitated state. He told the astonished patrons that he had seen the ghost of Fred Fisher sitting on the rail of a nearby bridge. Farley related that the ghost had not spoken, but had merely pointed to a paddock beyond the creek, before disappearing.

    Initially Farley’s tale was dismissed, but the circumstances surrounding Fisher’s disappearance eventually aroused sufficient suspicion that a police search of the paddock to which the ghost had pointed was undertaken – during which the remains of the murdered Fisher were discovered buried by the side of a creek. George Worrall was arrested for the crime, confessed, and subsequently hanged. Fred Fisher, whose lands he had coveted, was buried in the cemetery at St. Peter’s Anglican Church in Campbelltown.

    It has been suggested that Farley invented the ghost story as a way of concealing some other speculated source of his knowledge about the whereabouts of Fisher’s body, but this cannot be confirmed. Joe Nickell has written the ghost story may have originated from an anonymous poem in 1832 which fictionalised Fisher and Worrall. The poem, “The Sprite of the Creek!”, has since been identified as the work of James Riley (1795-ca.1860), who would republish it with explanatory footnotes in 1846 under the pseudonym “Felix”.

    Contemporary police and court records do not mention the ghost story. The legend of Fisher’s ghost has since entered popular folklore and the creek beside which the body was discovered is known as Fisher’s Ghost Creek, although it has now, however, been converted into mostly a storm water drain.

     [GR9]Jack Donahue was born in Dublin, Ireland about 1806. An orphan, he began pick-pocketing and, after later involvement in a burglary, was convicted of intent to commit a felony in 1823. After being detained aboard Surprise, a convict hulk moored in Cork, in September 1824, he was transferred to Ann and Amelia and transported with 200 other prisoners to Australia, arriving in Sydney in January 1825. Upon being shown his cell at Carter’s barracks, Donahue remarked ‘A home for life’. During his early imprisonment, he was twice sentenced to fifty lashes as punishment.

     [GR10]William Charles Wentworth (13 August 1790 – 20 March 1872) was an Australian explorer, journalist, politician and author, and one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. He was the first native-born Australian to achieve a reputation overseas, and a leading advocate for self-government for the Australian colonies.

     [GR11]Denham Court is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South WalesAustralia located 44 kilometres (27 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government areas of the City of Campbelltown and City of Liverpool. It is part of the Macarthur region.

    The suburb is one of the most affluent in south-west Sydney, with the median property price standing at $1.60 million in January 2015, over three times higher than the median of properties in surrounding suburbs. The median income also stands noticeably above the average of surrounding suburbs at over $1,900 per week, while the median of surrounding areas stands at $900 per week. Willowdale Estate which was developed by Stockland is one of the most noticeable settlement in Denham Court.  The area is most well known for its luxurious properties, including a colonial era compound from which the suburb takes its name

     [GR12]Samuel Terry (c. 1776 – 22 February 1838) was transported to Australia as a criminal, where he became a wealthy landowner, merchant and philanthropist. His extreme wealth made him by far the richest man in the colony with wealth comparable to the richer in England. Terry left a personal estate of £250,000, an income of over £10,000 a year from Sydney rentals, and landed property that defies assessment. At his death in 1838 he was worth 3.39% of the colony’s gross domestic product, the equivalent today of over $24 billion.

    The year and circumstances of his birth are unknown. While working as a labourer in Manchester, England, on 22 January 1800 he was sentenced to transportation to the colony of Australia for the crime of stealing 400 pairs of stockings. He was taken to Sydney, Australia, where he served as a stone cutter. After working several jobs, he earned a farm in 1808.

    On 27 March 1810 Terry married Rosetta (Rosata) Marsh or Madden, née Pracey, who had come free to the colony in 1799 on the ship, The Hillsborough. She was a widow (possibly of convict Edward Madden, and later of Henry Marsh), and she had three children when she married. She was an innkeeper, and on marriage Terry took over her Pitt Street property. He continued to prosper, becoming a trader and became a supplier of food to the government.

    By 1820 he possessed significant amounts of property and was a large shareholder in the Bank of New South Wales. There is some controversy about the means he used to acquire his wealth, and he became accused of extortion by his enemies. It was alleged that he brought land owners to his inn, who would become intoxicated and sign away their property in payment of debts. By 1821 he also brought 28 actions to the Supreme Court.

    In the 1820s he was wealthy and a public figure. He was also a philanthropist, contributing to local societies and schools. He also worked for the emancipists and, in 1826, became president of the Masonic Lodge. He died on 22 February 1838 following three years incapacitated as a result of a seizure

     [GR13]The Castle Hill rebellion of 1804 was a convict rebellion in the Castle Hill area of Sydney, against the colonial authorities of the British colony of New South Wales. The rebellion culminated in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia, on 5 March 1804 at Rouse Hill. It was dubbed the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill after the first Battle of Vinegar Hill, which had taken place in 1798 in Ireland. The incident was the first major convict uprising in Australian history to be suppressed under martial law.

    On 4 March 1804, according to the official accounts, 233 convicts, led by Philip Cunningham (a veteran of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, as well as a mutiny on the convict transport ship Anne), escaped from a prison farm, intent on “capturing ships to sail to Ireland”. In response, martial law was quickly declared in the colony. The mostly Irish rebels, having gathered reinforcements, were hunted by the colonial forces until they were caught on a hillock nicknamed Vinegar Hill on 5 March 1804. While negotiating under a flag of truce, Cunningham was arrested. The troops then charged, and the rebellion was crushed. Nine of the rebel leaders were executed, and hundreds were punished, before martial law was finally revoked a week after the battle.

     [GR14]Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who used the bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term had evolved to refer to those who took up “robbery under arms” as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

    Bushranging thrived during the gold rush years of the 1850s and 1860s when the likes of Ben HallBluecap, and Captain Thunderbolt roamed the country districts of New South Wales. These “Wild Colonial Boys“, mostly Australian-born sons of convicts, were roughly analogous to British “highwaymen” and outlaws of the American Old West, and their crimes typically included robbing small-town banks and coach services. In certain cases, such as that of Dan Morgan, the Clarke brothers, and Australia’s best-known bushranger, Ned Kelly, numerous policemen were murdered. The number of bushrangers declined due to better policing and improvements in rail transport and communication technology, such as telegraphy. Although bushrangers appeared sporadically into the early 20th century, most historians regard Kelly’s capture and execution in 1880 as effectively representing the end of the bushranging era.

    Bushranging exerted a powerful influence in Australia, lasting for over a century and predominating in the eastern colonies. Its origins in a convict system bred a unique kind of desperado, most frequently with an Irish political background. Native-born bushrangers also expressed nascent Australian nationalist views and are recognised as “the first distinctively Australian characters to gain general recognition.” As such, a number of bushrangers became folk heroes and symbols of rebellion against the authorities, admired for their bravery, rough chivalry and colourful personalities. However, in stark contrast to romantic portrayals in the arts and popular culture, bushrangers tended to lead lives that were “nasty, brutish and short”, with some earning notoriety for their cruelty and bloodthirst. Australian attitudes toward bushrangers remain complex and ambivalent.

     [GR15]The Bathurst rebellion of 1830 was an outbreak of bushranging near Bathurst in the British penal colony (now the Australian state) of New South Wales.

    The rebellion involved a group of escaped convicts who ransacked villages and engaged in shootouts over the course of two months. Led by 25-year-old English-born convict Ralph Entwistle, the group numbered up to 80 men at its peak, making it the largest convict uprising in New South Wales history since the Castle Hill rebellion of 1804. The rebels became known as the Ribbon gang on account of Entwistle wearing “a profusion of white streamers about his head”.

     [GR16]Suttor arrived at Sydney on 5 November 1800. In spite of the delays, Suttor managed to land some of his trees and vines still alive. He was given a grant of land, and settled at Chelsea Farm, Baulkham Hills. In a few years time he was sending oranges and lemons to Sydney, obtaining good prices for them, and had become a successful settler.

    At the time of the William Bligh rebellion in 1808, Suttor was a firm supporter of the deposed governor. When Colonel Paterson arrived, Suttor’s was the first signature to an address presented to him promising to give him

    every information and support in our power in order that full satisfaction and justice may be given to the governor (whom we highly revere) . . . we cannot but feel the most confidant reliance that you will take prompt and effectual means to secure the principals in this most unjustifiable transaction.

    Suttor was, however, arrested and sentenced to be imprisoned for six months for failing to attend Lieutenant-Governor Joseph Foveaux’s general muster and for impugning his authority. The stand taken by Suttor was much to his honour; a full account of it will be found in the Historical Records of Australia, vol. VII, pp. 131–7. Suttor always spoke of Bligh as a “firm and kind-hearted English gentleman, no tyrant and no coward” (W. H. Suttor, Australian Stories Retold, p. 6). In 1810 Suttor was summoned to England as a witness on behalf of Bligh, and arrived in Australia again in May 1812. In August 1814 Suttor was given the position of superintendent of the lunatic asylum at Castle Hill with a salary of £50; in February 1819 he was dismissed from this position on charges he used lunatic labour on his farm.

    Suttor again took up land, and in 1822 he moved to beyond the Blue Mountains to the newly settled lands on the Bathurst plains. There he established the 130 hectares (320 acres) ‘Brucedale Station’ at the junction of Winburndale and Clear Creeks, which turned out to be a successful landholding leading to great prosperity, and by the 1830s it had been expanded to 4,055 hectares (10,020 acres). During a time of great conflict with the Indigenous Australians of the Wiradjuri nation, who resisted the taking of their lands, Suttor and his family (in particular son William) established good relations with the aborigines. They were known to have been close to the Wiradjuri’s warrior leader Windradyne, and when Windradyne died he was buried at Brucedale.

     [GR17]McIntyre was born in 1789/1790 to Donald (Daniel) and Mary McIntyre from Perthshire, Scotland. McIntrye’s brother Peter established a property Blairmore, on the land of the Wanaruah people, near what is now Aberdeen. Donald emigrated to New South Wales and in 1827 established a property nearby, Kayuga. In 1834 he established another station Dalkeith at what is now Cassilis, on the land of the Wiradjuri people.

    In November 1833 a shepherd that McIntyre employed, variously referred to as Edward Hills, Edward Giles or William Gills, hit him in the back of the head with a piece of iron. The shepherd was convicted of attempted murder, sentenced to death, and was hanged in March 1834

     [GR18]In 1824 Wardell sold his Statesman paper and formed a partnership with Wentworth. Printing materials were purchased as part of a plan to found an Australian newspaper, and they sailed for Australia, arriving about September. Soon afterwards they started The Australian, the first number appearing on 14 October 1824 and was to be published weekly at a cost of one shilling. It was the first independent paper to be published in Australia, and Governor Thomas Brisbane who was approaching the end of his term was inclined to welcome it. After the arrival of Governor Ralph Darling in December 1825, friction between the governor and the paper developed. Early in 1827 governor Darling was devising means to control its criticism of his actions; he brought in a newspaper tax of fourpence a copy, but chief justice Francis Forbes refused to sanction the act. In September 1827 Wardell who had referred to the governor in The Australian as “an ignorant and obstinate man” was charged with libel. Wardell conducted his own defence with great ability and the jury failed to agree. Wardell was again on trial for libel in December, and Wentworth who was defending him asserted that the jurors, who were members of the military, might lose their commissions if they did not return a verdict for Darling. The jury again disagreed.

    Wardell was now editor and sole proprietor of The Australian and his practice as a barrister was increasing; early in 1831 the government was glad to brief him in an action for damages against it. Towards the end of 1831 Governor Darling was informed by Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich that his six-year term as governor would soon be expiring, and after the arrival of Governor Richard Bourke, Wardell’s writing became much more temperate in tone. In 1834, having made a moderate fortune, he was intending to go to England, but on 7 September 1834 when inspecting his estate on horseback at Petersham, New South Wales he came across three runaway convicts and tried to persuade them to give themselves up. The leader of the men, John Jenkins, however, picked up a gun and fatally shot Wardell. The men were arrested a few days later and two of them were subsequently hanged. Wardell was unmarried

     [GR19]Gringai otherwise known as Guringay, is the name for one of the Australian Aboriginal people who were recorded as inhabiting an area of the Hunter Valley in eastern New South Wales, north of Sydney. They were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups as a clan of the Worimi people

     [GR20]New Zealand (MāoriAotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New CaledoniaFiji, and Tonga. The country’s varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand’s capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

    Owing to their remoteness, the islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable lands to be settled by humans. Between about 1280 and 1350, Polynesians began to settle in the islands and then developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, and in 1907 it became a dominion; it gained full statutory independence in 1947, and the British monarch remained the head of state. Today, the majority of New Zealand’s population of 5 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand’s culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are EnglishMāori, and New Zealand Sign Language, with English being dominant.

    developed country, New Zealand ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, government transparency, and economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. The service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, and agriculture; international tourism is a significant source of revenue. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister, currently Jacinda ArdernQueen Elizabeth II is the country’s monarch and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand’s territorial claim in Antarctica.

    New Zealand is a member of the United NationsCommonwealth of NationsANZUSOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentASEAN Plus SixAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum.

     [GR21]Description of the massacre

    A group of eleven stockmen, consisting of assigned convicts and former convicts, ten of them white Europeans, the 11th, John Johnstone, a black African, led by John Henry Fleming, who was from Mungie Bundie Run near Moree, arrived at Henry Dangar‘s Myall Creek station in New England on 9 June 1838. They rode up to the station huts beside which were camped a group of approximately thirty-five Aboriginal people. They were part of the Wirraayaraay (also spelled ‘Weraerai’) group who belonged to the Kamilaroi people. They had been camped at the station for a few weeks after being invited by one of the convict stockmen, Charles Kilmeister (or Kilminister), to come to their station for their safety and protection from the gangs of marauding stockmen who were roaming the district slaughtering any Aboriginal people they could find. These Aboriginal people had previously been camped peacefully at McIntyre’s station for a few months. They were therefore well known to the whites. Most of them had been given European names such as Daddy, King Sandy, Joey, Martha and Charley. Some of the children spoke a certain amount of English. When the stockmen rode into their camp they fled into the convict’s hut pleading for protection.

    When asked by the station hut keeper, George Anderson, what they were going to do with the Aboriginal people, John Russell said they were going to “take them over the back of the range and frighten them”. The stockmen then entered the hut, tied them to a long tether rope and led them away. They took them to a gully on the side of the ridge about 800 metres to the west of the station huts. There they slaughtered them all except for one woman whom they kept with them for the next couple of days. The approximately 28 people they murdered were largely women, children and old men. Ten younger men were away on a neighbouring station cutting bark. Most of the people were slaughtered with swords as George Anderson, who refused to join the massacre, clearly heard there were just two shots. Unlike Anderson, Charles Kilmeister joined the slaughter.

    Testimony was later given at trial that the children had been beheaded while the men and women were forced to run as far as they could between the stockyard fence and a line of sword-wielding stockmen who hacked at them as they passed. After the massacre, Fleming and his gang rode off looking to kill the remainder of the group, who they knew had gone to the neighbouring station. They failed to find the other Aboriginal people as they had returned to Myall that night and left after being warned the killers would be returning. On the party’s return to Myall two days later, they dismembered and burnt the bodies before resuming the search for the remaining people. The ten people had gone to MacIntyre’s station near Inverell, 40 kilometres to the east, where between 30 and 40 Aboriginal people were reportedly murdered with their bodies being cast onto a large fire. Many suspect this massacre was also committed by the same stockmen. After several days of heavy drinking the party dispersed.

    When the manager of the station, William Hobbs, returned several days later and discovered the bodies, counting up to twenty-eight of them (as they were beheaded and dismembered he had difficulty determining the exact number) he decided to report the incident but Kilmeister initially talked him out of it. Hobbs discussed it with a neighbouring station overseer, Thomas Foster, who told squatter Frederick Foot who rode to Sydney to report it to the new Governor, George Gipps. Supported by the Attorney General, John Plunkett, Gipps ordered Police Magistrate Edward Denny Day at Muswellbrook to investigate the massacre.

    They carried out a thorough investigation despite the bodies having been removed from the massacre site where only a few bone fragments remained. He arrested eleven of the twelve perpetrators. The only one to escape was the only free man involved, the leader, John Fleming. Anderson was crucial in identifying the arrested men. He had initially refused to name the men involved but after finding out that the massacre had been planned more than a week earlier to coincide with the absence of Hobbs he agreed to identify the killers to the magistrate

     [GR22]Edward Davis (1816–1841) was an Australia convict turned bushranger. His real name is not certain, but in April 1832 he was convicted under the name George Wilkinson for attempting to steal a wooden till and copper coins to the total value of 7 shillings. Sentenced to seven years transportation, he arrived in Sydney on the Camden in 1833 and was placed in the Hyde Park Barracks. Over the next few years he escaped four times: on 23 December 1833 from the Barracks, on 1 December 1835 from Penrith, on 10 January 1837 from the farmer he had been assigned to, and for a final time on 21 July 1838.

    In the summer of 1839 he formed a bushranger gang of escaped convicts which roamed in New South Wales, from Maitland to the New England Highway, in the Hunter Region, and down to Brisbane Water near Gosford. They had a main hideout at Pilcher’s Mountain, near Dungog. The gang members gained a Robin Hood like reputation, for supposedly giving some of the plunder of the wealthy to their assigned convict servants, and for adopting a gallant air and flamboyant dress, and tying pink ribbons to their horses’ bridles. Davis instructed his gang that violence was only permissible in order to escape capture, but in December 1840 a store keeper’s clerk was killed by gang member John Shea in the course of a robbery at Scone (Davis was elsewhere in the town at the time). Davis immediately retreated with the gang to a hideout at Doughboy Hollow at Murrurundi, but they were surprised by a posse that had followed them. In the shootout, Davis was wounded in the shoulder. Davis, John Everett, John Shea, Robert Chitty, James Bryant and John Marshall were captured, Richard Glanvill escaped.

    They stood trial in the Supreme Court in Sydney, Shea charged with murder and the others with aiding and abetting Shea. They were all found guilty by a jury and condemned to death by Chief Justice Sir James Rowling. There was public sympathy for Davis with many appealing for a reprieve, but the Executive Council confirmed the sentence. Davis was hanged on 16 March 1841. Davis was a Jew, and was referred to later as “Teddy the Jewboy”. He was assisted at his execution by the reader of the Sydney synagogue and buried in the Jewish portion of the Sydney Devonshire Street Cemetery

     [GR23]John Lynch (1813 – 22 April 1842) was an Irish-born Australian serial killer, convicted for the murder of Kearns Landregan, but is believed to have killed 10 people in the Berrima area of New South Wales from 1835 to 1841. Possibly the worst serial killer in Australian history, Lynch was a bushranger who murdered and robbed cattle and laborers in the trails around Berima.

    Lynch was sentenced to death, and was executed in 1842.

     [GR24]Ben Hall (9 May 1837 – 5 May 1865) was an Australian bushranger and leading member of the Gardiner–Hall gang. He and his associates carried out many raids across New South Wales, from Bathurst to Forbes, south to Gundagai and east to Goulburn. Unlike many bushrangers of the era, Hall was not directly responsible for any deaths, although several of his associates were. He was shot dead by police in May 1865 at Goobang Creek. The police claimed that they were acting under the protection of the Felons Apprehension Act 1865 which allowed any bushranger who had been specifically named under the terms of the Act to be shot and killed by any person at any time without warning. At the time of Hall’s death, the Act had not come into force, resulting in considerable controversy over the legality of his killing

     [GR25]Frank Gardiner (1830 – c. 1882) was an Australian bushranger. He was born in Rosshire, Scotland in 1830, and migrated to Australia as a child with his parents in 1834. Also aboard was Henry Monro, a wealthy Scottish businessman who would soon form a relationship with his mother, Jane. His real name was Francis Christie, though he often used one of several other aliases including Gardiner, Clarke or Christie. In 1835 Monro appointed his father, Charles Christie as overseer on his property at Boro Creek, south of Goulburn. In 1837 Monro obtained the lease for a property on the Campaspe Plains, about 80 km northwest of Melbourne with Charles again the overseer. By 1840 Monro had the lease on another run near Hotspur, about 50 km north of Portland in western Victoria. Once again Charles was overseer and moved there with the young family

     [GR26]Poo (nicknamed ‘Cranky Sam’) was a Chinese emigrant to Australia during the Gold Rush, but instead of mining took to highway robbery on the road between Gulgong and Mudgee. A skilled and elusive bushman, he evaded capture from the authorities for several weeks. He often targeted solitary travellers on foot, both East Asians and Europeans, and was also responsible for the rape of a settler’s wife.

    On 3 February 1865, Senior Constable John Ward of the New South Wales Police Force was returning to Coonabarabran from a prisoner escort to Mudgee. Near the locality known as Barney’s Reef he was informed that a Chinese man had been robbing passing travellers in the vicinity, and was nearby in the scrub. Following a short search, Ward located the offender’s camp and approached him. When the offender saw the constable he dived into the bush. A long foot chase ensued, during which the pursued shot the constable in the chest, mortally wounding him. The murderer was later identified as Poo.

    Two weeks after the incident, Poo was finally tracked down. When confronted by police troops he attempted to escape, but was shot in the thigh. Continuing to fire from the ground, he was finally subdued, and taken to a prison hospital in Mudgee. When he recovered nine months later, he was taken to Bathurst, where he was tried by Judge Edward Hargreaves and hanged on 19 December 1865

     [GR27]On 8 May 1869, Scott was accused of disguising himself and forcing bank agent Ludwig Julius Wilhelm Bruun, a young man whom he had befriended, to open the safe. Bruun described being robbed by a fantastic black-crepe masked figure who forced him to sign a note absolving him of any role in the crime. The note read “I hereby certify that L.W. Bruun has done everything within his power to withstand this intrusion and the taking of money which was done with firearms, Captain Moonlite, Sworn.” After this he went to the Maitland district, near Newcastle and was there convicted on two charges of obtaining money by false pretences for which he was sentenced to twelve and eighteen months’ imprisonment. Of these concurrent terms, Scott served fifteen months, at the expiration of which time he returned to Sydney where, in March 1872, he was arrested on the charge of robbing the Egerton Bank and forwarded to Ballarat for examination and trial.

    He succeeded in escaping gaol by cutting a hole through the wall of his cell and gained entrance into the cell adjoining, which was occupied by another prisoner, who was as desirous of escaping as himself. Together they seized the warder when he came on his rounds, gagged him and tied him up. Making use of his keys, they proceeded to other cells, liberating four other prisoners, and the six men succeeded in escaping over the wall by means of blankets cut into strips, which they used as a rope. Scott was subsequently re-captured, and held safely until he could be trialed. In July he was tried before judge Sir Redmond Barry at the Ballarat Circuit Court when, by a series of cross-examinations of unprecedented length conducted by himself after rejecting his counsel, he spread the case over no less than eight days, but was at last convicted, and sentenced to 10 years’ hard labour. Despite some evidence against him, Scott claimed innocence in this matter until his dying day.

     [GR28]The gang rape occurred on 9 September 1886. Sixteen-year-old Mary Jane Hicks had been educated at the Bathurst convent school, then worked as a domestic servant at Katoomba, and at a hotel and private houses in Sydney. While walking to a city employment registry, she was offered a lift by Charles Sweetman, the driver of a hansom cab, who instead drove her in his cab to what is now the Moore Park area, then an isolated piece of bushland in the suburb of Waterloo and called Mount Rennie. He attempted to molest her in the cab but she screamed for help. Two young men approached and took her out of the cab, purporting to save her from disgrace. At this point, Sweetman departed with his cab.

    The young men walked Hicks to a different isolated location, where they were joined by several others, some of whom began to take turns in raping her. The girl’s screaming was heard by a passerby, William Stanley, who attempted to rescue her but was driven off by the gang with bricks, stones, and bottles. Stanley ran to distant Redfern police station, where he reported the crime at about 4 p.m. When the police arrived on the scene at 5 p.m., they interrupted the crime, which was still in progress, but were unable to apprehend any of the fleeing offenders. Following inquiries, twelve men were identified and eventually arrested, including Charles Sweetman, the cabman. At least one reporter formed the view that Sweetman had deliberately planned to deliver a girl to the Push members, who were assembled and waiting for the purpose.

    The victim, Mary Jane Hicks, testified that she had fallen into and out of consciousness during the ordeal, but gave evidence that at least eight men held her down and took turns raping her, and that many others were present, including some who had not been apprehended

     [GR29]Louisa Collins (formerly Andrews nee Hall😉 11 August 1847 – 8 January 1889) was an Australian poisoner and convicted murderer. Collins, who was dubbed the “Borgia of Botany” by the press of the day, endured four trials in front of 48 men, after the first three juries failed to convict. Collins was hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol on the morning of 8 January 1889.

     [GR30]John Makin (14 February 1845 – 15 August 1893) and Sarah Jane Makin (20 December 1845 – 13 September 1918) were Australian baby farmers who were convicted in New South Wales (NSW) for the murder of infant Horace Murray. Both were tried and found guilty in March 1893 and were sentenced to death. John was hanged on 15 August 1893 but Sarah’s sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. On 29 April 1911, Sarah was paroled from the State Reformatory for Women at Long Bay in response to the petition of her daughters

     [GR31]Jimmy Governor (1875 – 1901) was an Indigenous Australian who was proclaimed an outlaw after committing a series of murders in 1900. His actions initiated a cycle of violence in which nine people were killed (either by Governor or his accomplices). Jimmy Governor and his brother Joe were on the run from the police for 14 weeks before Jimmy was captured and Joe was shot and killed.

    In July 1900 Jimmy Governor and Jack Underwood murdered four members of the Mawbrey family and a school-teacher at Breelong near Gilgandra. Underwood was captured soon afterwards, but Governor and his younger brother Joe took to the bush. During the period they were at large, ranging over a large area of north-central New South Wales, the Governor brothers committed further murders and multiple robberies. A manhunt involving hundreds of police and volunteers was initiated, with the Governors occasionally taunting their pursuers and deriding the police.

    In October 1900 Jimmy Governor was wounded and, a fortnight later, captured near Wingham. Four days after his brother’s capture Joe Governor was shot and killed north of Singleton. Jimmy Governor was tried for murder and hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol in January 1901

     [GR32]The Sydney Twelve were members of the Industrial Workers of the World arrested on 23 September 1916 in SydneyAustralia, and charged with treason under the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) which incorporated the Treason Felony Act 1848 (Imp). They were John Hamilton, Peter Larkin, Joseph Fagin, William Teen, Donald Grant, Benjamin King, Thomas Glynn, Donald McPherson, Thomas Moore, Charles Reeve, William Beattie, and Bob Besant. The treason charges were dropped prior to trial and replaced with three conspiracy charges: (1) conspiracy to commit arson (2) conspiracy to procure the release of Tom Barker from gaol by unlawful means and (3) conspiracy to excite sedition.

    Some within the Australian labour movement claimed the men were framed for their strong anti-war views and their opposition to conscription during the First World War. Former Labor Prime Minister (and later Nationalist) Billy Hughes forced through the Unlawful Associations Act (1916) through Federal Parliament in five days during December 1916, then had the IWW declared an unlawful association.

    The case against the Twelve was assisted by the Government hysteria against the IWW. This was typified in the Tottenham murder case involving three members of the IWW and the murder of a policeman at Tottenham, New South Wales, on 26 September 1916. The prosecution made every effort to connect the murder with the charges against the Sydney IWW men. Frank Franz and Roland Nicholas Kennedy were found guilty and executed on 20 December 1916 at Bathurst Gaol, the first executions in New South Wales after a decade. Herbert Kennedy was acquitted.

    The case was tried in the Central Criminal Court before Justice Robert Pring and a jury. The jury found Glynn, McPherson, Teen, Beattie, Fagin, Grant and Hamilton guilty of all three charges while Reeve, Larkin, Besant and Moore guilty of the arson and sedition conspiracies and King was guilty of the sedition conspiracy. Justice Pring handed down sentences of fifteen years to Hilton, Beatty, Fagin, Grant, Teen, Glynn and McPherson; ten years to Moore, Besant, Larkin and Reeve; and five years to King. Grant remarked after his sentence was passed: “Fifteen years for fifteen words”. The actual words which were quoted in his trial were: “For every day that Tom Barker is in gaol it will cost the capitalist class £10,000.” The twelve lodged appeals against their convictions, however these met with limited success – the Court of Criminal Appeal quashed the convictions of Glynn and McPherson for the Barker conspiracy and reduced their sentences to ten years – however the majority of the convictions and sentences were confirmed.

    There was an active campaign for the release of the Sydney Twelve and other IWW members held in prison. The Defence and Release Committee was established at the behest of Henry Boote, Editor of the Australian Workers’ Union weekly paper, The Worker, and of Ernie Judd, delegate from the Municipal Workers Union on Labor Council of New South Wales. Supporters included Percy Brookfield, the member for Sturt (Broken Hill) in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, and the poet Lesbia Harford. Unions such as the Ship Painters and Dockers Union were active in the campaign.

    The Labor Council of New South Wales commissioned a report into the case in 1918, and an enquiry into the case was also conducted by Justice Philip Street. Both the trade union report and the judicial report found problems with the case, for example the chief witness, Scully, had concocted evidence which he gave at the trial.

    After the Storey Labor Government was elected in New South Wales on 20 March 1920, Justice Norman Ewing was appointed to inquire into the trial and sentencing. The judge found that Grant, Beattie, Larkin and Glynn may have been involved in conspiracy of a seditious nature, but recommended that they be released. Six of the men, the judge found, were not “justly or rightly” convicted of sedition: Teen, Hamilton, McPherson, Moore, Besant and Fagin. King was considered rightly convicted of sedition, but recommended for immediate release. Reeve was found to have been rightly convicted of arson. However the judge also rejected any suggestion that the men had been framed. Ten of the men were released in August 1920, and King and Reeve slightly later.

    My Golden Cage

    By George W Rehder

    So why do I call it “My golden cage”? Well I am 81 years old and disabled and so I finished up living in a Nursing Home in a town in Western Australia. To me it is a golden cage that I live in because this would be the lovelies Nursing home that anyone could wish to live in. So now let me tell you about my life here and my thoughts & dreams. I live in a modest small room with an ensuite. I have added some extras to make my life a bit more like home. I have added a small desk, a bar-fridge and a small cupboard. For entertainment I have my computer, TV, Samsung Tablet & Phone. So why, golden cage? Golden; because I have everything that a person could desire. A perfect diagonal controlled bed, where the sheets get changed whenever I desire.

     As soon as I take off my clothes, they get picked up by one of the many carers to be washed and returned by the next day. I have morning, afternoon and evening Tea and snacks brought to me three times a day. The main meals are either delivered to your room or you can eat in the dining room. We are lucky to have excellent cooks tha provide us with restaurant quality meals with deserts twice a day. A nurse is there 24/7 to look after your medical needs. We also have two physios and an Occupational Therapist present. But more about the staff later. Now why do I think that I am in a cage? Apart from myself there are 30 odd other residents (They don’t call us patients anymore) living here and most of them are incapacitated and all of us are here for the same reason, we are waiting to die! Sounds terrible, doesn’t it?

     But it is true and the staff here make the transition as lovely as possible. So there is my cage! As I am still to a certain degree ambulant, I will go to the shopping centre a couple of times a week on my mobility scooter. I am the only resident that is cable to do so. Sometimes I bring back items from the shops for other residents. At no extra cost we can have things like fresh fruit, Ice-creams, potato chips and even non-alcoholic wines, of which I get 2 bottles per week. The management does not take away your independency or freedom. Except we are somewhat restricted with covid-19 being around.

    let’s go back a bit.

    Sitting in my big leather chair back at my old home, wondering what to do!

    I have just been told that I got one week to get into the Nursing home or loser my place.

    I am afraid of the unknown. I have heard so many bad things about nursing homes and how the treat their clients.

    My friends encourage me to go, also my doctor wants me to go and so reluctantly I give in and let Juniper know of my decision.

    Next, I sell all my furniture, but you never get anyway near what it cost you. Plus, there are so many memories attached to each piece.

    My Chair

    I pack 15 boxes full of memorabilia that I don’t wish to lose, these will go to my daughter in Fremantle. Until she can pick them up, they will be stored at the Juniper office. The co-ordinator from Juniper was kind enough to offer to keep them at their office until my daughter can pick them up.

    Even so I have lived here for the past 11 years I did not make any real friends that I could rely on to help me in this time of need. But all the carers from Juniper who had been looking after me for the past few years were fantastic.

    I had never seen so much care in one person until I met the team from Juniper.

    But back to my predicament, I asked my neighbours to help themselves to anything that was in my unit. Which they reluctantly did, I think that they were embarrassed as we had been good neighbours for several years.

    This still left me with a terrible lot of stuff, all the electrical items in the kitchen were still there, bedsheets, blankets, towels and lots of other things that you use in your daily life.

    Then I had a brilliant Idea, I would donate everything to a Opp-shop and so I rang the Opp-shop and told them of my problem. They, of course were thrilled to be given so much stuff and came around the next day to pick everything up. I still had a lot off office equipment which I had been using over the years, also a bag full of First Aid Items. So, one of my carers told me that I should donate these items to the nursing home that I was about to enter that morning. 9.30am came and we had to be at the nursing home by ten o’clock.

    Nursing Home

    One of the Juniper carer’s had volunteered to take me there in her car as I had no transport of my own except for my “Gopher” another word for my mobility scooter. When my carer took me inside the Nursing home, we were greeted by lots of smiling faces, which made me feel less apprehensive. We were first checked out at their COVID-19 station after which the senior staff made me very welcome and kept remining me that if I had any concerns or needed something that I should just use the call-bell in my room, and someone would come and see me.

    Well, we got to room 8, which was going to be my home for the next umpteen years. I thought it was a very nice room. Spotless clean with welcome flowers and card on my bed. Apart from my bed there were build-in wardrobes and a bedside cupboard. After my carer left, I closed the door to my room, sat on my bed and for the first time in many years I cried. I felt so hopelessly alone and forgotten. All I wanted to do was leave and go back to my old life. Shortly after there was a knock on my door and a young lady came in and brought me a cup of coffee and some cake. She saw my tear-stained face and reassured me that I would eventually love my new life in the nursing home. The next day I realised that I had not made any arrangements to have my unit cleaned and so I rang around trying to find someone to do the cleaning. After a couple of frustrating days, I gave up. Nobody I knew could do it as they were too busy living their own lives and I could not afford to get professional cleaners in. As a after thought I should have paid the professionals as 4 weeks later, I got a $1600-00 bill from Homeswest which I am still trying to pay off. So, beware if you are living in government accommodation you can expect a big bill whether you left your place clean or not.

    My Room

    After settling into my new home, I made some enquiries to see if I could get a small desk so that I could set – up my Computer which I can not live without. Next day the maintenance men brought me a small desk that he had found in his shed. (fantastic) In time I also bought myself a small bar-fridge and my daughter bought me another bedside table.

    Yawn! 7am and I am waking up, but just enough so that I go back to sleep. I am thinking “just a half an hour” and so I wake up at 8am. I carefully get my feet out of bed onto the floor and after a drink of stale coffee I grab hold of my walking frame and step into the corridor where about 5 meters from my door is the linen & towel trolly situated. I grab some towels and a face washer, and it is back to my room. Into my ensuite and I turn the water on, lousy pressure! Normally one of the carers must be with you to help you with your shower and getting dressed, but in my case, I told them not to worry about me. So, with being short on staff and having lots of other residents to look after, I now have a shower by myself.

    I feel the same then when I was a child and my mum finally let me have a shower by myself. Lol. After getting dressed I check my Email and do a few things on my computer. After this done, I am off to the dining room. There are still a few people sitting there. I sit down at my usual table and observe one of the pretty carers coming over to me. We pass the time for a moment and then she is of to the kitchen to get me my coffee. She knows how I like my coffee and so after a few minutes she comes back with my own cup filled with hot coffee. She also knows that I never have breakfast, a habit that I developed a few years ago.

    Every Nursing Home has it’s good and bad and after 3 month here I have not really found any bad. Maybe the one thing is at no fault of the management and that is that we are short on staff. But so are most of the other Care Institutions.

     I just heard that in a Wanneroo Age-Care Unit a resident passed away and the relatives were not told about it for 5 days. How awful and sad, this should never happen and there are NO excuses for this. So sad!

    The Nurse

    First thing in the morning you will find one of our nurses making her round dispensing tablets and medication. I don’t mind the tablets, but I hate the Movicol.

    Next the dayshift carers come around to help with your hygiene (showers etc.) and then make up your beds. Some of the residents will need their hair done and a bit of make-up put on. (makes you feel much more alive)

    After this is done breakfast is brought around to the residents that can not go to the dining room. Usually you have a choice of Porridge, scrambled eggs or toast with a drink of your choice (Coffee, Tea, Milo etc.).

    Anyone who can not feed themselves has a loving carer assigned to them who will feed them after which they will be moved into the activity lounge where they can rest or watch television on the big screen. Usually after a while they will be joined by other residents.

    After breakfast everyone does their own thing or joins in at the games in the Activity room. Today we had Bingo!

    Our non walking residents here get moved about in wheelchairs and in princess chairs (see enclosed Picture)

    These Chairs fold right back and are so comfortable that a resident can stay in there for most of the day and also be brought into the dining room to eat with the rest of us.

    About ten o’clock we have morning-tea served at our room or to where ever we might be. It usually consist of Coffee, Tea etc. and some sort of a snack (Sandwich, Biscuit or Cake) At one time the Chef came around and served everybody with freshly made pancakes and topping!

    Lunch is usually a substantial meal of (Today we are having – baked salmon with lemon-pepper sauce and vegetables) also a desert of Fresh Fruits with Ice cream. Yummy!! Also again drinks of your choice!

    I must mention that at anytime you can get the following from the Kitchen; Fresh Fruit, Ice cream in Cones, or on a stick, Fruit Drinks etc. and even the occasional Bottle of non-alcoholic wine.

    In the Afternoon we have word games, sport games (Cricket etc.) or Movies which we have over a 100 to choose from. At this time I usually have an hour laydown. I forgot to mention that every morning I print-out the daily Northam weather report and the thought for the day, which I put up on 2 notice boards. In time to come I will hope that I can also write a monthly newsletter.

    Activity Room

    Afternoon tea is usually the same as in the morning, again served with a smiling face.

    Five o’clock is dinner. Which begins with a soup being served. I love the mushroom soup! The main meal consist of Italian Meatloaf with Italian sauce. For the dessert we have Mango Mousse with topping and then of course drinks are being served. The kitchen usually have a staff of 2 – 4 persons and have extra helpers to take meals to the Residents that do not eat in the dinning room.

    Whiles being here the afternoon Nurse comes around with our (my) tablets

    Dinning Room

    Well, it is now time for me to watch a movie on Netflix. About nine o’clock I get my sleeping pill and then at 9.30pm it is of to sleep for me.

    The ugly past of Australia’s ‘lock hospitals’ on Bernier and Dorre Islands slowly revealed

    Copied, Compiled & Edited by George W Rehder

    Ugly past of ‘lock hospitals’ slowly revealed

    Between 1908 and 1919, more than 800 Aboriginal men, women and children were removed from their homelands across Western Australia and taken to ‘lock hospitals’ on Bernier and Dorre Islands for treatment for suspected venereal diseases. Many never returned home.

    This article contains images of Indigenous people who are deceased.

    For generations, Aboriginal people across WA were not allowed to talk about the islands because it was too traumatic.

    Kathleen Musulin was told a story by one elder in Carnarvon, the remote town closest to the Bernier and Dorre Islands.

    “As a young girl she would overhear the older women talking about their loved ones being taken over to the islands never to return,” Ms Musulin said.

    “She asked her mother, ‘What’s all that about?’, and her mother said, ‘Don’t talk about it. You are not allowed to talk about the islands. Just cover your eyes and just point to the islands’.

    “The reason being was because it was so traumatic and having that hurt inside, you can’t really let that go.

    “It is time that we need to let that hurt go. Not only for ourselves, but for our future generations.”

    A shocking history

    Over a period of 11 years women and children were taken to the lock hospital at Dorre Island, while the men went to Bernier Island.(Supplied: Battye Library (725B-22))

    After being diagnosed by policemen as having suspected venereal diseases people were rounded up, many placed in chains, and taken to the islands.

    This was facilitated by the Aboriginal Act of 1905.

    The islands’ facilities were inadequate, people had no contact with their families back home, and they were made to undergo experimental medical treatments.

    Academics have said about 40 per cent of those confined never returned home, and more than 100 people died on the islands and were buried in unmarked graves.

    WA Minister for Regional Development, Alannah MacTiernan, said she was shocked by the story, including the fact she had never heard of it before it was raised with her earlier this year, even though she had worked in Carnarvon in the 1980s.

    “I’ve never, ever heard of this story, so I was really very surprised,” she said.

    “Because of the degree of trauma and the shame surrounding it meant that it was not an issue that was raised by Aboriginal people.

    “It was such a shameful experience, such a horrific experience, that they never spoke about it.”

    The WA Government said it is the first in Australia to acknowledge the lock hospital history.

    The Government is funding a statue to be built near the historic One Mile Jetty in Carnarvon, where the people would have been loaded onto boats bound for the islands.

    A map outlining Australia’s history of medical incarceration.(Supplied: Melissa Sweet)

    ‘A truly disgraceful story’

    The Bernier and Dorre Island lock hospitals are part of a wider story of the medical incarceration of Aboriginal people across Australia.

    Lock hospitals also existed in Port Hedland, in WA, and later in Barambah and Fantome Island in Queensland.

    Leprosy field hospitals were also established in WA, the Northern Territory and Queensland.

    “This is a truly disgraceful story,” Ms MacTiernan said.

    “This [the statue] is saying, ‘This is part of our story’.

    “We’ve got to be grown up. We’ve got to acknowledge what happened if we as a community are to move forward.”

    The Shire of Carnarvon has also acknowledged the history, and is working with members of the local Aboriginal community on plans for a ceremony in Carnarvon on January 9, 2019.

    This will be one hundred years to the day since the last person was removed from the islands and the hospitals closed.

    Ms Musulin grew up in Carnarvon hearing stories of how her grandfather had been searching for her great-grandmother, who was taken away from the Broome area.

    She has been instrumental in pushing for greater acknowledgement of the lock hospital history, along with Bob Dorey, another member of the Carnarvon Aboriginal community.

    Kathleen Musulin and Bob Dorey have been working together for four years to bring the histories of the lock hospitals on Bernier and Dorre Island to light, and have the dark chapter in Australia’s history acknowledged.(ABC North West: Karen Michelmore)

    “There were a lot of people who didn’t know the true history of the islands and what happened to our ancestors over there,” Ms Musulin said.

    “My great-grandmother, she’s still buried over there, with a lot of other Aboriginal people still buried over there in unmarked graves.

    “It’s important, not only for myself, but it’s important for my children and grandchildren to know what happened to their ancestors.

    “It’s important for other families because of the trauma and the hurt that we have suffered, knowing what happened to our ancestors and the horrific things that were done to them.

    “They were experimented on to find a cure for venereal diseases, they were taken over there and locked up on the islands.

    “A lot of them didn’t even have STIs [sexually transmitted infections]. There were many healthy Aboriginal people who were taken over there, children as well.

    “And what I think is, one form of that was to remove them from stations and other areas, to get them off the land so the stations could be opened up.”

    Mr Dorey, who will perform a ceremony with other elders in Carnarvon next year, said he wants the wider Australian public to know the story of the lock hospitals.

    “I would like them to know everything about them, what happened over there,” he said.

    “It’s our story. We’ve learned everybody else’s story in school but nothing like this.”

    History slowly emerges

    The history of the lock hospitals has emerged through the work of several academics working on separate projects.

    Health journalist Melissa Sweet picked up a travel book at an airport a decade ago that had a few pages which mentioned the lock hospital history.

    “I was transfixed when I read it, because at that stage I had been a health journalist for many years and I had never heard this history of the lock hospitals,” she said.

    Ms Sweet started asking around, and was surprised at how few people had known about this history.

    “That’s where my journey began to work with community members to bring wider awareness to the history.”

    Archaeologist Jade Pervan has found a number of medical artefacts from the lock hospital history.(Supplied: Jade Pervan)

    Ms Sweet travelled to Carnarvon where she met Ms Musulin.

    The pair have since worked closely on the issue.

    As Ms Sweet dug further, she realised the history was part of a much bigger national story about medical incarceration and said while historic the story is still relevant today.

    “It’s not about saying it’s all in the past and this doesn’t go on any more,” she said.

    “I was always asking people why does this history matter, and people would bring up the current history of over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the prison system.

    “A lot of the concerns still remain.”

    Medical artefacts uncovered

    Archaeologist Jade Pervan grew up in Carnarvon and had heard a little bit of the story.

    When she was undertaking research at the University of Western Australia she knew academics were talking about it, and wanted to dig further.

    Ms Pervan uncovered a lot of archaeological materials on the islands dating from the lock hospital period.

    She discovered European artefacts associated with the doctors and nurses at the hospitals such as expensive ceramic ware, personal items like combs and shoes, and even a piano.

    This contrasted sharply with the items connected with the Indigenous people.

    “The Aboriginal patients didn’t live in the houses. They were confined to the islands themselves so they had to make makeshift humpies or houses,” Ms Pervan said.

    “They were given rations, so if the rations didn’t come in off the boat in time they would have hunted and foraged for the food off the islands.

    Ms Pervan said the lock hospitals were established with racial motives.

    “We know that these lock hospitals were set up after the 1905 Aboriginal Act which was where they didn’t want supposed diseases that Aboriginal people had passed onto the Europeans,” she said.

    “It was likely that a lot of the Aboriginal people didn’t have any of those diseases, in this case it was venereal disease or syphilis, and they were probably placed on there for other reasons.

    “It was a very racially-based removal of people to these islands. Europeans at the time were not interned for having the same diseases.”

    Acknowledge the brutal history of Indigenous health care – for healing

    Authors

    1. Melissa Sweet

    Independent journalist and health writer; Adjunct Senior Lecturer, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney; Founder of Croakey.org. PhD candidate, University of Canberra

    Associate Professor, Communication, University of Canberra

    Senior Lecturer, Centre for Nursing and Midwifery Research, James Cook University

    Disclosure statement

    Melissa Sweet received an Australian Postgraduate Award to support her PhD candidature. The APA ended in late 2015.

    Kerry McCallum receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

    Lynore Geia does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

    Partners

    This article was co-authored by Kathleen Musulin, a Malgana/Yawuru woman living in Carnarvon and a member of the Carnarvon Shire Council lock hospital memorial working group.

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised this article contains images of deceased people.


    In March, a small group of people joined the musician, environmentalist and former politician Peter Garrett on a deeply moving journey to a remote island, about 58 kilometres off the coast from the Western Australian town of Carnarvon.

    For Garrett, the boat ride was retracing travels that his grandmother had made almost a century earlier, en route to Dorre and Bernier islands, where Aboriginal people were incarcerated on medical grounds between 1908 and 1919.

    Part of the journey was filmed for the SBS documentary series, Who Do You Think You Are?, which screened on Tuesday night. The episode revealed some of the history of Garrett’s grandmother, who worked on the islands as a nurse.

    For Kathleen Musulin, a Malgana/Yawuru woman living in Carnarvon (and co-author of this article), the trip to Dorre with Garrett was also an opportunity to connect with ancestors, particularly her great grandmother, who was one of hundreds of Aboriginal people imprisoned on the islands, many of whom died there.

    The stated reason for the removal of Aboriginal people to “lock hospitals” on Bernier and Dorre islands was “venereal disease”, though many questions surround this non-specific diagnosis, particularly given the role of police and non-medical people in diagnosing and removing people, often in chains and using force.

    A plaque remembering those who were imprisoned and who died on the islands. Memorial at Dorre Island, Author provided

    Lock hospitals were an invention of the British Empire. In the 1800s, they were used to confine women in English garrison towns who were thought to be engaged in sex work and to have venereal disease, under a series of Contagious Diseases Acts designed to protect the health of soldiers rather than the prisoner-patients.

    Following vocal opposition, lock hospitals were abandoned in Britain, although similar measures continued elsewhere in the British Empire into the 20th century. In Australia, lock hospitals for “common prostitutes” existed in Melbourne and Brisbane into the 1900s.

    However, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, lock hospitals operated in a different context – firmly rooted in the institutionalised racism of White Australia. Legislation providing for the “protection” of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people resulted in human rights abuses, intrusive surveillance, control, disruption, institutionalisation, and harm.

    Facilities recorded extremely high death rates. Hospital Ward Dorre Island/State library of Western Australia

    In the early years of the Bernier and Dorre lock hospitals, inmates were subjected to invasive interventions, while in latter years there was little medical care. The facilities recorded extremely high death rates, as did a lock hospital that operated from 1928 to 1945 on Fantome or Eumilli Island in the Palm Island group near Townsville in Queensland.

    The removal of people to Bernier and Dorre islands was occurring at a time when authorities sought to prevent sexual relationships between Aboriginal women and white men as well as so-called “Asiatics”, as enacted in the WA Aborigines Act of 1905. As historian Dr Mary Anne Jebb has observed in an unpublished manuscript, this legislation:

    …institutionalised Aboriginal women as immoral and intimacy between races as a problem which needed to be stamped out.

    The lock hospitals were also interlinked with other traumas of colonisation, including the removal of Aboriginal people as prisoners or witnesses (mainly to do with the killing of stock), and the removal of children (some of the travelling inspectors who took away people with disease also took children). It was a time when senior doctors considered neck-chaining of Aboriginal people, often for prolonged periods, to be “humane”.

    The lock hospitals were interlinked with other traumas of colonisation. Library of Western Australia

    Around the time of the lock hospitals, Aboriginal people in WA were active in drawing public and political attention to wide-ranging injustices, including police brutality, their exclusion from schools and general health services, and other policies of segregation.

    While the early decades of the 20th century were marked by concern about venereal diseases in the wider population, the policies and practices for non-Indigenous people stood in stark contrast to treatment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In 1911, a meeting of Australasian doctors recommended that general hospitals and dispensaries, rather than lock hospitals, “should provide the necessary accommodation for venereal cases”.

    Male Aboriginal patients outside the hospital at Bernier Island. State Library of Western Australia

    When many states introduced compulsory notification and treatment for venereal diseases for the general population following the first world war, non-Indigenous patients were provided with education and free treatment. By contrast, the lock hospitals of Queensland and WA provided penal rather than therapeutic conditions.

    As a Yamaji researcher Dr Robin Barrington has observed of the Bernier and Dorre lock hospitals, they were:

    …places of imprisonment, exile, isolation, segregation, anthropological investigations and medical experiments made possible by laws of exception.

    At the time, even authorities acknowledged that Aboriginal people saw the Bernier and Dorre lock hospitals as penal institutions. In 1909, newspapers reported WA’s Chief Protector of Aborigines, Charles Gale, stating they were seen “as a sort of gaol”.

    It was not only the island confinement that was punitive; people often faced traumatic long journeys, on foot and by ship, as well as long periods in prisons or other lock-ups awaiting transport to the islands.

    Garrett says it would have been terrifying to be sent to to Dorre Island. Screenshot/Who Do You Think You Are/ SBS

    In an interview some weeks after his visit to Dorre Island, Garrett told me (Melissa Sweet) that it had made him appreciate how terrifying it would have been for those Aboriginal people taken there. He compared the lock hospitals to a form of “gulag”, and described the island’s harsh landscape.

    He said:

    Even by Australian standards, it is remarkably barren, remote, inhospitable and, to be there for weeks on end, never mind years on end, yes, it really brings you up with a start… You can’t fail but to come away with a very strong feeling of loss and of unhappiness and of confusion.

    During his short visit to Carnarvon, Garrett was struck by the lack of local acknowledgement for this internationally significant history. He noted, for example, its absence from a large new historical display at the town’s landmark One Mile Jetty, from where many inmates and staff departed for the islands.

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people want greater public acknowledgement of the Bernier, Dorre and Fantome island lock hospitals and their traumatic impacts. University of Western Australia

    For Kathleen Musulin, visiting Dorre was a deeply moving and spiritual experience, which is part of a bigger journey to increase public awareness and understanding of the lock hospitals’ histories. Many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people want greater public acknowledgement of the Bernier, Dorre and Fantome island lock hospitals and their traumatic impacts, according to findings from my (Melissa Sweet’s) PhD research.

    This is seen as important for healing and justice, with interviewees wanting the wider Australian community to know “what Aboriginal people went through”. Efforts are now underway, through a Carnarvon Shire Council working group, to develop memorials to pay respects to those taken to the islands.

    Peter Garrett and Kathleen Musulin on Dorre island. Screenshot/Who Do You Think You Are/ SBS

    Knowing and acknowledging this history is particularly important for health systems and professionals, given that current Australian health dialogue supports the development of culturally safe services and practices, and this requires an understanding of one’s own profession’s historical complicity in such events.

    Learning from history opens the way to moving forward with respect in health professions, to provide services that will ensure better health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, many of whom continue to experience adverse and traumatising experiences with health care.

    The lock hospitals are part of a wider history of medical incarceration, as exemplified by Fantome Island, which also housed a leprosarium for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people from 1940-73. These histories remain very present in the memories and lives of many families on Palm Island.

    These and other episodes of medical incarceration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples can be seen as archetypal examples of the role of health care professionals and systems in colonisation, contributing to intergenerational traumas.

    The Australian Psychological Society recently issued an apology for the profession’s role in contributing to the mistreatment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including its failure to advocate on important matters such as the policy of forced removal, which resulted in the Stolen Generations.

    Far more could be done across health systems to acknowledge the wider histories of harmful health care policies, systems and practices that institutionalised, excluded, segregated and harmed Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Acknowledgement is one important step towards healing and reparation.


    * Our next article will investigate what can be learnt from the extensive newspaper coverage of the lock hospitals.

    “Pedophiles”

    Let’s talk some more about “Pedophiles” they make a good subject. I personally would like to eradicate the lot of the Face of this Earth. The Problem being, if you get rid of one, another one pops up. So how can we win? I passionately think that we can’t. The best we can hope for is to slow them down by getting into their Face, “So to speak” So what do we have to do. Here are some Ideas of mine which have been used in some Countries. If you know of one, put a Placard with his Picture and Information in his Front Yard for all to see. Put an Ad in the Local Newspaper and tell People about him and his whereabouts. If you see him talking to someone say “Excuse me do you know this Person is a Pedophile?”

    Do everything possible to annoy him. But don’t break the Law!  Don’t look for the stereo type in a Pedophile because they come in all shapes and sizes. I have seen Pedophiles as young as 19 years old and he was the worse I had ever seen. It surprised me when I found out there are also Female Pedophiles. But why not. I just thought that with “Motherly Instinct” that this could not occur. But there are. Look at your own Family Members. I know you couldn’t believe that about “Uncle Hector” Look for signs.  He is taking Pictures of them. He goes into the Kiddie Pool with them. He volunteers to Baby Sit them.

    Then shower or Bath them. He might even show them “Funny “Pictures. He knows more tricks than you can imagine. Pedophilia is a Disease a Sickness; it makes him do these things. But there is NO excuse for this.  Be vigilante, your Children are precious, don’t let them get hurt. Scars from this act will last a lifetime. Remember exposed Pedophiles can’t hide, someone will recognize him. I have seen Pedophiles live in Australian Outback Towns trying to hide. But everyone knew. I will be forever be on the lookout for Pedophiles, will you?

    ************

    I like to tell you a story (a true Story} that happened many years ago

    We just moved into a House that was supplied by the Government. From the Caravan Park where I had been the Manager. Anyway it was a nice house and big enough for the 5 of us.

    A couple of days later a Friend of mine came visiting and he took me aside to rely a story my youngest Daughter had told him.

    He said that she didn’t tell me, because she thought she would get into Trouble.

    But she knew that if she told him, that he would tell me.Apparently Matt one of the Caravaners, Quite a pleasant Fellow approached my

     

    Apparently Matt one of the Caravanners, Quite a pleasant Fellow approached my Daughter to come to his Caravan to look at some petty Items that he made from Fiberglass. She had seen me quite often talking to Joe and even having a Cup of Coffee there. Anyway she went with him looking at all the pretty things. He told her that he also had some Home movies. That he was going to put on. (They were of Naked Children from Thailand)

    While she was distracted, he had pulled out his Penis and started to masturbate asking if he could touch her improbably, she ran home, but didn’t say anything. But she found out from other Kids in the Park that they had been approached by Matt too. One Mother when she found out that he had touched her 8 year old Boy, took the Boy and a large Kitchen Knife and confronted Matt. Said to him he could pull his Penis out now and she’ll cut it off. I believe that she would have done so but he ran off into the surrounding Bush.

    After my friend told me I asked my 10year old Daughter if this was true. When she confirmed everything I got so mad that I jumped into my Car to confront him. But in my hurry I hit another Car doing quite some Damage. So instead of confronting him I told the Police the Story. Matt got arrested and after a lengthy Trial. Even so the police found out that he was wanted for the same thing in Kalgoorlie He only got 12 month Jail. 9month with good behavior. So much for Justice. At least he got some justice dished out to him in Jail. I am very proud to say that my Daughter now is a Policewomen.

    Island-hopping study shows the most likely route the first people took to Australia

    The view from Indonesia’s Rote Island towards Australia. Kasih Norman, Author provided

    The First Australians were among the world’s earliest great ocean explorers, undertaking a remarkable 2,000km maritime migration through Indonesia which led to the discovery of Australia at least 65,000 years ago.

    But the voyaging routes taken through Indonesia’s islands, and the location of first landfall in Australia, remain a much debated mystery to archaeologists.

    Our research, published earlier this year in Quaternary Science Reviews, highlights the most likely route by mapping islands in the region over time through changing sea levels.



    A disputed route

    Some archaeologists have argued for an initial human migration into Australia through New Guinea. [GR1] This is because islands across northern Indonesia are relatively close together, and people could easily see to the next island they wished to voyage to.

    First landfall on Australia has been argued to be both more difficult and less likely than first landfall at New Guinea, as the final crossing distance from Timor to the continental shelf was more than 80km. It was also thought that the Australian landmass was not visible from any Indonesian island.

    Despite this, it was proposed that now submerged islands off the Australian continental shelf were visible from Timor. But until recently, computer technology and ocean floor data sets were not developed enough to know for sure.

    A drowned continent

    When people first migrated to Indonesia, reaching Australia by 65,000 years ago, they found a landscape that looked very different from today. During an ice age known as Marine Isotope Stage 4, which stretched from roughly 71,000 to 59,000 years ago, western Indonesia formed part of the Pleistocene continent of Sunda, while Australia and New Guinea were joined to form Sahul.

    The grey area shows the extent of the ice age continents of Sunda and Sahul, much of which is now under water. The view from Indonesia’s Rote Islandr provided

    Kasih Norman

    The rise in global ocean levels at the end of the last ice age at around 18,000 years ago flooded continental shelves across the world, reshaping landmasses. This event drowned the ancient continent of Sunda, creating many of Indonesia’s islands, and split the continent of Sahul into Australia and New Guinea.

    This means that what is now under the ocean is very important to understanding where the First Australians might have made landfall.

    On the horizon

    Our new research uses computer analyses of visibility between islands and continents. We included landscape surface height data of regions of the ocean floor that were above sea level – and dry land – during the last ice age.

    The powerful computer programs we used work out what a person standing at a particular location can see in a 360 degree arc around them, all the way to their horizon.

    Running more than 10,000 analyses allowed us to pinpoint where people could see to, from any location on any island or landmass in the whole of Island South East Asia.

    But because we knew that so many Indonesian islands, and so much of Sahul, were drowned at the end of the last ice age, we also included ocean floor (bathymetric) data in our analyses.

    Island-hopping

    We discovered that in the deep past (between 70,000 to 60,000 years ago, and potentially for much longer), people could see from the Indonesian islands of Timor and Rote to a now drowned island chain in the Timor Sea.

    From this island chain it was possible to sight the Australian continental shelf, which in the last ice age formed a massive fan of islands extending towards Indonesia. Much of this landscape is now more than 100m below the surface of the Timor Sea.

    Regions with visibility between islands and continents during the last ice age are shown by the connective white lines. Dark grey regions represent the now submerged ice age continent of Sahul, light grey shows landmasses above modern sea level. Kasih Norman

    Kasih Norman




    The view from Indonesia’s Rote Island towards Australia. Kasih Norman, Author provided
    Island-hopping study shows the most likely route the first people took to Australia
    The First Australians were among the world’s earliest great ocean explorers, undertaking a remarkable 2,000km maritime migration through Indonesia which led to the discovery of Australia at least 65,000 years ago.
    But the voyaging routes taken through Indonesia’s islands, and the location of first landfall in Australia, remain a much debated mystery to archaeologists.
    Our research, published earlier this year in Quaternary Science Reviews, highlights the most likely route by mapping islands in the region over time through changing sea levels.


    A disputed route
    Some archaeologists have argued for an initial human migration into Australia through New Guinea. [GR1] This is because islands across northern Indonesia are relatively close together, and people could easily see to the next island they wished to voyage to.
    First landfall on Australia has been argued to be both more difficult and less likely than first landfall at New Guinea, as the final crossing distance from Timor to the continental shelf was more than 80km. It was also thought that the Australian landmass was not visible from any Indonesian island.
    Despite this, it was proposed that now submerged islands off the Australian continental shelf were visible from Timor. But until recently, computer technology and ocean floor data sets were not developed enough to know for sure.
    A drowned continent
    When people first migrated to Indonesia, reaching Australia by 65,000 years ago, they found a landscape that looked very different from today. During an ice age known as Marine Isotope Stage 4, which stretched from roughly 71,000 to 59,000 years ago, western Indonesia formed part of the Pleistocene continent of Sunda, while Australia and New Guinea were joined to form Sahul.

    The grey area shows the extent of the ice age continents of Sunda and Sahul, much of which is now under water. Kasih Norman, Author provided
    The rise in global ocean levels at the end of the last ice age at around 18,000 years ago flooded continental shelves across the world, reshaping landmasses. This event drowned the ancient continent of Sunda, creating many of Indonesia’s islands, and split the continent of Sahul into Australia and New Guinea.
    This means that what is now under the ocean is very important to understanding where the First Australians might have made landfall.
    On the horizon
    Our new research uses computer analyses of visibility between islands and continents. We included landscape surface height data of regions of the ocean floor that were above sea level – and dry land – during the last ice age.
    The powerful computer programs we used work out what a person standing at a particular location can see in a 360 degree arc around them, all the way to their horizon.
    Running more than 10,000 analyses allowed us to pinpoint where people could see to, from any location on any island or landmass in the whole of Island South East Asia.
    But because we knew that so many Indonesian islands, and so much of Sahul, were drowned at the end of the last ice age, we also included ocean floor (bathymetric) data in our analyses.
    Island-hopping
    We discovered that in the deep past (between 70,000 to 60,000 years ago, and potentially for much longer), people could see from the Indonesian islands of Timor and Rote to a now drowned island chain in the Timor Sea.
    From this island chain it was possible to sight the Australian continental shelf, which in the last ice age formed a massive fan of islands extending towards Indonesia. Much of this landscape is now more than 100m below the surface of the Timor Sea.

    Regions with visibility between islands and continents during the last ice age are shown by the connective white lines. Dark grey regions represent the now submerged ice age continent of Sahul, light grey shows landmasses above modern sea level. Kasih Norman
    As the island chain sat at the midpoint between southern Indonesia and Australia, it could have acted as a stepping-stone for Australia’s first maritime explorers.
    To Australia
    Including the areas of the ocean floor that were dry land in the last ice age means we were able to show that people could see from one island to the next, allowing them to island-hop between visually identifiable landmasses all the way to northern Australia.


    These new findings potentially solve another mystery: all of the oldest archaeological sites for Sahul are found in northwest Australia. If people island-hopped from Timor and Rote they would have arrived on the now submerged coastline close to all of Australia’s most ancient occupation sites, such as Madjedbebe[GR2] , Nauwalabila and Boodie Cave.[GR3] 
    But while we might be closer to understanding where people first reached Australia, signs of the earliest explorers to reach Indonesia have been more elusive.
    A team of researchers from the Australian Research Council’s new Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage (CABAH) and their partner institution, Indonesia’s National Centre for Archaeology, have now begun the search on Rote and West Timor for the earliest evidence of the region’s first human maritime explorers, the likely ancestors of the First Australians.

     [GR1]‘Out of Africa’ stated that the first humans to colonise Australia came from a recent migration of Homo sapiens through South-east Asia. These people belonged to a single genetic lineage and were the descendants of a population that originated in Africa. The fossil evidence for the earliest Indigenous Australians does show a range of physical variation that would be expected in a single, geographically widespread population.
     [GR2]The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia’s megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.
     [GR3]Archaeological deposits from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island, northwest Australia, reveal some of the oldest evidence for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, as well as illustrating the early use of marine resources by modern peoples outside of Africa. Barrow Island is a large (202 km2) limestone continental island located on the North-West Shelf of Australia, optimally located to sample past use of both the Pleistocene coastline and extensive arid coastal plains. An interdisciplinary team forming the Barrow Island Archaeology Project (BIAP) has addressed questions focusing on the antiquity of occupation of coastal deserts by hunter-gatherers; the use and distribution of marine resources from the coast to the interior; and the productivity of the marine zone with changing sea levels. Boodie Cave is the largest of 20 stratified deposits identified on Barrow Island with 20 m3 of cultural deposits excavated between 2013 and 2015. In this first major synthesis we focus on the dating and sedimentology of Boodie Cave to establish the framework for ongoing analysis of cultural materials. We present new data on these cultural assemblages – including charcoal, faunal remains and lithics – integrated with micromorphology, sedimentary history and dating by four independent laboratories. First occupation occurs between 51.1 and 46.2 ka, overlapping with the earliest dates for occupation of Australia. Marine resources are incorporated into dietary assemblages by 42.5 ka and continue to be transported to the cave through all periods of occupation, despite fluctuating sea levels and dramatic extensions of the coastal plain. The changing quantities of marine fauna through time reflect the varying distance of the cave from the contemporaneous shoreline. The dietary breadth of both arid zone terrestrial fauna and marine species increases after the Last Glacial Maximum and significantly so by the mid-Holocene. The cave is abandoned by 6.8 ka when the island becomes increasingly distant from the mainland coast.

    As the island chain sat at the midpoint between southern Indonesia and Australia, it could have acted as a stepping-stone for Australia’s first maritime explorers.

    To Australia

    Including the areas of the ocean floor that were dry land in the last ice age means we were able to show that people could see from one island to the next, allowing them to island-hop between visually identifiable landmasses all the way to northern Australia.



    These new findings potentially solve another mystery: all of the oldest archaeological sites for Sahul are found in northwest Australia. If people island-hopped from Timor and Rote they would have arrived on the now submerged coastline close to all of Australia’s most ancient occupation sites, such as Madjedbebe[GR2] , Nauwalabila and Boodie Cave.[GR3] 

    But while we might be closer to understanding where people first reached Australia, signs of the earliest explorers to reach Indonesia have been more elusive.

    A team of researchers from the Australian Research Council’s new Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage (CABAH) and their partner institution, Indonesia’s National Centre for Archaeology, have now begun the search on Rote and West Timor for the earliest evidence of the region’s first human maritime explorers, the likely ancestors of the First Australians.


     [GR1]‘Out of Africa’ stated that the first humans to colonise Australia came from a recent migration of Homo sapiens through South-east Asia. These people belonged to a single genetic lineage and were the descendants of a population that originated in Africa. The fossil evidence for the earliest Indigenous Australians does show a range of physical variation that would be expected in a single, geographically widespread population.

     [GR2]The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia’s megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

     [GR3]Archaeological deposits from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island, northwest Australia, reveal some of the oldest evidence for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, as well as illustrating the early use of marine resources by modern peoples outside of Africa. Barrow Island is a large (202 km2) limestone continental island located on the North-West Shelf of Australia, optimally located to sample past use of both the Pleistocene coastline and extensive arid coastal plains. An interdisciplinary team forming the Barrow Island Archaeology Project (BIAP) has addressed questions focusing on the antiquity of occupation of coastal deserts by hunter-gatherers; the use and distribution of marine resources from the coast to the interior; and the productivity of the marine zone with changing sea levels. Boodie Cave is the largest of 20 stratified deposits identified on Barrow Island with 20 m3 of cultural deposits excavated between 2013 and 2015. In this first major synthesis we focus on the dating and sedimentology of Boodie Cave to establish the framework for ongoing analysis of cultural materials. We present new data on these cultural assemblages – including charcoal, faunal remains and lithics – integrated with micromorphology, sedimentary history and dating by four independent laboratories. First occupation occurs between 51.1 and 46.2 ka, overlapping with the earliest dates for occupation of Australia. Marine resources are incorporated into dietary assemblages by 42.5 ka and continue to be transported to the cave through all periods of occupation, despite fluctuating sea levels and dramatic extensions of the coastal plain. The changing quantities of marine fauna through time reflect the varying distance of the cave from the contemporaneous shoreline. The dietary breadth of both arid zone terrestrial fauna and marine species increases after the Last Glacial Maximum and significantly so by the mid-Holocene. The cave is abandoned by 6.8 ka when the island becomes increasingly distant from the mainland coast.

    1932 Kimberley rescue

    The loss of the Seaplane Atlantis


    Hans Bertram and Adolf Klausmann were flying the Junkers W33 seaplane Atlantis from Cologne, Germany on a goodwill mission to Australia for the aircraft maker, Junkers, when they ran into a severe storm between Timor and Darwin. Flying during the night of May 15, 1932, they became lost in thick cloud. Eventually at dawn, running short of fuel, they spotted the coast and landed in a sheltered bay. After a sleep and a think, they decided to use their remaining fuel to fly further down the coast, closer to where they believed the nearest town was located. In fact, they moved further away from civilisation, finally landing near Rocky Island, about 105 miles NW of Wyndham.


    Thinking they were on the northern side of Melville Island, they decided to walk along the coast in a westerly direction, where they assumed they would be able to find rescuers. After a few difficult days of this, and meeting no-one on their travels, they returned to their plane and tried a new plan. Removing one of the seaplane’s floats, they converted it into a small boat and tried that. For a few more days they traversed the coastline stumbling ashore looking for food and water. Strong tides and currents carried them back and forth, and eventually, having totally run out of provisions, they decided to give up the makeshift boat and made a final landfall, seeking shelter from the heat in a rock cave. Ironically, they were only a few miles from the aircraft.
    The search


    When the Junkers had failed to arrive in Darwin, a massive land sea and air search was mounted, but to no avail. Weeks passed with no sign of them, and hopes faded. The German Government requested that the search continue and offered to pay the costs. A month after the airmen had disappeared, an Aboriginal from Forrest Mission found a handkerchief and a cigarette lighter inscribed with the initials H.B. near Elsie Island, about 14 miles south of Rocky Island. The search intensified. Two days later, the abandoned Atlantis was spotted by Captain Sutcliffe, a pilot for West Australian Airways. The news flashed around the world, and a rescue party was organised out of Wyndham, led by Constable Gordon Marshall. It took the party two weeks to reach the area, but still no sign of the airmen was found. Speculation grew that the two men had been murdered by unfriendly Aborigines, and in fact a number of Aborigines confessed to murdering them (or were dobbed in by others) and were taken prisoner and kept in chains with the rescue party.

    Klausmann and Bertram with rescuers
    (we’re not sure which is Andumeri unfortunately).
    Source: Courtesy of the WA Maritime Museum
    The rescue


    On the 40th day of their ordeal, the aviators, too weak to stand, lay down in the shelter of some rocks to await their fate. They had spent the previous month wandering up and down the coast, looking for signs of life and grubbing for snails and shellfish, and eating gum leaves. Apart from two lizards they had caught earlier, that was the sum of their food. They were ready to die. But early next day, they were found! Two young lads from Drysdale Mission came across them. One immediately ran back to the Mission for help, and the other (Minnijinnimurrie) stayed with them feeding them with honeycomb and a fish he caught and chewed up for them so that they could eat it. Bertram later recalled that he had undoubtedly saved their lives. Other Aboriginals arrived from Drysdale and over the next five days, they caught, cooked and chewed kangaroo meat for them and helped nurse the men back to life. Finally, on June 28, Constable Marshall and the ‘official’ rescue party arrived.


    The run
    Next day, Marshall sent two runners to Wyndham via Forrest River with the news that the aviators had been found, and requested that the Wyndham meatworks boat be sent up the coast to bring the men out. Owenba (or Ernest) and a companion set off with the letters. Marshall also freed the prisoners, obviously realising that the confessions of murder were spurious. That night, Klausmann’s condition worsened and he went berserk. Even in his weakened condition it took three men to hold him down. Marshall eventually chained him up.
    He decided to send a second, more urgent message to the police in Wyndham, not only to hurry, but also to include a straitjacket. Emphasising the urgency of the request, he also wrote a note to the Forrest River officials, asking them to despatch the message to Wyndham via the mission launch. In Marshall’s report he wrote: “I chose the two best runners I had. They claimed they could be in Forrest River in two days, in Wyndham in four days. I promised them a new shirt and a new pair of shorts if they could do it and sent them off.” Andumeri (Ronald Morgan) and Jalnga (Hector) ran off into the Kimberley heat, following the trail of Owenba.


    Two days later they arrived in Forrest River, just after Owenba and his companion who had left a day earlier. But the Mission launch, which was to relay the message to Wyndham, was not there. Ironically, it had gone to Wyndham to report that there was still no news of the missing airmen. So, not knowing when the boat would return, Andumeri decided to keep going. After a brief rest and a reviving cup of sugary tea, he headed off to Wyndham on his own. Taking the most direct route, he crossed the Forrest River and headed in a south-easterly direction between the rugged Milligan Ranges and the tidal reaches of the West Arm of the Cambridge Gulf. He headed for The Gut, the narrowest crossing point in this part of the Gulf, and notorious for the strong currents which surge through its constricted passage. Bundling up his clothes with Marshall’s letter securely tied inside, he attached them to a log which he pushed in front of him across the water. About 3am on the morning of July 4, he entered the deserted streets of Wyndham, less than four days after he’d set off. Truly a marathon run.
    The outcome


    Again the news flashed around the world and, due to the time difference was printed in the European papers that morning. The rescue boat set off and, two days later, 53 days after their forced landing, the pilots were brought ashore at Wyndham to rousing welcome. Klausmann never recovered his sanity and was sent home to Germany. Bertram recovered, reclaimed the plane and carried out a festive tour of Australia. His main aim was to raise funds for the two Aboriginal Missions in gratitude for their help.
    When he left Australia in 1933 he said “I hope after I get back to Germany, to returned here as Ambassador to Australia.” He did return to Australia, in 1941, as a prisoner of war. He’d joined the Luftwaffe and been shot down and captured in the Libyan desert. He died in Germany in 1993. Andumeri’s story was finally published in the West Australian on January 15, 1994 in an excellent article by John Burbridge.

    1932 Kimberley rescue

    Atlantis refueling in Kupang
    On 29 February 1932 four aviators flew out of Cologne, Germany on a round-the-world flight attempt in a seaplane. The group comprised pilot Hans Bertram, co-pilot Thom, mechanic Adolph Klausmann and cameraman von Lagorio, and was intended to find potential markets for Germany’s aviation industry and to be a goodwill tour by visiting German communities along the route.
    The plane was a Junkers W 33 seaplane (float configuration), registration D-2151 and named Atlantis


    After enduring a storm between Timor and Australia two of the men became lost and stranded on a remote area of the north-western Australian coast. The aviators spent the next 40 days in severe deprivation and were both close to death when rescued.

    map1

    map3


    Over ten weeks, they successfully flew through Italy, Greece, Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Malaya, Indonesia and Timor. After arriving in Jakarta, it was agreed that Thom and von Lagorio would travel separately and the four would rendezvous in Shanghai, China. Bertram and Klausmann would continue flying down the Indonesian archipelago and onto Australia.


    They had their engine overhauled in the Dutch naval aerodrome in Soerabaja (Surabaya), Indonesia and departed there on 13 May, stopping for fuel at a bay near Kupang in the western part of Dutch Timor the next day.
    At midnight on 14 May Bertram and Klausmann departed Kupang for Darwin, expecting the 450 nautical miles (830 km; 520 mi) trip to take about 5 or 6 hours. Flying over the Timor Sea, they had intended to land at dawn the next day. They encountered a severe storm, and low on fuel, the aviators were forced to land their seaplane in the first sheltered bay they found which unbeknown to them, was on the Kimberley coast and hundreds of kilometres west of the intended destination.
    They incorrectly guessed that the place was part of Melville Island, north of Darwin. The location was actually Cape St Lambert

    (
    14°20′1.2″S 127°46′45.4″E14.333667°S 127.779278°E), just north of the mouth of the Berkeley River on the western coastline of the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and about 370 kilometres (230 mi) south-west of Melville Island.

    The makeshift canoe
    Extremely isolated and surrounded by harsh bush and desert, on the first night they were visited by an Aboriginal man. They were unable to communicate and were overwhelmed by swarms of flies. The aviators, with only 15 litres of fuel left, decided to head west towards what they thought was the direction of Darwin. They managed to take off but were forced to land again in another bay, their engine cutting out as the plane ran out of fuel and rolled up a small beach.
    Being unable to find water, they could only think that the Aboriginal they saw in the other bay might be able to provide help, so they secured the plane and set out to walk back to the previous bay. They were plagued by heat, thirst and hunger and their walk was a nightmare. After attempting to swim across an inlet they were chased by a crocodile and lost their clothes. Barefoot and naked they lay beneath a burning sun. They gave up their search and returned to the plane without clothes or footwear. After seven days of walking without water, ravished by mosquitoes and completely exhausted they arrived back at the seaplane.


    They decided to remove one of the seaplane’s floats to use as a makeshift kayak. Now thirteen days into their ordeal they drained the radiator of the remaining water, climbed into the float and started paddling. The ship MV Koolinda passed by only 500 metres away but didn’t see them. They paddled for four days and nights and eventually came ashore north of Cape Bernier, east of King George River.


    Still thinking that they were on Melville Island they decided to walk overland to find civilisation, but found out that they weren’t on an island so they returned to the float. After arriving back, the float had been damaged so to be able to paddle it again they had to cut a section off. With the float being shorter it wasn’t as seaworthy as before so they only got a few kilometres before deciding it was too dangerous and returned to shore where they found shelter under an overhang at Cape Bernier, remaining there until they were finally rescued.

    Klausmann, Bertram and rescuer Constable Gordon Marshall with the aboriginal trackers who located the two men
    A Dutch gunboat Flores set out from Surabaya four days after the disappearance to search along the planned route across the Timor sea. At the request of the German Consul-General, the Western Australian government also commenced a land, sea and air search of possible landing sites. A West Australian Airways de Havilland DH.50 mail plane was chartered for the purpose. Coastal ships from the State Shipping Service were also notified to be on the lookout.


    On 13 June a foot search by native trackers found a cigarette case bearing the initials “HB” and a handkerchief which were handed to a passing missionary in a boat. The details of the location were vague however and a malfunctioning telegraph delayed the information getting to the correct authorities. Eventually it did however and the land search resumed with increased vigour. 60 people were directly involved in the search which by now had received widespread publicity.
    The seaplane was located by a search aircraft on 15 June and the men were found sheltering in a cave near Cape Bernier several days later. They had been lost for 40 days.
    Klausmann had become demented as a result of the ordeal and needed to be restrained when they were returned to the hospital at Wyndham on 6 July by boat. The total ordeal had taken 53 days. Both men were later taken from Wyndham to Perth – Klausmann in the Koolinda as he was considered too unwell to fly.


    Klausmann returned to Germany by steamer but never fully recovered. Bertram returned to the site of the abandoned plane on 18 September with Fred Sexton, a Western Australian Airways mechanic. They brought with them fuel and a replacement float from a de Havilland DH.50 and managed to fit it to the Junkers and fly the plane to Perth. They landed in Matilda Bay in the Swan River on 24 September 1932. After removing the floats Bertram flew around Australia for several months, visiting cities and towns and giving talks. He returned to Berlin on 17 April 1933 where he received a hero’s welcome.
    Bertram wrote a book of the experience called Flug in die Hölle (Flight into Hell). He also had a successful career as a film director. In 1985 a four-part television miniseries named Flight Into Hell based on Hans Betram’s book was made by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Gordon Flemyng was the director.
    The makeshift canoe was recovered by staff from the Western Australian Museum in 1975 and is held by the Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle where it is occasionally displayed.
    Atlantis Seaplane Float


    It was 15 May 1932. The seaplane Atlantis was on its way to Darwin from Kupang in Timor, when bad weather caused it to become well off course. Running out of fuel, the pilot, Captain Hans Bertram, had to land in a remote part of the northwest coast. He and his mechanic, Adolf Klausmann were then to spend 40 days of privation until they were found by Aborigines in a cave where they had all but given up and prepared to die. When the two airmen first landed, they began to convert one of the seaplane floats into a type of canoe. Although ingenious and practical the makeshift craft was not very useful on the open sea. They ended up washed ashore, still with no real idea of where they were and with no food and water. Search parties were looking for the men to no avail, but a cigarette case with Hans Bertram’s initials on it was found by an Aboriginal. A search spreading out from this area found the missing plane, but it was of course empty. Now an even bigger search was put in progress using Aboriginal trackers from missions in the area, and one of these trackers found the men holed up in their cave waiting to die. This Aboriginal is thought to have been Minnijinnimurrie from the Drysdale Mission. He and other Aboriginals with him from the mission looked after the two aviators for a week before the first group of police rescuers arrived. The condition of the two men was very poor and two runners were sent to Forrest Mission with messages to arrange a boat to be sent to pick them up. Overnight Klausmann’s condition had deteriorated and it was decided to send more runners to the police in Wyndham via Forrest Mission requesting a strait jacket also be sent. The second pair of Aboriginal runners then performed what was to become a marathon feat. They were told that if they managed to overtake the first runners they would get a new pair of shorts and a shirt. The pair made it to Forrest Mission in two days. It had taken six days for the rescue party to travel that distance. Although the role that Aboriginals played in finding the aviators and keeping them alive until the rescue party reached the cave is well known, the story of Andumeri and Jalnga’s marathon run is not often mentioned.

    Another aspect of this story is also not often told. While the search parties were under way, there were reports that Aboriginals had killed the two aviators. A number of Aboriginals were taken prisoner by Superintendent Johnson, including Wajana and Yorgin, the suspected murderers. Three different stories arose. An Aboriginal woman, Mooger, said that Wajana and Yorgin saw the plane land, asked the aviators for tobacco and when they were not given any, speared the men. Then some of the prisoners told Johnson that they had found one man dead in the plane, and tracks of the other man. Finally a third story from other Aboriginals of the Brinjin tribe said that three other Aboriginals had killed the aviators. Regardless of the fact that these stories conflicted, and that no evidence of a dead person had been found in the seaplane, the Aboriginals were kept chained with the search party until they found the men. They were released after finding Bertram and Klausmann and given some food and tobacco as recompense. The Aboriginal group associated with the Drysdale Mission was possibly the Miwa and the runners were from the Forrest Mission and possibly associated with the Aboriginal Yiiji group.
    Associated Tribe Miwa, Yiiji
    Contact Evidence Verified
    Type of contact Helpful
    Year 1932
    Nationality German
    Location Kimberley
    Source European
    CAPTAIN BERTRAM WILL
    ÇQNTINUE FLIGHT
    Klausmann Still In Hospital
    Temporarily Deranged ^45 DAYS LIVING IN HELL”
    .»’ WYNDHAM, TaurwUjr.
    Flight-Captain Bertram ia well I aad dMerhl» and announces that h« will- repair the ‘plane and con-1
    HUM* til« fligkt to Sydney and Mci- j bonnie., Klausmann, tke mechanic, it in aàddar caáe. He ia temporarily deranged and in hospital, bat there an atrong kopea that when his bodily wanta are thoroughly cared 1er he will make . complete mental reeoTery.
    Bertram stands revealed as a de- bonair young airman possessed of ¡superlative courage and apparently ste.el nerves. He indicates that he will never tell the full details of the weeks of horror in the wilderness, but it ia known now that Klausmann be- came mentally affected comparatively early in their wanderings, and that in addition to the worry and suspense of looking after him Bertram had to con- duct the search singlehanded and fend for tha pair of them. Singlehanded ha turned ona of the ‘plane’s floats into . boat and paddled for days miles out to aea. He managed to do all this, to davis« lighting apparatus from the ‘plane’s magneto, to make fires, to keep a daily diary, and to endure the mental anguish of seeing help pass him and his comrade by on three oc- casions, and still retain courage and will power.


    Constable Marshall, who brought the fliers back to Wyndham, says that if the Drysdale natives, who suc-coured the fliers had not found them.
    CAPTAIN BERTRAM (left) and HERR KLAUSMANN. A photograph taken just before they left Batavia. they would have been dead when 1 earrived on the scene.
    “AWFUL AND TERRIBLE”
    “We seem to have caused bother,” Bertram said. “We saw ‘planes and ships, but we could not make them see us. It would seem impossible that within a few days of reaching land two men could give up, but wo did. It all seemed so awful nnd ter- rible.”
    Bertram could not be persuaded to
    speak of his experiences. “Imagine for yourself,” he said. “Here I am just back from 45 days living in hell, and you ask me what hell is like. I cannot do ii. I will say that not for one minute or one .second has it been easy. It was a light all the time, and we were finished when we saw the natives from the mission.”

    When did Aboriginal people first arrive in Australia?

    Humans would have first seen Kata Tjuta very shortly after arriving in Australia 50,000 years ago.

    Many Aboriginal Australians would say with conviction that they have always been here. Their ancestors and traditional learnings tell them of this history, and their precise place within it.

    Our review of the scientific evidence, published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests that for all practical purposes, this is indeed the case.

    Their ancestors arrived shortly after 50,000 years ago – effectively forever, given that modern human populations only moved out of Africa 50,000-55,000 years ago.



    Long connection to country

    Earlier genetic analysis of historic Aboriginal hair samples [GR1] confirmed the incredibly long and deep relationships between individual Aboriginal groups and their particular country. The small locks of hair were collected during anthropological expeditions across Australia from the 1920s to the 1960s.

    Analysis of maternal genetic lineages revealed that Aboriginal populations moved into Australia around 50,000 years ago. They rapidly swept around the west and east coasts in parallel movements – meeting around the Nullarbor just west of modern-day Adelaide.

    Map of the original colonisation of Australia showing different genetic markers carried by Aboriginal populations (in red), and the vegetation zones at the time. Archaeological dates are shown in black, with 1 kya = 1,000 years ago. Nature, Tobler et al. [GR2] 

    Archaeological sites and dates (shown above) closely match the genetic estimates. This indicates a very rapid movement throughout Australia 48,000-50,000 years ago.

    Out of Africa

    It was only a few thousand years earlier that a small population of modern humans moved out of Africa. As they did, they met and briefly hybridised with Neandertals before rapidly spreading around the world.

    They became the genetic ancestors of all surviving modern human populations outside of Africa, who are all characterised by a distinctive small subset of Neandertal DNA – around 2.5% – preserved in their genomes[GR3] .

    This distinctive marker is found in Aboriginal populations, indicating they are part of this original diaspora, but one that must have moved to Australia almost immediately after leaving Africa.

    How to get to Australia 50,000 years ago

    The movement from Africa to Australia culminated in a series of hazardous sea voyages across island southeast Asia.

    Recent studies suggest the last voyage, potentially between Timor/Roti and the northern Kimberley coast, would have involved advanced planning skills, four to seven days paddling on a raft, and a total group of more than 100 to 400 people.

    The possibility that earlier waves of modern human populations might have moved out of Africa before 50,000 years has also been raised.

    But in our review of these events, we point out that there is no convincing fossil evidence to support this idea beyond the Middle East.

    One of the most important claimed potential early sites is in northern Australia, at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in Arnhem Land. Human presence here was recently declared at more than 65,000 years ago.

    This 65,000-year date has rapidly become accepted as the age for colonisation of Australia. It has appeared widely in the media and elsewhere, in political statements and comments by the Prime Minister.

    But there is good reason to question a 65,000-year date, and the extent to which this contrasts with the sudden wave of archaeological sites that sweep across Australia shortly after 50,000 years ago.

    These sites include Barrow Island[GR4]  and Carpenters Gap in the Kimberley, Devils Lair south of Perth, Willandra Lakes in NSW, and Warratyi rockshelter in the Flinders Ranges.

    This rapid archaeological manifestation at 50,000 years is a perfect match for the genetic evidence from Aboriginal maternal, paternal, and genomic lineages, and a far better fit with the extinction of Australia’s megafauna around 42,000 years ago.

    An age limit for human migration

    One of the most interesting ways we can date the dispersal of modern humans around the globe, including Australia, is through that original interbreeding event with Neandertals as we left Africa.

    About a decade ago, an ancient human leg bone was found on the banks of a Siberian river by an ivory hunter. Radiocarbon-dated at 43,000-45,000 years ago, the entire genome of this individual, named Ust’-Ishim after the site, was sequenced using the latest ancient DNA technology.

    The genomic sequence revealed the bone contained the standard 2.5% Neandertal DNA signal carried by all non-Africans. But it was still present in large continuous blocks and had yet not been dispersed into fragments around the genome as we see in more recent ancestors and ourselves.

    In fact, the size of the blocks showed that the 43,000-45,000-year-old Ust’-Ishim specimen could only be a maximum of 230-430 generations after that initial Neandertal liaison, dating our movement out of Africa to no more than 50,000-55,000 years ago.

    50,000 years, or more than 65,000 years?

    Given the evidence is so strong that the ancestors of modern human populations only started moving around the world 50,000-55,000 years ago, could the human activity at Madjedbebe really be more than 65,000 years old?

    One of the major limitations of the Madjedbebe study[GR5]  is that the stone artefacts themselves weren’t dated, just the surrounding sand layers.

    As a result, over time, even the slightest downward movement of the artefacts within the unconsolidated sand layers at Madjedbebe would make them appear too old.

    We identify a range of factors which are common around the site, such as termite burrowing and heavy rainfall, that could cause stone artefacts to sink.

    Many archaeological signs suggest activity at Madjedbebe is actually much younger than 65,000 years, and overall, the extent to which the site is an outlier to the rest of the Australian record should raise a red flag.

    Connection to country

    Either way, Aboriginal Australians have effectively been on their country as long as modern human populations have been outside of Africa.



    How does this help us better understand Aboriginal history? By appreciating the enormous depth of time that Aboriginal groups have been on their own particular country, and the extent to which all their history, knowledge, and ancestors form part of that country.

    It is this gulf between a European history of constant migration and global dispersal, and the profoundly deep Aboriginal connection to one particular part of the world, that leads to failures to comprehend why being on country is not simply “a lifestyle choice”, but a fundamental part of their identity.



     [GR1]Historic hair samples collected from Aboriginal people show that following an initial migration 50,000 years ago, populations spread rapidly around the east and west coasts of Australia.

     [GR2]. Aboriginal Australians represent one of the longest continuous cultural complexes known. Archaeological evidence indicates that Australia and New Guinea were initially settled approximately 50 thousand years ago (ka); however, little is known about the processes underlying the enormous linguistic and phenotypic diversity within Australia. Here we report 111 mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from historical Aboriginal Australian hair samples, whose origins enable us to reconstruct Australian phylogeographic history before European settlement. Marked geographic patterns and deep splits across the major mitochondrial haplogroups imply that the settlement of Australia comprised a single, rapid migration along the east and west coasts that reached southern Australia by 49–45 ka. After continent-wide colonization, strong regional patterns developed and these have survived despite substantial climatic and cultural change during the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Remarkably, we find evidence for the continuous presence of populations in discrete geographic areas dating back to around 50 ka, in agreement with the notable Aboriginal Australian cultural attachment to their country.

     [GR3]Revelations from a Vindija Neandertal genome

    Neandertals clearly interbred with the ancestors of non-African modern humans, but many questions remain about our closest ancient relatives. Prüfer et al. present a 30-fold-coverage genome sequence from 50,000- to 65,000-year-old samples from a Neandertal woman found in Vindija, Croatia, and compared this sequence with genomes obtained from the Altai Neandertal, the Denisovans, and ancient and modern humans (see the Perspective by Bergström and Tyler-Smith). Neandertals likely lived in small groups and had lower genetic diversity than modern humans. The findings increase the number of Neandertal variants identified within populations of modern humans, and they suggest that a larger number of phenotypic and diseaserelated variants with Neandertal ancestry remain in the modern Eurasian gene pool than previously thought.

     [GR4]Archaeological excavations in a remote island cave off northwest Australia reveal incredible details of the early use by people of the continent’s now-submerged coast.

    Our latest study reveals that at lower sea levels, this island was used as a hunting shelter between about 50,000 and 30,000 years ago, and then as a residential base for family groups by 8,000 years ago.

     [GR5]Although it is well known that anatomically modern humans were in Africa before 200,000 years ago and China around 80,000 years ago, many archaeologists believe that Australia was not occupied until 47,000 years ago.

    But our research, published today in Nature, pushes back the timing of this event to at least 65,000 years ago.