Former Aboriginal prison on Rottnest Island, the Quod, closed for tourist accommodation

Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder

Ezra Jacobs-Smith is the Aboriginal Heritage Officer on Rottnest Island(

A prison building on Rottnest Island where thousands of Aboriginal men and boys were incarcerated will no longer be used as holiday accommodation.

It is a move welcomed by Noongar people as a significant step towards reconciliation and healing.

The island is a popular holiday destination off Perth’s coast and famous for its pristine beaches and quokka selfie opportunities, but the failure to acknowledge its tragic history has long been a source of distress for Aboriginal people.

From Thursday, the 29-cell prison, known as the Quod, will close.

The Quod, the Rottnest prison that was built by and housed Aboriginal prisoners.(

Aboriginal men were taken from all over Western Australia and imprisoned on the island from 1838 until 1904.

Aboriginal heritage officer Ezra Jacobs-Smith told ABC Radio Perth that around 4,000 men and boys, some as young as seven and as old as 80, were incarcerated in the Quod.

They were put to work building houses, the lighthouse and roads that are still in use today.

“The people that were in charge at the time spoke about the prison on Rottnest as being a more humane option than being in prison on the mainland,” Mr Jacobs-Smith said.

“They talked about it being a place where they might be able to rehabilitate them and teach them skills like farming.

“I think the reality didn’t turn out to be that.

“I think we all agree now that it was more about control and the break-up of Aboriginal resistance to settlement across the state of Western Australia.

“A lot of the men that were taken away from country were significant male leadership in their communities.”

Aboriginal prisoners on Rottnest Island, 1889.(

Supplied: State Library of WA

Conditions under the first superintendent, Henry Vincent, were particularly cruel.

“A lot of men passed away because of the conditions they were housed in — dysentery, measles, influenza,” Mr Jacobs-Smith said.

“There were severe beatings and five recorded hangings here; gallows were set up in the Quod and other prisoners forced to watch.”

Future to be debated

Attention has now turned to what should happen to the Quod and the adjacent burial ground, which contains the remains of 370 Aboriginal people.

“I think the first step is recognising the truth of what happened here and to understand and respect this history,” Mr Jacobs-Smith said.

“You can’t imagine running a tourist business over somewhere like Auschwitz; that is the challenge that sits in front of us, the Rottnest Island Authority, the Aboriginal community and the wider community in WA who access the island quite regularly.”

The Wadjemup Aboriginal Reference Group will now begin a thorough process of consultation to determine the site’s future use.

Pamela Thorley is a member of the Wadjemup Aboriginal Reference Group(

Group member Pamela Thorley said she was happy to see the Quod close.

“We have to consult widely across Western Australia and ensure that Aboriginal people who want to have a say on what happens here have that opportunity,” she said.

“Ideas range from people who say ‘burn it down’, to people who say ‘let’s recognise it appropriately and have an interpretive centre’.

“Until we do the consultation and we do it properly, the answers are unknown.”

The Rottnest Island burial site is believed to contain the remains of 370 Aboriginal men.(

Some Aboriginal people have suggested the entire island, which Noongar people call Wadjemup, be handed back to the Wadjuk Noongar community, but Ms Thornley said that was not going happen.

Rather, she said she wanted to see Aboriginal people benefit from the State Government’s plans to expand tourism and accommodation.

“I think there are lots employment training opportunities here for Aboriginal people,” she said.

“I think there could be Aboriginal-owned businesses on the island, a ranger program, opportunities in hospitality, cultural enterprise.

“And we need to ensure that we have some type of memorial here telling the true history of the island.”

Rottnest Island, which Noongar people call Wadjemup, will remain a holiday destination.(

Ms Thorley expects it to be a long process but, if done well, could be an exemplary reconciliation project.

“This could be an international best-practice project.

“There’s a lot of burden on us, the reference group, to ensure that it happens.”

Until it does, visitors are encouraged to undertake a brief ceremony when they arrive to show their respect.

“Take a handful of sand and go down to the water and speak to the spirits,” Mr Jacobs-Smith explained.

“We introduce ourselves and tell them who we are and why we are here.

“It’s just a way of showing that respect and acknowledging what has happened in the past, and non-Aboriginal people are welcome to partake in that ceremony.”

List of people legally executed in Western Australia

Long Island, Houtman Abrolhos

  • Jeronimus Corneliszoon[GR1]  – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Lenert Michielsz – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Mattys Beijr – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Jan Hendricx – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children

  • Allert Janssen – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Rutger Fredericxsz – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children
  • Andries Jonas – 2 October 1629 – Hanged as party to the murder of 125 men, women and children

York

York
  • Doodjeep – 7 July 1840 – Hanged in chains at the site of the crime, for the murders of Sarah Cook and her 8-month-old child on 18 May 1839 at Norrilong, York
  • Barrabong – 7 July 1840 – Hanged in chains at the site of the crime for the murders of Sarah Cook and her 8-month-old child on 18 May 1839 at Norrilong, York

Mullewa

Mullewa
  • Wangayackoo – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Yermakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Garolee – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Charlakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott
  • Williakarra – 28 January 1865 – Hanged at Butterabby, the site of the crime, for the spearing of Thomas Bott

Kellerberrin

Kellerberrin
  • Ngowee – 19 January 1866 – For the murder of Edward Clarkson on 21 August 1865, hanged at the site of the crime, at Dalbercuttin, near Kellerberrin
  • Egup (Condor) – 21 April 1866 – For the murder of Edward Clarkson on 21 August 1865, hanged at the site of the crime, at Dalbercuttin, near Kellerberrin

Roebourne

Roebourne
  • Cooperabiddy – 20 March 1893 – Hanged for murder of James Coppin, described as a ‘half-caste’, at the Hamersley Ranges
  • Doulga – 28 December 1896 – Hanged for the murder of John Horrigan at Lagrange Bay on 28 March 1896
  • Caroling – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station
  • Poeling – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station
  • Weedabong – 14 May 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Dr Edward Vines at Braeside station

Derby

Derby
  • Lillimara – 21 October 1899 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of Thomas Jasper on 17 March 1897 on Oscar Range Station, Fitzroy Crossing
  • Mullabudden – 12 May 1900 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of John Dobbie on 12 March 1899 at Mount Broome
  • Woolmillamah – 12 May 1900 – hanged at Derby Gaol for murder of John Dobbie on 12 March 1899 at Mount Broome

Halls Creek

Halls Creek
  • Tomahawk – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891
  • Dicky – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891
  • Chinaman (Jerringo) – 18 March 1892 – Hanged at Mount Dockerell, the site of the crime, for the murder of William Miller on 26 June 1891

Geraldton

Geraldton
  • Sing Ong – 29 October 1884 – Hanged for the murder of Chung Ah Foo on 11 May 1884 at Shark Bay

Albany

Albany
  • Peter McKean (alias William McDonald) – 12 October 1872 – Hanged for the murder of William “Yorkie” Marriott on 30 June 1872 at Slab Hut Gully (Tunney), between Kojonup and Cranbrook

Perth

Perth
  • Midgegooroo[GR2]  – 22 May 1833 – Executed at the Perth Gaol by firing squad on a death warrant issued summarily by Lieutenant Governor Frederick Irwin, for the murders of Thomas and John Velvick at Bull’s Creek on 31 March 1833
  • Mendik – 14 October 1841 – Hanged at the site of the crime for the murder of twelve-year-old John Burtenshaw on the Canning River at Maddington on 16 July 1839
  • Buckas (lascar[GR3] 

A group of people

Description automatically generated with low confidence

  • ) – January 1845 – Hanged at Perth for rape on a child under ten years of age
  • James Malcolm – 14 April 1847 – Hanged at the site of the crime, the Burswood Estate (Victoria Park), for highway robbery and murder of Clark Gordon on 6 January 1847
  • Kanyin – 12 April 1850 – Hanged at Redcliffe for the murder of Yadupwert at York. This was the first public execution in Western Australia for inter se
  •  murder
  • Edward Bishop – 12 October 1854 – Hanged at South Perth for the murder of Ah Chong, a chinaman, at York. Protested his innocence to the end. Three years later William Voss confessed to the crime. Voss was hanged in 1862 at Perth Gaol for the murder of his wife
  • Samuel Stanley – 18 April 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Catherine Dayly on the York Road
  • Jacob – 18 April 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Bijare at Gingin on 25 September 1854
  • Yoongal – 14 July 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder of Kanip at the Hotham River
  • Yandan – 14 July 1855 – Hanged at Victoria Park for the murder by spearing of a ten-year-old girl named Yangerdan near York

Hanged at the Perth Gaol:

  • Bridget Hurford – 15 October 1855 – for the murder of her husband John Hurford at Vasse
  • William Dodd – 15 October 1855 – for the murder of John Hurford at Vasse
  • George Williams – 15 October 1855 – for wounding Warder James McEvoy with a shovel at the Convict Establishment
  •  on 26 September 1855
  • John Scott – 14 January 1856 – for the murder of William Longmate at Vasse
  • Daniel Lewis (Convict # 2972)- January 1857 – for the rape of Ellen Horton at Woorooloo
  • John Lloyd – 29 October 1857 – for wounding with intent to kill John Brown at Port Gregory in June 1857
  • Richard Bibbey – 17 October 1859 – for the murder of Billamarra at Upper Irwin in March 1859. First European executed for murder of an aboriginal in Western Australia
  • Thomas Airey – 13 October 1860 – for the rape of five-year-old Lydia Farmer at Perth in July. Had been granted ticket-of-leave 4 June 1860.
  • John Caldwell – 13 October 1860 – for rape and murder of an aboriginal girl at Champion Bay. A ticket-of-leave man.
  • Thomas Clancy – 10 January 1861 – for the rape of seven-year-old Ellen Jane White at Bunbury
  • Joseph McDonald – 10 January 1861 – for rape at Toodyay
  • Robert Thomas Palin[GR4]  – 6 July 1861 – for robbery with violence of Susan Harding at Fremantle
  • William Voss – 9 January 1862 – for the murder of his wife Mary Moir at York on 11 November 1861
  • Kewacan (Larry) – 24 January 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Long Jimmy – 24 January 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Narreen – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of an Indigenous girl called Nelly at Victoria Plains
  • Eenue – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of an Indigenous girl called Nelly at Victoria Plains
  • Finger – 10 April 1862 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Thomas Pedder – 21 March 1863 – for the murder of Thomas Sweeny, a shepherd, at Irwin River on 1 December 1862
  • John Thomas – 8 September 1863 – for the murder of Duncan Urquhart at Peninsula Farm on 6 June 1863
  • Joseph White – 21 October 1863 – for rape of 13 yo Jane Rhodes, at Greenough on 18 August 1863
  • Teelup – 21 October 1863 – for the murder of Charles Storey at Jacup on 23 July 1861
  • Narrigalt – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Martha Farling, a 31/2 year-old ‘half-caste’ girl, near York on 26 May 1865
  • Youndalt – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Martha Farling, a 31/2 yo ‘half-caste’ girl, near York on 26 May 1865
  • Nandingbert – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Quatcull near Albany on 14 May 1865
  • Yardalgene (also called Jackey Howson) – 18 July 1865 – for the murder of Quatcull near Albany on 14 May 1865
  • Daniel Duffy – 11 January 1866 – an escaped convict, hanged for the murder of Edward Johnson on 5 November 1865 at Northam
  • Matthew Brooks – 11 January 1866 – an escaped convict, hanged for the murder of Edward Johnson on 5 November 1865 at Northam
  • Bernard Wootton (also called MacNulty) – 8 October 1867 – an escaped convict, hanged for the attempted murder of Police Sgt. John Moye after his recapture at Murramine, near Beverley. Hanged at Perth Gaol.
  • James Fanning – 14 April 1871 – for the rape of thirteen-year-old Mary Dawes on the Albany Road on 24 November 1870. The first private execution and the last execution for rape in the colony
  • Margaret Cody – 15 July 1871 – for the murder of James Holditch, at North Fremantle on 4 March 1871
  • William Davis – 15 July 1871 – for the murder of James Holditch, at North Fremantle on 4 March 1871
  • Briley (Briarly) – 13 October 1871 – for the murder of Charley (Wickin) at Albany
  • Noorbung – 13 October 1871 – for the murder of Margaret Mary McGowan at Boyanup on 30 June 1871
  • Charcoal (Mullandaridgee) – 15 February 1872 – for the murder of Samuel Wells Lazenby at Port Walcott on 7 August 1871
  • Tommy (Mullandee) – 15 February 1872 – for the murder of Samuel Wells Lazenby at Port Walcott
  •  on 7 August 1871
  • Yarradeee – 16 October 1873 – for the murder and cannibalism of three-year-old Edward William Dunn at Yanganooka, Port Gregory on 5 October 1865
  • Muregelly – 16 October 1873 – for the murder and cannibalism of three-year-old Edward William Dunn at Yanganooka, Port Gregory on 5 October 1865
  • Robert Goswell – 13 January 1874 – for murder of Mary Anne Lloyd at Stapelford, Beverley on 1 December 1873
  • John Gill – 4 April 1874 – hanged for the murder of William Foster at Narrogin on 13 February 1874
  • Bobbinett – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Police Lance-Corporal William Archibald Armstrong near Kojonup on 14 January 1875
  • Wanaba (or Wallaby) – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Tommy Howell (or Moul), a police native assistant, near Yalgoo on 10 July 1874
  • Wandagary – 22 April 1875 – for the murder of Tommy Howell (or Moul), a police native assistant, near Yalgoo on 10 July 1874
  • Kenneth Brown[GR5]  – 10 June 1876 – for the murder of his wife Mary Ann on 3 January 1876 at Geraldton
  • Yarndu – 16 October 1876
  • Chilagorah – 29 April 1879 – for the murder of Pintagorah at Cossack on 31 January 1879
  • Ah Kett – 27 January 1883 – for the murder of Foo Ah Moy, at Cheritah Station, Roebourne on 2 July 1883
  • John Collins – 27 January 1883 – for the murder of John King at the Kalgan River near Albany on 2 October 1882
  • John Maroney – 25 October 1883 – for the murder of James Watson at Yellenup, Kojonup on 1 May 1883
  • William Watkins – 25 October 1883 – for the murder of James Watson at Yellenup, Kojonup on 1 May 1883
  • Henry Benjamin Haynes – 23 January 1884 – for the murder of his wife Mary Ann Haynes at Perth on 12 October 1883
  • Thomas Henry Carbury – 23 October 1884 – for the murder of Constable Hackett at Beverley
  • Beverley
    • on 12 September 1884
    • John Duffy – 28 January 1885 – for the murder of his wife Mary Sultana McGann at Fremantle on 21 November 1884
    • Henry Sherry – 27 October 1885 – for the murder of Catherine Waldock at Quinderring, Williams on 16 September 1885
    • Franz Erdmann – 4 April 1887 – for the murder of Anthony Johnson at McPhee’s Creek, Kimberley on 27 October 1886
    • William Conroy [GR6] – 18 November 1887 – for the murder of John Snook at Fremantle Town Hall on 23 June 1887

    Rottnest

    Rottnest
    • Tampin – 16 July 1879 – Hanged for the murder of John Moir at Stokes Inlet on 29 March 1877
    • Wangabiddi – 18 Jun 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Charles Redfern at Minni-Minni on the Gascoyne River in May 1882 
    • Guerilla – 18 June 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Anthony Cornish at Fitzroy River on 12 December 1882
    • Naracorie – 3 August 1883 – Hanged for the murder of Charles Brackell at Wandagee on the Minilya River on 31 July 1882 
    • Calabungamarra – 13 June 1888 – Hanged for the murder of a Chinese man, Indyco, at Hamersley Range

    Fremantle

    List of executions at Fremantle Prison

    Hanged at the Round House:

    • John Gaven[GR7]  – 6 April 1844 – Hanged for the murder of George Pollard at South Dandalup

    Hanged at Fremantle Prison:

    • Long Jimmy (alias Jimmy Long) – 2 March 1889 – A Malay, hanged for the murder of Claude Kerr on board the pearling lugger ‘Dawn’ at Cossack on 7 September 1888
    • Ahle Pres (alias Harry Pres) – 8 November 1889 – A Singapore Malay, hanged for the murder of Louis, a Filipino, near Halls Creek, on 9 June 1889
    • Ah Chi (alias Li Ki Hong) – 16 April 1891 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Gin at Daliak, York on 3 March 1891
    • Chew Fong – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Lyee Nyee – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Yung Quonk (Young Quong) – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of Ah Pang at Meka Station on 23 Dec 1891
    • Sin Cho Chi – 29 April 1892 – Hanged for the murder of George E.B Fairhead, at a Mill Stream out-station, near Roebourne
    • [GR8] – 2 May 1896 – Hanged for the murder of Tagh Mahomet in the mosque at Coolgardie on 10 January 1896
    • Jumna Khan – 31 March 1897 – Hanged for the murder of William Griffiths in High Street, Fremantle on 3 December 1896
    • Pedro De La Cruz – 19 July 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Captain John Arthur Reddell of the brigantine Ethel, his 19-year-old son Leslie, the mate James Taylor, and two crew-members (Ando, who was Japanese, and Jimmy, who was Indigenous), at the La Grange Bay pearling grounds, near Broome, on 19 October 1899
    • Peter Perez – 19 July 1900 – Hanged for the murder of Captain John Arthur Reddell of the brigantine Ethel, his 19-year-old son Leslie, the mate James Taylor, and two crew-members (Ando, who was Japanese, and Jimmy, who was Indigenous), at the La Grange Bay pearling grounds, near Broome, on 19 October 1899
    • Samuel Peters – 9 September 1902 – Hanged for the murder of his wife Trevenna Peters at Leederville on 3 July 1903
    • Stelios Psichitas – 15 April 1903 – Greek national, hanged for the rape and murder of his sister-in-law Sophia Psichitas (nee Leadakis) and murder of his 4-month-old nephew Emanuel at Lawlers on 20 December 1902
    • Fredric Maillat – 21 April 1903 – French national, hanged for the murder of Charles Lauffer, at Smith’s Mill, Glen Forest, on 4 February 1903
    • Sebaro Rokka – 7 July 1903 – Hanged for the murder of Dollah and another Malay at Point Cunningham, near Derby on 20 February 1903
    • Ah Hook – 11 January 1904 – Hanged for the murder of Yanoo, a Japanese laundryman, at Carnarvon on 26 August 1903
    • Manoor Mohomet – 4 May 1904 – Hanged for the murder of Meer, an Afghan, at Kensington, near Menzies on 16 November 1903
    • Simeon Espada – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome on 30 August 1905
    • Charles Hagen – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome on 30 August 1905
    • Pablo Marquez – 14 December 1905 – Hanged for the murder of Mark Lieblig at Broome
    Broome
    • on 30 August 1905
    • Antonio Sala – 19 November 1906 – Hanged for the murder of Battista Gregorini at Mt Jackson on 13 September 1906
    • Augustin De Kitchilan – 23 October 1907 – Hanged for the murder of Leah Fouracre at Peppermint Grove Farm, Waroona on 15 or 16 August 1907
    • Harry G. Smith – 23 March 1908 – Hanged for the murder of William John Clinton at Day Dawn on 5 January 1908
    • Iwakichi Oki – 22 October 1908 – Hanged for the murder of James Henry Shaw at West Murray, Pinjarra on 23 August 1908
    • Martha Rendell
    •  – 6 October 1909 – Hanged for the murder of her 14-year-old stepson Arthur Morris by poisoning on 8 October 1908, suspected of killing two younger stepchildren
    • Peter Robustelli – 9 February 1910 – Hanged for the murder of Giovanni Forsatti in a lane between Bayley and Woodward streets, Coolgardie
    Coolgardie
    • on 19 October 1909
    • Alexander Smart – 7 March 1911 – Hanged for the murder of Ethel May Harris at 5 Cowle Street, West Perth on 10 March 1910
    • David H Smithson – 25 July 1911 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 18-year-old Elizabeth Frances Compton at Woodlupine on 13 May 1911
    • Charles Spargo – 1 July 1913 – Hanged for the murder of Gilbert Pickering Jones at Broome on 23 January 1913
    • Charles H. Odgers – 14 January 1914 – Hanged for the murder of Edith Molyneaux at Balgobin, Dandalup on 3 October 1913; also charged with murder of Richard Thomas Williams at Waroona on 14 September 1913
    • Andrea Sacheri (alias Joseph Cutay) – 12 April 1915 – Hanged for the murder of 11-year-old Jean Bell at Marrinup, near Dwellingup, on 12 January 1915
    • Frank Matamin (alias Rosland) – 12 March 1923 – Hanged for the murder of Zareen at Nullagine on 27 August 1922
    • Royston Rennie – 2 August 1926 – Hanged for the murder of John Roger Greville on the train between East Perth and Perth stations on 3 June 1926
    • William Coulter – 25 October 1926 – Hanged for the murders of Inspector John Walsh and Sergeant Alexander Pitman
    •  near Boulder on 28 April 1926
    • John Sumpter Milner – 21 May 1928 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Ivy Lewis at Darkan on 28 February 1928
    • Clifford Hulme – 3 September 1928 – Hanged for the murder of Harold Eaton Smith at Wubin on 22 June 1928
    • Antonio Fanto – 18 May 1931 – Hanged for the murder of Cosimo Nesci (sometimes Nexi, Xesci) at Latham on 20 March 1931
    • John Thomas Smith (Snowy Rowles[GR9] 
    Extract from The Mirror on the story of Snowy Rowles and the Murchison Murder. Page 6 19 March, 1932.
    • ) – 13 June 1932 – Hanged for the murder of Louis George Carron near the 183 mile gate on the No. 1 Rabbit-proof fence
    • , near Youanmi, on or about 20 May 1930
    • Karol Tapci – 23 June 1952 – Hanged for the murder of Norman Alfred Perfect at Wubin on 17 March
    • Robert Jeremiah Thomas – 18 July 1960 – Hanged for the murder of taxi-driver Keith Mervyn Campbell Wedd at Claremont on 22 June 1959. Also charged with the murder of John and Kaye O’Hara in Jimbell St, Mosman Park.
    • Mervyn Fallows – 6 June 1961 – Hanged for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Sandra Dorothea Smith at North Beach on or before 29 December 1960
    • Brian William Robinson – 20 January 1964 – Hanged for the murder of Constable Noel Ileson at Belmont on 9 February 1963
    • Eric Edgar Cooke[GR10]  
    • – 26 October 1964 – Hanged for murder of John Lindsay Sturkey at Nedlands on 27 January 1963

     [GR1]Jeronimus Cornelisz (c. 1598 – 2 October 1629) was a Dutch apothecary and Dutch East India Company merchant who sailed aboard the merchant ship Batavia which foundered near Australia. Cornelisz then led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history.

    After the ship was wrecked on 4 June 1629, in the Houtman Abrolhos, a chain of coral islands off the west coast of Australia, Francisco Pelsaert, the expedition’s commander, went to get help from the Dutch settlements in Indonesia, returning several months later.

    While Pelsaert was away, Cornelisz led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history, for which he was eventually tried, convicted and hanged.

     [GR2]Midgegooroo (died 22 May 1833) was an Aboriginal Australian elder of the Nyungar nation, who played a key role in Aboriginal resistance to white settlement in the area of Perth, Western Australia. Everything documented about Midgegooroo (variously spelled in the record as “Midgeegaroo”, “Midgegarew”, “Midgegoorong”, Midgegoroo”, Midjegoorong”, “Midjigoroo”, “Midgigeroo”, Midjigeroo”, “Migegaroo”, “Migegaroom”, “Migegooroo”, “Midgecarro”, “Widgegooroo”) is mediated through the eyes of the colonisers, some of whom, notably G.F. Moore, Robert Menli Lyon and Francis Armstrong, derived their information from discussions with contemporary Noongar people, in particular the son of Midgegooroo, Yagan. Largely due to his exploits in opposing colonisation and his relationship with Lyon and Moore, Yagan has a much sharper historical profile than his father. Midgegooroo was executed by firing squad and without trial under the authority of Lieutenant Governor Frederick Irwin in 1833.

     [GR3]lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian SubcontinentSoutheast Asia, the Arab worldBritish Somaliland, or other land east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 20th century.

    The word lascar derives ultimately from lashkar, the Persian word for “army.” In Mughal and Urdu culture the word is used to describe a “swarm like formation in any army” (lashkar); however this word originates via Portuguese language. The Portuguese adapted this term to “lascarim“, meaning Asian militiamen or seamen, specifically from any area east of the Cape of Good Hope. This means that IndianMalayChinese and Japanese crewmen were covered by the Portuguese definition. The British of the East India Company initially described Indian lascars as ‘Topazes‘, but later adopted the Portuguese name, calling them ‘lascar’. Lascars served on British ships under “lascar agreements”. These agreements allowed shipowners more control than was the case in ordinary articles of agreement. The sailors could be transferred from one ship to another and retained in service for up to three years at one time. The name lascar was also used to refer to Indian servants, typically engaged by British military officers

     [GR4]Robert Thomas Palin (c.1835 – 6 July 1861) was a convict transported to Western Australia. His execution in 1861 was the only time in the convict era of Western Australia that Ordinance 17 Victoria Number 7 was used to secure the capital punishment of a convict for a crime not normally punishable by death.

    Born around 1835, nothing is known of Robert Palin’s early life except his criminal record. In 1851, he was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment for housebreaking; in 1853, he was tried but acquitted of murder; and in March 1856, he was convicted of “burglary from the person” and sentenced to penal servitude for life. At the time of his sentencing, he was described as a shoemaker by trade.

    Palin was transported to Western Australia on the Nile, arriving in January 1860. His behaviour was good both during and after the voyage. In April 1860, he was appointed a probationary constable and received his ticket of leave in January 1861. At that time he had a house in Fremantle from which he worked as a shoemaker and took in lodgers.

    On 29 May 1861, Palin was charged with having broken into the home of Samuel and Susan Harding. Susan Harding gave evidence that her husband had been away and that she had woken during the night to find a man standing at the side of her bed. The man seized her by the arm and demanded money. When she said she had none, “he pulled the bedclothes down and felt about the bed… I thought he was going to commit some assault.” Harding then gave the man a number of valuables and he left. The following morning, the police followed a set of footprints to Palin’s house, where they found some wet boots whose tread matched the prints. They also recovered a number of the valuables that had been stolen.

    Palin claimed to have been set up by William Cockrane, another ticket-of-leave man whom Palin said had a grudge against him. However, he was not believed and the jury found him guilty of robbery with violence, the violence being the “battery on the person of Mrs. Harding by seizing her by the arm while she was in bed.” Chief Justice Archibald Burt passed a sentence of death and Palin was hanged three days later on 6 July 1861.

     [GR5]While in Melbourne, Brown married Mary Ann Tindall (born 1849). They re-located to New Zealand and for some time operated the Courthouse Hotel in Thames (outside of Auckland). In the years 1874 and 1875, they produced two children, Rose and Amy. In Thames, Brown showed a range of anti-social behavior that included two court appearances for assault on a local shop keeper and threatening to kill his wife. The family returned to Western Australia in September 1875, by which time the marriage was in trouble, and there are a range of further references to them constantly and openly quarrelling. On their return journey from Melbourne to Fremantle, the couple had a physical altercation that was witnessed by John Forrest. The couple and their children arrived in Champion Bay in October 1875. During this time, Brown continued to show a range of anti-social behaviours, and, on Monday 3 January 1876, during the process of packing up their house to move to other accommodation, he shot his wife dead.

    At trial, he elected not to provide any explanation or excuse for his actions and his legal team mounted a defence based on diminished responsibility. The prosecution succeeded in proving the charge at the third trial (the first two trials resulting in hung juries). Brown was found guilty of wilful murder and sentenced to death by the Chief Justice Archibald Burt and hanged on 10 June 1876 at Perth Gaol. The record of inquest proclaimed by Police Magistrate E Landor states that Brown died by hanging.

    Many years later, Rose Burges, the eldest daughter of Brown’s second marriage, claimed that while travelling in America she had met her father in a hotel. Because of this, a story persists that Brown’s older brother had arranged Brown’s escape to the United States. This is considered as improbable, and there is a newspaper report describing how Maitland Brown stood next to Brown on the dock when the bolt was drawn and that Brown’s body had to be cut free from the rope and was later buried by relatives, possibly at Guildford (where his mother resided at the time).

    Brown’s second child by his first marriage was Edith Cowan (nee Brown). Edith’s grandson was Peter Cowan, a celebrated Western Australian author who wrote detailed biographies on Maitland Brown and Edith Cowan. Julie Lewis has suggested that Brown’s life and death:

     [GR6]William Conroy (1857 – 18 November 1887) was the last person executed at the Perth Gaol. Conroy was convicted of murdering Fremantle Town Councillor John Snook.

    Conroy had immigrated from Ireland about ten years earlier, and before going to Fremantle was the licensee of the Victoria Hotel, located at the corner of James Street and Melbourne Road in Perth. On 6 September 1886 Conroy became the first publican of the new National Hotel on High Street in Fremantle.

    On 23 June 1887 Conroy went to the Fremantle Town Hall where there was a children’s ball in progress. He demanded entrance, as he was a licensee of the National Hotel, but was told by Snook that only ladies and children were to be admitted. He persisted in his demands and finally the door was slammed on him. Conroy later gained admittance to the Town Hall. When Snook left the supper room, Conroy followed him, drew a revolver from his pocket, shot Snook and put the gun back in his pocket. Conroy was arrested immediately. Snook died three months later. The trial took place at Perth and he was sentenced to death on 7 October 1887. After he was sentenced a petition was raised and signed by approximately 1500 people, including all members of the jury who had at the time of passing the verdict asked the judge to be lenient. This was then given to Governor Broome. A further call to the governor for clemency occurred during a public meeting attend by 1000 people at the Perth Town Hall. Governor Broome then reviewed the case with two judges and medical people who had previously been part of Conroy’s trial, but the governor decided to let the law take it course. Conroy was hanged at Perth Gaol at 8 am on 18 November 1887. The execution however was not swift as when Conroy was hanged the initial fall failed to break his neck and it took approximately 15 minutes for him to die of strangulation. Conroy was buried at Fremantle Cemetery

     [GR7]Born in 1829, John Gavin was convicted of an offence while still a juvenile, and was transported to Western Australia as a Parkhurst apprentice, arriving on board the Shepherd in October 1843.

    On 3 April 1844, he was tried for the murder of his employer’s son, 18-year-old George Pollard. He confessed to killing the sleeping victim with an adze, but he seemed unaware of a rational motive. Three days later he was publicly hanged outside the Round House in Fremantle. After a death mask had been taken and his brain studied for “scientific purposes” he was buried in the sand hills to the south without a ceremony.

     [GR8]In the Fremantle Gaol on Saturday morning Goulam Mahomet, the murderer of Tagh. Mahomet at Coolgardie on January 10 was hanged, at the age of 27 years. Death was almost instantaneous and certainly was inflicted without pain. Just over three weeks ago Goulam Mahomet was sentenced by Mr. Justice Stone to undergo capital punishment for the murder of a fellow Afghan, Tagh Mahomet, a member of the wealthy trading and camel owning firm of Faiz and Tagh Mahomet, of Coolgardie. It seems peculiar that, of all places, the deed was perpetrated inside the Mahommedan mosque, and at a time when, to a Muslim, the victim was engaged in the solemn act of prayer.

     [GR9]The Murchison Murders were a series of three murders, committed by an itinerant stockman known as “Snowy” Rowles (born John Thomas Smith), near the rabbit-proof fence in Western Australia during the early 1930s. Rowles used the murder method that had been suggested by author Arthur Upfield in his then unpublished book The Sands of Windee, in which he described a foolproof way to dispose of a body and thus commit the perfect murder.

     [GR10]Eric Edgar Cooke (25 February 1931 – 26 October 1964), nicknamed The Night Caller and later The Nedlands Monster, was an Australian serial killer. From September 1958 to August 1963, he terrorised the city of Perth, Western Australia, by committing at least twenty-two violent crimes, eight of which resulted in deaths.[

    List of people legally executed in Victoria

    • Tunnerminnerwait – Hanged at Melbourne on 20 January 1842 for the murder of two whalers at Cape Paterson
    • Maulboyheenner – Hanged at Melbourne on 20 January 1842 for the murder of two whalers at Cape Paterson
    • Charles Ellis – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 28 June 1842 for “shooting with intent to maim or disable” (“The Plenty Trio”)
    • Martin Fogarty – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 28 June 1842 for “shooting with intent to maim or disable” (“The Plenty Trio”)
    • Daniel (“Yankee Jack”) Jepps – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 28 June 1842 for “shooting with intent to maim or disable” (“The Plenty Trio”)
    • Alkepurata (“Roger”) – 5 September 1842 – From Port Fairy. Hanged at Melbourne for murder of Patrick Codd at Mount Rouse, Hamilton
    • Jeremiah Connell – 27 January 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    •  for the murder of Edward Martin at Buninyong
    • Bobby – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the killing by spear of Andrew Beveridge at Piangil
    • Ptolemy – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the killing by spear of Andrew Beveridge at Piangil
    • John (“Pretty Boy”) Healey – 29 November 1847 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Jemmy Ritchie at Tarraville, Gippsland
    • Augustus Dancey 19 – 1 August 1848 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Matthew Luck at Stony Creek (Spotswood)
    • Patrick Kennedy – 1 October 1851 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary at Penshurst
    • James Barlow – 22 May 1852 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder by stabbing William Jones at a boarding house in Flinders Street, Melbourne
    • John Riches (Richie) – 3 November 1852 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Harry Webb in the Black Forest, near Macedon
    • George Pinkerton – 4 April 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Bridget Smith, 8 months pregnant, and her one-year-old son Charles at Brighton
    • Aaron Durant – 11 July 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for robbery with violence and sexual assault of Mr & Mrs John Wright at Bendigo
    • John Smith – 23 August 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Fryer’s Creek
    • Henry Turner – 23 August 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Fryer’s Creek
    • William Atkins (or Atkyns) – 3 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the robbery of the Private Escort, near Kalkallo
    • George (“Frenchy”) Melville – 3 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for the robbery of the Private Escort
    • George Wilson – 3 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the robbery of an Escort
    • Patrick O’Connor (or Connor) – 24 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the attempted murder of Edward Thompson near Kilmore
    • Henry Bradley – 24 October 1853 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the attempted murder of Edward Thompson near Kilmore
    • Michael Fennessy – 25 October 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of his wife Eliza Fennessy off Little Bourke Street
    • Alexander Ram – 25 October 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Kitty Finessy at Prahran
    • John Smith – 25 November 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for being accessory to rape of Mary-Ann Brown on the Goulburn River Diggings
    • Joseph West – 27 December 1853 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for rape of eight-year-old Elizabeth Fraser near Chewton
    • James Button – 28 March 1854 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Shooting With Intent on the Goulburn River Diggings
    • David Magee – 25 April 1854 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of a man named McCarthy on the Avoca River
    • William Thoroughgood – 23 May 1854 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of seven-year-old Sarah Bishop
    • John Hughes – 25 September 1854 – Hanged At Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Abraham Marcus at Yackandandah
    • John Gunn – 9 November 1854 – Hanged at Geelong Gaol 
    • for the murder of Samuel Harris at Warrnambool
    • George (John) Roberts – 9 November 1854 – Hanged at Geelong for attempting to poison George Kelly at Native Creek, near Inverleigh
    • Luke Lucas – 24 November 1854 – Hanged for murder of his wife Mary off Little Bourke Street
    • James McAlister – 25 July 1855 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Jane Jones at the Exchange Hotel, Swanston Street, Melbourne
    • James Condon (alias Arthur Somerville) – 24 November 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence near Bacchus Marsh
    • John Dixon – 24 November 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence near Bacchus Marsh
    • Alfred Henry Jackson – 24 November 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence near Bacchus Marsh
    • James Ross (alias Griffiths) – 22 April 1856 – Hanged at Geelong Gaol for the murder of his son and Eliza Sayer near Horsham
    • William Twigham (or Twiggem, alias Lexton)33 – 11 March 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Sergeant John McNally at the Cathcart Diggings, near Ararat
    • Chu-Ah-Luk 30 – 2 March 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Ah Pat at Campbell’s Creek
    • James Cornick – 16 March 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Agnes McCallum (Horne) at Eaglehawk
    • Frederick Turner 22 – 27 April 1857 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery Under Arms on the Flemington Road
    • Thomas Williams – 28 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • Henry Smith (alias Brennan) – 28 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price[GR1] 
    • Thomas Moloney – 28 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • Francis Brannigan – 29 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • William Brown – 29 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • Richard Bryant – 29 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • John Chisley – 30 April 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for his part in the murder of Inspector-General John Giles Price
    • James Woodlock – 1 June 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Charles Vick in Castlemaine
    • Chong Sigh – 3 September 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Sophia “The Chinawoman” Lewis in a brothel in Stephen Street (Exhibition Street) Melbourne
    • Hing Tran – 3 September 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of Sophia Lewis in a brothel in Stephen Street (Exhibition Street) Melbourne
    • John Mason – 6 November 1857 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of “Big George” Beynor at Ballan
    • Edward Brown – 1 March 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Ararat Racecourse
    • William Jones – 1 March 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for Robbery With Violence at Ararat Racecourse
    • George Robinson – 16 March 1858 – Hanged for the murder of Margaret Brown at Maryborough
    • Edward Cardana (alias John Nelson alias Michael Ferrara) – 19 March 1858 – Hanged at Bendigo for the murder of John Armstrong at Long Gully
    • Owen McQueeny – 20 October 1858 – Hanged at Geelong for the murder of Elizabeth Lowe near Meredith (“The Green Tent Murder”)
    • Samuel Gibbs – 12 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for the murder of his wife Anne at Ararat. This execution was botched; the rope snapped tumbling Gibbs to the floor. He had to be carried back up the scaffold and hanged again with a fresh rope.
    • George Thompson – 12 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Hugh Anderson at Ballarat
    • Edward Hitchcock – 29 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Ann at Strathloddon, near Campbell’s Creek. This execution was also botched; Hitchcock failed to die and remained struggling on the rope. The executioner had to grab Hitchcock by the knees and use his weight to ensure death.
    • Christian Von Sie (or Von See) – 29 November 1858 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Martin Loemann near Mitiamo
    • Thomas Ryan – 11 April 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Joe Hartwig in the Indigo Valley
    • William (“Plaguey Billy”) Armstrong – 12 July 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for shooting with intent, Omeo
    • George (“The Butcher”) Chamberlain 24 – 12 July 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for shooting with intent, Omeo
    • Richard Rowley – 26 July 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for violent assault with intent to murder his overseers at the Pentridge Stockade
    • William Siddons – 7 November 1859 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of eight-year-old Mary-Anne Smith at Doctor’s Creek, near Lexton
    • Henry Brown – 21 November 1859 – Hanged for murder of George James Tickner at Mount Korong, near Wedderburn
    • George Waines -16 July 1860 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Mary Hunt at Casterton
    • Edward Fenlow (alias Reynolds) – 20 August 1860 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of George Plummer (alias Gardiner) at Inglewood
    • John McDonald – 30 September 1860 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for murder of his wife Sarah at Ironbark Gully, Bendigo
    • William Smith – 22 April 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Ellen near Wangaratta
    • Henry Cooley – 11 July 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of his wife Harriet at Heathcote
    • Nathaniel Horatio Ruby – 5 August 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Joe Watson at the Great Western Reef, Tarnagulla
    • Martin Rice – 30 September 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Anthony Green off Bourke Street, Melbourne
    • Thomas Sanders – 31 October 1861 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of Mary Egan at Keilor
    • Samuel Pollett – 29 December 1862 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the rape of his ten-year-old daughter Sarah at Prahran
    • Thomas McGee – 19 February 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Alexander Brown at Maiden Gully
    • James Murphy – 6 November 1863 – Hanged at Geelong for the murder of Senior Constable Daniel O’Boyle at Warrnambool
    • Julian Cross – 11 November 1863 – From Macao. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Robert Scott in the Wappan district (near Mansfield)
    • David Gedge – 11 November 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Robert Scott in the Wappan district (near Mansfield)
    • Elizabeth Scott – 11 November 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of her husband in the Wappan district (near Mansfield)
    • James Barrett (also called Birmingham) – 1 December 1863 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Beckinsale at Woodstock
    • Alexander Davis – 29 February 1864 – Hanged at Ballarat Gaol for the murder of George Sims at Smythesdale
    • William Carver (also called Thornby, Foster) – 3 August 1864 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for an attempted bank robbery at Fitzroy
    • Samuel Woods (also called Abraham Salmonie) – 3 August 1864 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol
    • for Shooting With Intent in an attempted bank robbery at Fitzroy
    • Christopher Harrison – 3 August 1864 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of James Marsh in William St.
    • John Stacey (real name Casey) – 5 April 1865 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of two-year-old Danny Gleeson at South Melbourne
    • Joseph (“Quiet Joe”) Brown – 4 May 1865 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Emmanuel “Dodger” Jacobs at the Whittington Tavern, Bourke Street Melbourne
    • Peter Dotsalaere – 6 July 1865 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Catherine Jacobs at 106 LaTrobe Street Melbourne
    • David Young – 21 August 1865 – Hanged at Castlemaine Gaol A picture containing building, outdoor, old, house

Description automatically generatedfor the murder of Margaret Graham at Daylesford
    • Thomas (“Yankee Tom”) Menard – 28 October 1865 – Hanged at Geelong for the murder of James Sweeney at Warrnambool
    • Patrick Sheehan – 6 November 1865 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of James Kennedy at Rowdy Flat Yackandandah
    • Long Poy – 10 March 1866 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Ah Yong at Emu Flat
    • James Jones – 19 March 1866 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Dr Julius Saenger, committed at Scarsdale
    • Robert Bourke (alias Cluskey) – 29 November 1866 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Harry Facey Hurst at Diamond Creek
    • Denis Murphy – 16 April 1867 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Patrick O’Meara at Bullarook
    • John Kelly – 4 May 1867 – Hanged at Beechworth for sodomy on eighteen-month-old James Strack at Wangaratta
    • William Terry – 31 July 1867 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of a man named Peter Reddick or Redyk on the Coliban near Taradale
    • George Searle – 7 August 1867 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Thomas Burke at Piggoreet
    • Joseph Ballan – 7 August 1867 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Thomas Burke at Piggoreet
    • Bernard Cunningham – 31 March 1868 – Confederate Army veteran. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of John Fairweather at Green Gully, near Keilor
    • Joseph Whelan – 31 March 1868 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of farmer Tom Branley at Rokewood
    • John Hogan – 14 August 1868 – Hanged at Castlemaine
    • for the murder of Martin Rooney, committed at Bullock Creek, outside Marong
    • Michael Flannigan (Flannagan) – 31 March 1869 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Sgt Thomas Hull at Hamilton
    • James Ritson – 3 August 1869 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of the Methodist Minister William Hill, who was visiting him at A Division, Pentridge
    • Peter Higgins (alias James Smith) – 11 November 1869 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of his wife Elizabeth Wheelahan near Springhurst
    • Ah Pew – 23 May 1870 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of nine-year-old Elizabeth Hunt at Glenluce, near Vaughan
    • Patrick Smith – 4 August 1870 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary at North Melbourne
    • Andrew Vair (Vere) – 15 August 1870 – Hanged at Ararat for murder of Amos Cheale at St Arnaud
    • James Cusack – 30 August 1870 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Anne at Woods Point
    • James Seery – 14 November 1870 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of August Tepfar at Crooked River, Gippsland
    • James Quinn – 10 November 1871 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of Ah Woo, near Myrtleford
    • Patrick Geary – 4 December 1871 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of a shepherd named Thomas Brookhouse near Colac in 1854
    • Edward Feeney – 14 May 1872 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Charles Marks in the Treasury Gardens
    • James Wilkie – 20 May 1872 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Henry Pensom at Daylesford
    • Samuel Wright – 11 March 1873 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the attempted murder of Arthur Hagan (or Hogan) at Dead Horse Flat, near Eaglehawk
    • Thomas Brady – 12 May 1873 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of John Watt (“The Wooragee Murder”)
    • James Smith – 12 May 1873 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of John Watt (“The Wooragee Murder”)
    • Pierre Borbun (Barburn, Borhuu) – 20 May 1873 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Sarah Smith, the publican’s wife at the White Swan Hotel, Sunrise Gully, Kangaroo Flat
    • Oscar (or Hasker) Wallace – 11 August 1873 – Hanged at Ballarat for the rape of Mary Cook at Mount Beckworth, near Clunes
    • Ah Kat (Ah Cat) – 9 August 1875 – Hanged at Castlemaine for the murder of Friedrich Renzelmann at Bet Bet, near Dunolly
    • An Gaa – 30 August 1875 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Pooey Waugh, committed at Vaughan
    • Henry Howard – 4 October 1875 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Wright, licensee of the Frankston Hotel
    • John Weachurch (alias Taylor) – 6 December 1875 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for attempted murder of Warder Patrick Moran
    • John Duffus – 22 May 1876 – Hanged at Castlemaine, having been handed in by his wife for the rape of his eleven-year-old daughter Mary Ann near Goornong
    • James (“Donegal Jim”) Ashe – 21 August 1876 – Hanged at Ballarat for the rape of Elizabeth Reece at Burrumbeet
    • Basileo Bondietto – 11 December 1876 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Carlo Comisto near Tallarook
    • William Hastings – 14 March 1877 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his wife Annie near Mount Eliza
    • Thomas Hogan – 9 June 1879 – Hanged at Beechworth for fratricide at Bundalong, near Yarrawonga
    • Ned Kelly 
    • 25 – 11 November 1880 – Bushranger. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Constable Thomas Lonigan
    • Robert Rohan – 6 June 1881 – Hanged at Beechworth for the murder of John Shea at Yalca
    • Robert Francis Burns
    •  – 25 September 1883 – Confessed to eight murders. Hanged at Ararat for the murder of Michael Quinliven at Wickliffe
    • Henry Morgan – 6 June 1884 – Hanged at Ararat for the rape and murder of ten-year-old Margaret Nolan at Panmure
    • James Hawthorn – 21 August 1884 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for fratricide at Brighton
    • William O’Brien – 24 October 1884 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of farmer Peter McAinsh at Lancefield
    • William Barnes – 15 May 1885 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Joe Slack at South Melbourne
    • Charles Bushby (alias Baker) – 3 September 1885 – Hanged at Ballarat for attempted murder of Det Sgt Richard Hyland near Gong Gong
    • Edward (“The Fiddler”) Hunter – 27 November 1885 – Hanged at Bendigo Prison 
    • for the murder of Jim Power at the Golden Fleece Hotel, Charlton
    • Freeland Morell – 7 January 1886 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murder of fellow sailor John Anderson on the docks at Port Melbourne
    • George Syme – 9 November 1888 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his mother-in-law Margaret Clifford at Lilydale
    • William Harrison – 18 March 1889 – Hanged at Bendigo for the murder of ‘Corky Jack’ Duggan at Elmore
    • Filipe Castillo – 16 September 1889 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Annie Thornton at North Carlton
    • Robert Landells – 16 October 1889 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Peter Sherlock at Chamber’s Paddock, about 6 km from Ringwood
    • John Thomas Phelan – 16 March 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his de facto wife Ada Hatton at St.James’ Place (now Ellis St) South Yarra
    • John Wilson – 23 March 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his fiancée Estella Marks at Darling Gardens, Clifton Hill
    • Cornelius Bourke – 20 April 1891 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of an elderly prisoner named Peter Stewart in the gaol at Hamilton
    • Fatta Chand – 27 April 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Juggo Mull at Healesville
    • Frank Spearin (also called John Wilson) – 11 May 1891 – Hanged at Ballarat for the rape of six-year-old Adeline Shepherd at Eastern Oval, Ballarat
    • James Johnston – 18 May 1891 – Hanged at Ballarat Gaol for murdering his wife Mary and their four children in Drummond Street North, Ballarat
    • William Coulston (Colston) – 21 August 1891 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Mary & William Davis at Narbethong
    • Frederick Bailey Deeming[GR2] 
    •  – Murdered at least six people. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Emily Mather at Windsor – 23 May 1892
    • John Conder – 28 August 1893 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Karamjit Singh near Buchan
    • Frances KnorrA picture containing text

Description automatically generated – 15 January 1894 – “The Brunswick Baby Farmer” – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of two infants
    • Ernest Knox – 19 March 1894 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Isaac Crawcour while in the act of burglary at Williamstown
    • Fred Jordan – 20 August 1894 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his girlfriend Minnie Crabtree at Port Melbourne
    • Martha Needle
    •  – 22 October 1894 – Murdered five people by poison. Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Louis Juncken at 137 Bridge Road Richmond
    • Elijah Cockroft – 12 November 1894 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of Fanny Mutt at Noradjuha, near Natimuk
    • Arthur Buck – 1 July 1895 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Catherine Norton at South Melbourne
    • Emma Williams – 4 November 1895 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of her two-year-old son John at Port Melbourne
    • Charles Henry Strange – 13 January 1896 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Fred Dowse at Lakes Entrance
    • Charles John Hall – 13 September 1897 – Hanged at Bendigo for the murder of his wife Minnie at Eaglehawk
    • Alfred Archer – 21 November 1898 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of William Matthews at Strathmerton
    • William Robert Jones – 26 March 1900 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for murdering eight-year-old Rita Jones at Broadford
    • Albert Edward McNamara – 14 April 1902 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for arson causing death of his four-year-old son Bert at Carlton
    • August Tisler (Sippol) – 20 October 1902 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Edward Sangal at Dandenong
    • James Coleman Williams – 8 September 1904 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his employer’s wife Mary Veitch at O’Grady Street Clifton Hill
    • Charles Deutschmann – 29 June 1908 – Hanged at Ballarat for the murder of his wife Isabella Deutschmann at Dobie, near Ararat
    • Joseph Pfeiffer – 29 April 1912 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for shooting his sister-in-law Florence Whitely at 102 Mills Street, Middle Park
    • John Jackson – 24 January 1916 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Constable David McGrath while in the act of robbing the Trades Hall
    • Antonio Picone – 18 September 1916 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Giuseppe Lauricella at Queen Victoria Market
    • Albert Edward Budd (39) – 29 January 1918 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of his foster-sister Annie Samson at Port Melbourne
    • George Farrow Blunderfield – 15 April 1918 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of mother and daughter Margaret & Rose Taylor at Trawool
    • Colin Campbell Ross
    •  – 24 April 1922 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the Gun Alley Murder.[GR3]  Posthumously pardoned in 2007, the only instance of a pardon for a judicially executed person in Australia
    • Angus Murray (real name Henry Donnelly) – 14 April 1924 – Hanged at Melbourne Gaol for the murder of Thomas Berriman at Glenferrie Station
    • David Bennett – 26 September 1932 – Hanged at Pentridge Prison

    •  for the rape of a four-year-old girl at North Carlton (sentenced to death for a similar offence in WA in 1911). The first execution at Pentridge
    • Arnold Sodeman
    •  – 1 June 1936 – “The Schoolgirl Strangler” – Confessed to the murder of four girls. Hanged at Pentridge
    • Edward Cornelius – 22 June 1936 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of the Reverend Laceby Cecil at St. Saviour’s Collingwood (“The Vicarage Murder”)
    • ·       Thomas William (“Nugget”) Johnson[GR4] [GR5]  – 23 January 1939 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Chares Bunney and Robert Gray at the former Windsor Castle Hotel, Dunolly
    • George Green – 17 April 1939 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Phyllis and Annie Wiseman at Glenroy
    • Alfred Bye – 22 December 1941 – Hanged at Pentridge for stabbing to death Thomas Walker off Treasury Place Bye took over twenty-two minutes to die.
    • Eddie Leonski
    •  – 9 November 1942 – “The Brownout Strangler” – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Ivy McLeod, Pauline Thompson & Gladys Hosking at Victoria Avenue, Albert Park, Spring St Melbourne and Gatehouse St Parkville respectively
    • Norman Andrews – 19 February 1951 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of ‘Pop’ Kent
    • Robert David Clayton – 19 February 1951 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of ‘Pop’ Kent
    • Jean Lee
    •  – 19 February 1951 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of ‘Pop’ Kent in Dorrit Street Carlton. The last woman executed in Australia
    • Ronald Ryan
    •  – 3 February 1967 – Hanged at Pentridge for the murder of Prison Officer George Hodson. The last person executed in Australia.

     [GR1]John Giles Price (20 October 1808 – 27 March 1857), was a colonial administrator in Australia. He served as the Civil Commandant of the convict settlement at Norfolk Island from August 1846 to January 1853, and later as Inspector-General of penal establishments in Victoria, during which he was “stoned to death” by angry and disgruntled prisoners.

     [GR2]Frederick Bailey Deeming (30 July 1853 – 23 May 1892) was an English-born Australian murderer. He was convicted and executed for the murder of a woman in Melbourne, Australia. He is remembered today because he was suspected by some of being the notorious serial killer Jack the Ripper.

    Deeming was born in Ashby-de-la-ZouchLeicestershire, England, son of Thomas Deeming, brazier, and his wife Ann (née Bailey). He was a “difficult child” according to writers Maurice Gurvich and Christopher Wray. At 16 years of age, he ran away to sea, and thereafter he began a long career of crime, largely thieving and obtaining money under false pretenses. He was also responsible for the murder of his first wife Marie and his four children at Rainhill, England, on or about 26 July 1891, and a second wife, Emily Mather, at Windsor, Melbourne, on 24 December 1891.

    Less than three months elapsed between the discovery of Mather’s body in Windsor, Melbourne, in March 1892, and Deeming’s execution for her murder in May 1892; a remarkably short time by comparison to modern western legal standards. This was not only due to efficient police work, but also a result of the considerable international media interest the murder attracted. For example, it was an English journalist working for the Melbourne Argus who first approached Mather’s mother in Rainhill and delivered the news of her daughter’s murder. Another factor was Deeming’s behaviour in public, for while he often used different names, he usually drew attention to himself with behaviour variously described as aggressive, ostentatious, ingratiating and overly attentive to women.

     [GR3]The Gun Alley Murder was the rape and murder of 12-year-old Alma Tirtschke in Melbourne, Australia, in 1921. She was a schoolgirl who attended Hawthorn West High School and had last been seen alive close to a drinking establishment, the Australian Wine Saloon; under these circumstances her murder caused a sensation. More recently, the case has become well known as a miscarriage of justice.

     [GR4]Thomas William Johnson (1898 – 23/1/1939), was convicted of a double murder in Dunolly, Victoria. He confessed to two killings before being executed at Pentridge PrisonVictoria in 1939. Johnson was the fourth of eleven people to be hanged at Pentridge Prison after the closure of Melbourne Gaol in 1929.

     [GR5]George Green (1900 – 17/4/1939), was convicted of a double murder in Glenroy, Australia. He was convicted of murdering two women before being executed at Pentridge PrisonVictoria in 1939. Green was the fifth of eleven people to be hanged at Pentridge Prison after the closure of Melbourne Gaol in 1929.

    Green was found guilty of the murder of Miss Annie Wiseman, 63, and her niece Phyllis Vivienne Wiseman, 17, in their home at Glenroy on November 12, 1938.

    List of people legally executed in Tasmania

    • Thomas England – April 1806 – Private of 102nd Regiment, hanged at Port Dalrymple for his part in theft from Government Stores at Port Dalrymple on 18 Jan 1806.
    • James Keating – 14 April 1806 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in theft from Government Stores at Port Dalrymple on 18 Jan 1806.
    • Terence Flynn – 14 July 1810 – Hanged in the Queenborough district (Sandy Bay) for murder
    • Job Stokes – 14 July 1810 – Hanged in the Queenborough district for housebreaking
    • John McCabe – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of William Parish
    • John Townshend – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of William Parish
    • Peter Gory – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of William Parish
    • William Stephens (Steel) – 25 May 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • Thomas Mauley – 6 June 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for murder
    • Richard McGuire (McGwire) – June 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of William Carlisle and James O’Byrne at New Norfolk
    • Hugh Byrne – June or early July 1815 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of William Carlisle and James O’Byrne at New Norfolk
    • Richard Collyer – 26 January 1818 – Hanged on the New Town road, Hobart, for the murder in 1815 of Carlisle and O’Byrne at New Norfolk
    • George Gray – 11 June 1818 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of John Evans (real name Charles Bell) at York Plains
    • William Trimm – 11 June 1818 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing in the Richmond district
    • Thomas Bailey – 28 July 1820 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • John Brady – 28 July 1820 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • Robert Hunter – 28 April 1821 – Publicly hanged at scaffold erected at the top of Macquarie Street, Hobart Town, for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • Edward Brady – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • James Flynn – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • Joseph Potaski – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of Alfred Thrupp’s property at Risdon
    • John Oliver – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for cattle-stealing
    • John McGuinness – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Michael Riley – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • Thomas Kenny – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • John Higgins – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • John Hill – 28 April 1821 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging
    • John Morell – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston for stealing in the Norfolk Plains district
    • Daniel McCarthy – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • Robert Gillaird – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • William Lloyd – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • Patrick Kane – 30 May 1821 – Hanged at Launceston
    • William Hyder – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town for diverse robberies in the Paterson’s Plains district
    • James Norris – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town
    • Edward McCracken – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town
    • Thomas Gutteridge – 3 June 1821 – Hanged at George Town for stealing at Norfolk Plains
    • William Smith – 25 April 1822 – Publicly hanged at the Cascade end of Macquarie Street, Hobart, for sheep stealing.
    • John Williams – 25 April 1822 – Publicly hanged at the Cascade end of Macquarie Street, Hobart, for sheep stealing.
    • James Smith – 12 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing. (Smith actually cheated the hangman by “suspending himself by a silk handkerchief from a bar…in the room in which he was confined”)
    • George Richardson – 14 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Robert Oldham – 14 April 1823– Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • William Davis – 14 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Ralph Churlton – 14 April 1823 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Alexander Pearce –[GR1]  19 July 1824 – Murderer and cannibal. Hanged at Hobart
    • Thomas Butler – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • Patrick Connolly – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • James Tierney – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • Isaac Walker – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • John Thomson – 22 July 1824 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robberies
    • George Gardner – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for killing a steer with intent to steal
    • Arthur Dicker – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for killing a steer with intent to steal
    • Thomas Taylor – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for the murder of John Street at Abbotsfield
    • Luke Fowler – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for the murder of John Street at Abbotsfield
    • Charles Kimberley – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for the murder of Judith Burke
    • James Crawford – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • John Bimms – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • Job Corfield – 8 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • Matthew Stephenson – 15 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • John Twiggs – 15 September 1824 – Hanged at George Town for robbery and putting in fear
    • Thomas Hudson – 28 January 1825 – Hanged at Macquarie Harbour for the murder of Robert Esk
    • Richard Allen – 28 January 1825 – Hanged at Macquarie Harbour for the murder of William Saul at Birch’s Bay
    • Francis Oates – 28 January 1825 – Hanged at Macquarie Harbour for the murder of James Williamson
    • Henry McConnell – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Jeremiah Ryan – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder and robbery
    • Charles Ryder – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder and robbery
    • James Bryant – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder and robbery
    • Black Jack (or Jack Roberts) – 25 February 1825 – Indigenous. Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Patrick McCarthy
    • Musquito [GR2] – 25 February 1825 – Indigenous (Eora). Hanged at Hobart for a murder at Grindstone Bay
    • Peter Thackery – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • John Logan – 25 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted shooting murder of William Shoobridge. The victim was saved because the bullet struck a ruler in his pocket.
    • Samuel Fielding – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • James Chamberlain – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Stephen Lear – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at the Surveyor-General’s
    • Henry Fry – 26 February 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at the Surveyor-General’s
    • John Reid Riddel – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of George Fildes in Goulburn St. He confessed to the murder of both his ex-wives.
    • Thomas Peacock – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of Constable Craggs
    • William Buckley – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • Joseph Broadhead – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • John Everiss – 31 August 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and robbery
    • John Godliman – 7 September 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Samuel Hunt at Fourteen-Tree Plain, near Jericho.
    • Jonas Dobson – 12 December 1825 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of his overseer
    • John Johnson – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Mr. Barnes’
    • Samuel Longman – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary
    • Charles Wigley – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary
    • James Major – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing an ox
    • William Pollock – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • George Harden – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • William Preece – 6 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robberies and bushranging
    • James McCabe – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Richard Brown – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • James Brown – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • John Green – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Thomas Bosworth – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing a boat
    • Richard Miller – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing a boat
    • Richard Craven – 7 January 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for stealing a boat
    • James Eales – 17 February 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing and robbery
    • William Eales – 17 February 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing and robbery
    • Matthew Brady – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Patrick Bryant – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Thomas Jeffries [GR3] – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • John Perry – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • John Thompson – 4 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Margaret Smith at the Watch-House
    • Samuel Hodgetts – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • James McKenney – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • James Goodwin – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • John Gregory – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • William Tilley – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging

    .

    • William Brown – 5 May 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for Murder, robberies and bushranging
    • Thomas Dunnings – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Alexander Simpson at Pittwater
    • Edward Everett – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Alexander Simpson at Pittwater
    • William Smith – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Alexander Simpson at Pittwater
    • John Taylor – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour and robbing soldiers of their arms
    • George Watters – 13 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour and robbing soldiers of their arms
    • Jack – 13 September 1826 – Indigenous. Hanged for the murder of Thomas Colley at Oyster Bay. Jack was kept apart before the execution as he was suffering from leprosy.
    • Dick – 13 September 1826 – Indigenous. Hanged for the murder of Thomas Colley at Oyster Bay
    • George Brace – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery and bushranging
    • John McFarlane – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding into the woods and robbing William Holdship at Browns River
    • James Edwards – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding into the woods and robbing William Holdship at Browns River
    • Thomas Balfour – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding into the woods and robbing William Holdship at Browns River
    • John Dadd – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • John Clark – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • Patrick Brown – 15 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • John Pearson (Penson) – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary from Richard Worley, butcher, Elizabeth St
    • James Rowles – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbing his employer John Dunn’s shop, Elizabeth St
    • Timothy Swinscow – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbing Mrs. Till at New Norfolk
    • William Wickens – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for robbing Mrs. Till at New Norfolk
    • George Farquharson – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing at Jericho
    • Robert Cable – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from the Sherwin flock on the Clyde
    • Thomas Savell – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from David Lord in the Pitt Water district
    • John Davis – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from David Lord in the Pitt Water district
    • John Cruitt – 18 September 1826 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing from David Lord in the Pitt Water district
    • Robert Grant – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing from Edmund Bryant near Jericho
    • George Bentley – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing from Edmund Bryant near Jericho
    • William Crest – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing from Edmund Bryant near Jericho
    • William Evans – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery at New Town of John Sayers ‘the broom-maker’.
    • Peter Rice – 8 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for shooting at John Swift in Murray Street, Hobart
    • Patrick Dunne – 8 January 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Kingston
    • Charles Burgh – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for horse stealing
    • Henry Strong – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • Michael Brown – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • George Ellis – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • William Birt – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • William Hoadley – 9 January 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping, bushranging and robbery
    • William Tuffnell – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of nine-year-old Ellen Briggs
    • Richard Gill – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Edward Howe – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for highway robbery near Scottsdale
    • Joseph Horsefield – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • James Gurd – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary in the Norfolk Plains district
    • William Ashford – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary in the Norfolk Plains district
    • Andrew Winchester – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary in the Macquarie River district
    • William Haywood – 19 February 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Christopher McRae at Lake River
    • Henry Oakley – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary from Mr Brodie on the Clyde
    • Thomas Bidwell Child – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for forgery
    • John Wright – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Old Beach
    • John Clayton – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • George Dunning – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • William Longhurst – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep-stealing
    • Daniel McPherson – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary of the home of Henry Bye, North Hobart
    • Martin Higgins – 3 July 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for “stealing in a dwelling house at noon-day” from Henry Bye, North Hobart
    • James Horsefield – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • George Metcalfe – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • James Coates – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • John Brown (the Mariner) – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • John Lee – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • George Braithwaite – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • John Brown (the Bricklayer) – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • Thomas Davis (real name Roberts) – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • Matthew McCullum – 23 August 1827 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at Stanfield’s, Ralph’s Bay
    • Humphrey Oulton – 15 November 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the theft of a sheep
    • Abraham Abrahams – 15 November 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for the theft of a mare from the Gourlay property on the Clyde
    • William Shepherd – 15 November 1827 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary from the home of Ralph Compton on the Norfolk Plains (Longford)
    • George Lacey – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of Constable George Rex at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Ward (“Flash Jack”) – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • Samuel Measures – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • William Jenkins – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • James Conhope – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of a six-year-old (convict per Minerva)
    • James Reid – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • Thomas Williams – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • James Kirk – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • John McMillan – 17 December 1827- Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • John Maguire – 17 December 1827 – Hanged at Hobart for his role in the Rex murder
    • George Driver – 30 January 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Onely at Macquarie Harbour
    • Samuel Higgins – 30 January 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Onely at Macquarie Harbour
    • William Fowler – 1 March 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of a little girl named Emma Groom
    • Henry Williamson – 1 March 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Malcolm Logan at Green Ponds (Kempton)
    • Thomas Pearson – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and burglary at Cross Marsh (Melton Mowbray)
    • Phelim Bonner (real name Crampsey) – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery on James Collins
    • Edward Hangan – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery of a gun from James McLanachan
    • John Grimes – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for shooting with intent at George Marshall near Sorell
    • Thomas Collins – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at the home of George Cartwright
    • Edward Burke – 26 May 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Abraham Aaron – 1 August 1828 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Maria Island
    • Philip Large – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of eleven year-old Margaret Stewart
    • John Morrison – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for arson
    • John Gibson – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • Charles Williams – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery
    • William Ashton – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • Joseph Moulds – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • William Baker – 15 February 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for robbery
    • John Baker – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for sheep stealing
    • Bernard Shields – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for sheep stealing (convict per Minerva)
    • Daniel Mackie – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for sheep stealing
    • Daniel Leary – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for bullock stealing
    • Thomas Rogers – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • George Palmer – 17 Feb 1829 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery
    • Daniel Brown – 2 March 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of a fellow-convict named Stopford at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Salmon – 2 March 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of a fellow-convict named Stopford at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Leach – 7 March 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of his common-law wife
    • Robert Bourke – 12 July 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping and stealing a boat at Macquarie Harbour
    • William Madden – 12 July 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery
    • William Herring – 12 July 1829 – Hanged at Hobart for escaping and stealing a boat at Macquarie Harbour
    • John Mayo – 11 January 1830 – Hanged at Hobart Gaol for the murder of James Bailey at Macquarie Harbour
    • William Wilkes – 23 January 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Dennis Alcoloret on Bruny Island in Oct 1827
    • Hugh Campbell – 3 February 1830 – Soldier of the 63rd Regiment, hanged at Hobart for the murder of Jonathan Brett
    • Michael Best – 11 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Richard Garner at Hamilton
    • John Oxley – 24 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Susan Corfield
    • Samuel Killen – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • John Jones – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing
    • Joseph Fogg – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for an unnatural crime
    • Thomas Goodwin – 26 February 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for cutting the throat of Ann Hamilton with intent to kill
    • Mary McLauchlan – 19 April 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of her infant son. The first woman executed in Van Diemen’s Land/Tasmania.
    • Edmund Daniels – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict, Asia 3rd) 
    • John Dighton – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict – Earl St Vincent
    • James Child – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict – Chapman 2nd
    • Andrew Bates – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging. (Convict – Phoenix) 
    • Edward Ladywig – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery (Convict – Phoenix) 
    • Joseph Ellis – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for sheep stealing (Convict – Dromedary) 
    • Andrew McCue – 14 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary of clothing and money from the house of John Robins
    • George Thomson – 17 May 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for housebreaking, theft of silver plate and two pistols (Convict – Lady Harewood
    • Edward Sweeney – 30 June 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his wife Mary Sweeney
    • William Thomas – 30 June 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of John ‘Smutty Jack’ Warne
    • William Messenger – 10 July 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of a five-year-old child
    • John Brady – 10 July 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of a five-year-old child
    • Richard Udall – 10 July 1830 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of a five-year-old child
    • Charles Routley – 17 September 1830 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John “Pretty Jack” Buckley at Carlton River
    • Henry Strong – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • William Hoadley – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • Michael Brown – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • William Birt – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • George Ellis – 9 January 1831 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery at the property of James Reid on the Macquarie River
    • Charles Burgh (alias Sutton) – 9 January 1831 – Hanged at Hobart for the theft of a horse from Captain Andrew Barclay near Launceston
    • Edward Broughton[GR4]  (28) – 5 August 1831- Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour; while on the run he had murdered and cannibalised William Coventry and two others
    • Matthew Macavoy[GR5]  – 5 August 1831 – Hanged at Hobart for absconding from Macquarie Harbour; while on the run he had murdered and cannibalised William Coventry and two others
    • John Somers – 23 December 1831 – Hanged at Hobart for rape
    • James Camm – 30 April 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for piracy; he was involved in the Cyprus
    • mutiny[GR6]  in 1829
    • James Metcalfe – 30 April 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for assault of John Munn
    • Robert Gordon – 30 April 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary
    • John Gow – 14 May 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the shooting murder of Patrick Carrigan, a soldier of the 63rd
    • Joseph Colvin – 14 May 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Patrick Carrigan
    • Elijah Alder – 16 March 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Benjamin Horne at Ross
    • John Towers – 5 June 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of two hawkers named Patrick Fitzgibbon and John Kellerman on the St Paul’s Plains
    • James Fletcher – 5 June 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Patrick Fitzgibbon and John Kellerman on the St Paul’s Plains
    • Thomas Fleet – 17 October 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted axe murder of William Waring Saxton at Port Arthur
    • William Evans – 17 October 1832 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted knife murder of George Edwards at Granton
    • William Higham – 5 January 1833 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robberies in the Ross area
    • Simon Gowan (Going) – 5 January 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of eight-year-old Mary Ann Bowman at Jericho
    • John Glover – 5 January 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of eight-year-old Mary Ann Bowman at Jericho
    • Robert Dutchess – 5 January 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for bestiality with a mare
    • John Clements (‘Jack the Lagger’) – 5 January 1833 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery and putting in fear
    • Richard (John) Jones – 15 April 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for bestiality on board the Circassian
    • Thomas Ansell – 1 November 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Jonathan Dark – 1 November 1833 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary in Argyle St
    • William Ward – 10 March 1834 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Samuel Newman – 10 March 1834 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Thomas Dawson – 10 March 1834 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary
    • Joseph Deane – 26 March 1834 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Green Ponds (Kempton)
    • Henry Rutland – 26 March 1834 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for robbery at Green Ponds (Kempton)
    • Samuel (a ‘man of colour’) – 26 March 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder at Port Arthur of Chief Constable Richard Newman
    • Joseph Greenwood – 16 April 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Constable Thomas Terry at New Town racecourse.
    • Benjamin Davidson – 17 June 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Ann Howell at Norfolk Plains (Longford)
    • William Hurlock (Hislop) – 17 June 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Ann Howell
    • Henry Street – 17 June 1834 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Ann Howell
    • John Burke – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • William Weston – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • John Ashton – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • Thomas Kirkham – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary at Ross
    • John Dunn – 11 August 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of William Evans at Lemon Springs, near Oatlands
    • George Clarke – 11 August 1835 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of William Evans at Lemon Springs, near Oatlands
    • Samuel Hibbill (Hibbell) – 10 March 1836 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Capt. Sibson Bragg, by throwing him overboard the schooner Industry in the Tasman Sea
    • Thomas Harris – 10 March 1836 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Capt. Sibson Bragg, by throwing him overboard the schooner Industry in the Tasman Sea
    • Robert Smith – 10 March 1836 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Capt. Sibson Bragg, by throwing him overboard the schooner Industry in the Tasman Sea
    • Samuel Guillem – 16 March 1837 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Mary Mills at New Norfolk
    • John McKay – first five days of May 1837 – Hanged at Hobart for the 1 April 1837 murder of Joseph Edward Wilson near Perth. His corpse was later gibbeted at Perth.
    • John Gardiner – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston Gaol for the murder of George Mogg on the Tamar
    • John Hudson – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston for cutting and maiming with intent to murder Isaac Schofield, the overseer of a chain-gang
    • James Hawes – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary and assault on Valentine Soper at Windmill Hill, Launceston
    • Henry Stewart – 10 November 1837 – Hanged at Launceston for burglary and assault on Valentine Soper at Windmill Hill, Launceston
    • James Atterall – 21 June 1838 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Vincent’s Hotel, Epping Forest
    • James Regan – 21 June 1838 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Vincent’s Hotel, Epping Forest
    • Anthony Banks – 21 June 1838 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Vincent’s Hotel, Epping Forest. Banks was the first native-born Vandemonian executed in the colony
    • John Riley – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Matthews in Warwick St. Hobart
    • John Davis – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Matthews in Warwick St. Hobart
    • George Pettit – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Paul at York Plains
    • John Martin – 8 June 1840 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Sergeant George Newman (of the 51st[GR7] ) on board the government brig Tamar
    • John Watson – 30 January 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of John Holding at Ashby, near Ross
    • Patrick Wallace – 30 January 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of John Holding at Ashby, near Ross. Wallace and Watson were hangman Solomon Blay‘s
    • first executions.
    • Joseph Broom – 19 February 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of Joseph Bailey near Campbell Town
    • James McKay – 27 May 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Trusson at the Great Lake
    • William Hill – 27 May 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Trusson at the Great Lake
    • Patrick Minnighan – 25 June 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Travers at Port Arthur
    • Edward Allen – 31 July 1841 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Samuel Brewell at Muddy Creek, on the west bank of the Tamar
    • Thomas Dooner – 6 August 1841 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Joseph Walker at a hut on the Macquarie River
    • James Broomfield – 25 October 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery at Tarleton
    • James Williamson – 4 January 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Lord at Swanport (Swansea)
    • George Bailey – 4 January 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Lord at Swanport (Swansea)
    • Henry Belfield – 20 January 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Broadman at Port Arthur
    • Elijah Ainsworth – 6 June 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of five-year-old Mary Jeffery
    • Thomas Turner – 9 June 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of his wife Hannah at Moonah
    • William Langham – 10 August 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of the Doctor at Port Arthur and the stabbing of a boy named Thomas Cooke
    • Samuel Williams – 27 December 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of James Harkness at Port Arthur
    • James Littleton – 27 December 1842 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Henry Seaton at Broadmarsh
    • Henry Smith – 11 May 1843 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Henry Childs (Childe) at Sandy Bay
    • James Bowtell – 16 May 1843 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of William Marks on the highway at Dysart
    • Riley Jeffs – 26 July 1843 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at Launceston for the murder of District Constable William Ward at Campbell Town
    • John Conway – 26 July 1843 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at Launceston for the murder of District Constable William Ward at Campbell Town
    • John Woolley – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery and attempting to kill special constable William Hobart Wells
    • George Churchward – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • William Thomas – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • George Bristol – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • John Walker – 5 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for robbery
    • Alexander Reid – 24 April 1844 – Hanged at Oatlands for shooting and wounding Constable Murray
    • Thomas Marshall – 24 April 1844 – Hanged At Oatlands for the murder of Ben Smith
    • George Jones[GR8]  – 30 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery
    • James Platt – 30 April 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery
    • Isaac Tidburrow (Tidbury) – 9 July 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of seven-year-old Mary-Ann Gangell
    • Thomas Wicksett – 9 July 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of John Ayres at Port Arthur
    • James Gannon – 7 August 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for a rape committed near Richmond
    • Thomas Smith – 7 August 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of overseer William Perry at Port Arthur
    • James Boyle – 7 August 1844 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of overseer William Perry at Port Arthur
    • Richard Jackson – 1 May 1845 – Hanged at Oatlands for the rape of Elizabeth Davis
    • Anthony Kedge – 8 August 1845 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Charles Shepherd between George Town and Low Head
    • Francis Maxfield – 12 August 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of sub-overseer Joseph Ellis at Port Arthur
    • Thomas Gomm – 23 September 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • William Taylor – 23 September 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • Isaac Lockwood – 23 September 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his part in the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • Eliza Benwell – 2 October 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for aiding and abetting the murder of Jane Saunders at New Norfolk
    • Thomas Gillan – 1 November 1845 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery at Breadalbane (Cocked Hat)
    • Michael Keegan (Keogan) – 31 December 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of sub-overseer Joseph Ellis at Port Arthur
    • Job Harris – 31 December 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his involvement in the pack-rape of a fellow-convict at the Coal Mines, Saltwater River
    • William Collier – 31 December 1845 – Hanged at Hobart for his involvement in the pack-rape of a fellow-convict at the Coal Mines, Saltwater River
    • John Phillips – 4 February 1846 – Hanged at Oatlands for setting fire to the magistrate’s oatstacks following a conviction for sly grog selling
    • Daniel McCabe – 24 March 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for cutting and wounding, with intent to kill, Francis Scott at Impression Bay
    • Charles Woodman – 24 March 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and attempted murder of Elizabeth Jones in Davey Street
    • Henry Food – 28 April 1846 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Revd Dr Browne
    • Henry Cooper – 13 May 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Richard Beech at Impression Bay
    • Michael Roach – 24 September 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for wounding with intent to murder catechist Roger Boyle at Port Arthur
    • Michael Lyons – 11 November 1846 – Hanged at Hobart for committing an ‘unnatural crime’ with a goat at Port Cygnet
    • Peter Kenny – 24 March 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of James Goodall Francis[GR9]  at Battery Point. Kenny, a former Point Puer boy, attacked Francis with a tomahawk while attempting burglary. Francis went on to become Premier of Victoria twenty-five years later
    • William Bennett – 24 March 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of fellow-prisoner Thomas Shand at Port Arthur
    • George Wood – 29 June 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Taylor at Port Arthur
    • Charles Benwell – 14 September 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for murder of George Lowe near Bagdad. He was the brother of Eliza Benwell, hanged in 1845.
    • Laban Gower – 23 November 1847 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Ann Mayfield at Old Beach
    • Hugh Glacken – 25 November 1847 – Hanged at Launceston for bushranging
    • James Hill – 4 January 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of an elderly lady named Alice Martin at Brighton
    • Henry Whelan – 4 January 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Robert Mann at Berriedale
    • James Kennedy – 4 January 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of William Millar at Port Arthur
    • James Connolly – 22 February 1848 – Publicly hanged at Hobart for arson (setting a barn on fire) at Impression Bay.
    • Nathaniel Westerman (Weston) – 4 April 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of fellow-prisoner Joseph Blundell at Port Arthur
    • James Sullivan – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Constable James Kelly at Swanston, near Andover
    • Patrick Shea – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Constable James Kelly at Swanston
    • James McGough – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Constable James Kelly at Swanston
    • John Shale – 9 May 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for wounding John Connell with intent to murder
    • Thomas Smith – 4 August 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for stabbing with intent to murder Constable Clough at Jericho
    • Jeremiah Maher – 4 August 1848 – Hanged at Oatlands for stabbing with intent to murder Constable Clough at Jericho
    • Thomas Liner – 8 August 1848 – Hanged at Hobart for the stabbing murder of Hugh Gilmore in Kelly St
    • John Jordan – 7 November 1848 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Zimran Youram at Norfolk Plains
    • Matthew Mahide – 7 November 1848 – Hanged at Launceston for armed robbery at Snake Banks (present-day Powranna)
    • Michael Rogers- 3 January 1849 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Joseph Howard at Port Sorell
    • William Stamford – 3 January 1849 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Thomas Lovell at Brushy Plains (Runnymede)
    • John Russell Dickers – 20 March 1849 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of Constable Samuel Withers on the corner of Fitzroy Crescent and Davey St, South Hobart
    • James Holloway – 25 June 1849 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for armed robbery of Edwin Beckett at Prosser’s Plains (present-day Buckland)
    • John Stevens – 24 July 1849 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Margaret Buttery at Longford
    • James McKechnie – 31 December 1849 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Francis Sockett in Davey St, Hobart
    • John King – 21 March 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of Alexander Smith at Port Arthur
    • James Howarth – 21 March 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Joshua Jennings at New Town
    • James Mullay – 26 July 1850 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of fellow-constable John McNamara at Perth
    • Joseph Squires – 26 July 1850 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of four-year-old Horatio James
    • Christopher Hollis – 24 September 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Thomas Couchman at Bridgewater
    • John Woods – 6 November 1850 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Constable Bernard Mulholland at Franklin
    • Joseph Brewer – 11 February 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Ann Hefford at Campbell Town
    • Thomas Burrows – 13 February 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Thomas Parsons at Nile
    • William Parker – 13 February 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Thomas Parsons at Nile
    • Henry Hart – 13 February 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the attempted murder of Harriet Grubb at Cressy
    • Thomas Dalton – 21 March 1851 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for highway robbery of William Corrigan at Constitution Hill
    • William Henry Stevens – 25 April 1851 – Convict. Hanged at Oatlands for Assaulting James Moore, being armed with a gun on the high road between Antill Ponds and Tunbridge
    • Buchanan Wilson – 3 May 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the armed robbery of Patrick Cooney on the Huon Road, two miles out of Hobart
    • George Mackie – 21 July 1851 – Hanged at Oatlands for the murder of Thomas Gilbert at Waters Meeting, near Cranbrook
    • John Crisp – 27 October 1851 – Hanged at Oatlands for Wounding with Intent Constable William Donohoo at Swansea
    • Francis Duke – 31 October 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of William Smith at Fern Tree Hill, near Deloraine
    • James Yardley – 31 October 1851 – Hanged at Launceston for attempted murder of Robert Hudson at Deloraine
    • William Henry Stephens – 25 April 1851 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of Thomas Moore at Antill Ponds
    • Thomas Callaghan (Callaher, Gallagher, Collahon, Collohan, Callahan) – 6 October 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of Ann Curtis at Grasstree Hill
    • Michael Conlan – 22 December 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Francis Burt at Franklin
    • Patrick Callaghan – 22 December 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Francis Burt at Franklin
    • William Porter – 29 December 1851 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of William Andrews at Sandy Bay
    • Charles Lockwood – 28 January 1852 – Hanged at Launceston for the attempted murder of William Gaffney at Longford
    • John Castles – 22 June 1852 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of William Hibbard at Kangaroo Point
    • Mary Sullivan – 5 August 1852 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of two-year-old Clara Adeline Fraser in Campbell St. Sullivan was sixteen when she went to the gallows.
    • Patrick McMahon – 28 October 1852 – Hanged at Oatlands for rape of a child
    • John Kilburn – 11 February 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for attempted murder of overseer Charles Weatherall at Pittwater
    • John Wood – 11 February 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of Kate Toole in Goulburn St
    • James Dalton – 26 April 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Constable Tom Buckmaster at Avoca
    • Andrew Kelly – 26 April 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Constable Tom Buckmaster at Avoca
    • Samuel Jacobs – 29 April 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of six-year-old Nathaniel Poole at Deloraine
    • Samuel Maberley – 18 May 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of the Rev Dr Stephen Aldhouse in Church St
    • Francis McManus – 21 June 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of Elizabeth Roscoe on Bruny Island
    • Levi McAlister – 21 June 1853 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of six-year-old Jane Hughes at Bridgewater
    • William Brown (alias Stockton) – 25 October 1853 – Hanged at Launceston for stabbing with intent to murder James Stephens
    • Thomas Kenney – 31 July 1854 – Hanged at Launceston for setting fire to a haystack at Kings Meadows
    • Thomas Hall – 31 July 1854 – Hanged at Launceston for the attempted murder of his wife Jane Hall at Table Cape
    • George Whiley – 3 November 1854 – Hanged at Launceston for the robbery and assault of James Smith near Westbury
    • Peter Connolly – 26 June 1855 – Bushranger. Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery of William Kearney
    • John “Rocky” Whelan[GR10]  – 26 June 1855 – Bushranger. Confessed to five murders. Hanged at Hobart
    • Edward Heylin – 26 June 1855 – Hanged at Hobart for shooting with intent at Constable Robert Allison in Victoria St, Hobart
    • John Parsons Knights – 26 June 1855 – Hanged at Hobart for burglary of the house of Thomas Nicholson in Victoria St, Hobart
    • John Mellor – 19 Feb 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and attempted murder of Hugh Simpson at St Peter’s Pass, near York Plains
    • Thomas Rushton – 19 Feb 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for bushranging and attempted murder of Hugh Simpson at St Peter’s Pass, near York Plains
    • Richard Rowley – 25 June 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the rape of nine-year-old Isabelle Johnson in Brisbane St
    • Michael Casey – 5 August 1856 – Hanged at Oatlands for the attempted murder of John Hewitt at Falmouth
    • George Langridge – 19 September 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of his wife Jane Langridge at Richmond
    • John O’Neill – 19 September 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for assault and robbery of James Rowland at Constitution Dock
    • Anthony Clarke – 12 November 1856 – Hanged at Launceston for murder of John Kendall near Deloraine
    • Michael Barry (alias Moloney) – 25 November 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the assault and robbery of Edward Adams at Old Beach
    • William Woolford – 25 November 1856 – Hanged at Hobart for the attempted murder of Constable William Burton at Port Arthur
    • George Nixon – 3 March 1857 – Hanged at Hobart for the murder of fourteen-year-old Henry Chamberlayne at Kingston
    • John Higgins – 12 August 1857 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Henry Dales on the Evandale Road near Clairville
    • James Waldron – 12 August 1857 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of Henry Dales on the Evandale Road near Clairville
    • Alexander Cullen – 18 August 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol
    •  for the murder of Betsy Ross in a house behind the Red Lion, Liverpool St
    • Abraham Munday – 27 October 1857 – Hanged at Oatlands for attempted murder by poison of George White at Courland Bay
    • Richard “Long Mick” Ennis – 27 October 1857 – Hanged at Oatlands for the murder of George Sturgeon at Kitty’s Corner, near Antill Ponds
    • James Kelly – 28 November 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Coleman O’Loughlin at Avoca
    • Timothy Kelly – 28 November 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Coleman O’Loughlin at Avoca
    • William Maher – 28 November 1857 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of his wife Catherine Maher at Brown’s River, Kingborough
    • Thomas Callinan – 20 April 1858 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Amelia Murray at Three Hut Point
    • Henry Madigan – 5 May 1858 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his brother John Madigan at Prosser’s Forest, Ravenswood
    • Matthew Burns (Breen) – 5 August 1858 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of three-year-old Eliza MacDonald at Avoca
    • George Young – 5 August 1858 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Esther Scott in High Street Windmill Hill
    • Thomas Gault – 21 December 1858 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Felonious Assault and Robbery of John Duffy, Isabella Brown and Archibald Stacey at the Mount Nelson Signal Station
    • William Anderson – 31 January 1859 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of James Chapman at Distillery Creek
    • John McLaughlin – 31 January 1859 – Hanged at Launceston for the armed robbery of George Cooper on Westbury Road
    • William Gibson – 31 January 1859 – Hanged at Launceston for committing sodomy on ten-year-old Tom Gilligan on the road between Fingal and Avoca
    • John King – 16 February 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol
    • for the murder of Rebecca Hall at the Bull’s Head, Goulburn Street
    • Peter Haley (“Black Peter”) – 16 February 1859 – Bushranger. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Shooting with Intent at Richard Propsting on the road between Ross and Tunbridge
    • Daniel (“Wingy”) Stewart – 16 February 1859 – Bushranger. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Shooting with Intent at Richard Propsting on the road between Ross and Tunbridge
    • William Ferns (alias Flowers) – 16 February 1859 – Bushranger. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for Shooting with Intent at Richard Propsting on the road between Ross and Tunbridge.
    • William Davis – 16 February 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Andre Cassavant at Black River
    • Robert Brown – 4 May 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the rape of a three-year-old at Triabunna
    • Bernard Donahue – 12 July 1859 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of James Burton near Kingston
    • John Vigors – 31 January 1860 – Hanged at Oatlands for Shooting with Intent at John Baker at Ellerslie
    • Henry Baker – 7 February 1860 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Ellen Gibson at Sandhill
    • John Nash – 4 May 1860 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of William Iles near Cleveland
    • Julius Baker – 10 May 1860 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for shooting with intent at Port Arthur. Baker was a constable who took money from two prisoners Stretton and Donohue to assist their escape, he then shot them in their attempt
    • Michael Walsh – 29 May 1860 – Hanged at Launceston for the assault and rape of Eleanor Ward at Longford
    • Martin Lydon – 25 September 1860 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol
    • for the rape of nine-year-old Hannah Norah Handley at Port Cygnet
    • Thomas Ross – 30 January 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for an ‘unnatural crime’ on a boy named William Saunders at Bishopsbourne
    • John Hailey – 23 May 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of William Wilson at Cullenswood
    • John Chapman – 23 May 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for assault with intent to murder Daniel Webb at Avoca
    • Patrick Maloney – 23 May 1861 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Richard Furlong at Evandale
    • Margaret Coghlan – 18 February 1862 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of her husband John Coghlan in Goulburn St, Hobart, near the corner of Harrington St
    • Charles Flanders – 24 June 1862 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of ten-year-old Mary Ann Riley at Bagdad
    • William Mulligan – 18 November 1862 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the rape and robbery of Johanna Harrbach at Bagdad
    • Hendrick Whitnalder – 20 February 1863 – (Described as a ‘little Kaffir’). Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for sodomy with fourteen-year-old Cornwall Collins (Collard)
    • Dennis Collins – 11 August 1863 – Hanged at Launceston for ‘an unnatural crime’ with seven-year-old Joseph Palmer
    • Robert McKavor – 16 February 1864 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the felonious assault and robbery of Edward Coningsby on the Oatlands Road
    • James Lynch – 23 May 1865 – Hanged at Launceston for the rape of his ten-year-old step-daughter Cathy Nichols at Port Sorell
    • William Griffiths – 2 December 1865 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of eight-year-old George and six-year-old Sarah Johnson at Glenorchy
    • Daniel “Little Dan” Connors – 17 March 1868 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Ellen Moriarty at Longford
    • Patrick Kiely – 17 November 1869 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his wife Bridget at Paddy’s Scrub, Deloraine
    • John Regan (46) – 28 June 1870 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of his sixteen-year-old wife Emma on the Westbury Road
    • Job Smith (55) – 31 May 1875 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the rape of Margaret Ayres, the chaplain’s housemaid, at Port Arthur
    • John Bishnahan (46) – 19 November 1877 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Thomas Rudge at Evandale
    • Richard Copping (19) – 21 October 1878 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Susannah Stacey at Bream Creek
    • George Braxton (60) – 10 July 1882 – Hanged at Launceston for the murder of Ellen Sneezwell in York Street
    • James Ogden (20) – 4 June 1883 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of William Wilson at Cleveland
    • James Sutherland (18) – 4 June 1883 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of William Wilson at Cleveland
    • Henry Stock (22) – 13 October 1884 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Kent and her daughter near Ouse
    • Timothy Walker (76) – 10 January 1887 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Benjamin Hamilton at Deloraine. Walker was the last transported convict to be executed in Tasmania. This was hangman Solomon Blay‘s last execution
    • Arthur Cooley (19) – 17 August 1891 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Mary Camille Ogilvy near Richmond
    • Joseph Belbin (19) – 11 March 1914 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of Margaret Ledwell at Deloraine
    • George Carpenter (27) – 27 December 1922 – Murdered three people at Swansea. Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of his cousin Thomas Carpenter
    • Frederick Thompson (32) – 14 February 1946 – Hanged at Campbell Street Gaol for the murder of eight year old Evelyn Maughan. The last person executed in Tasmania.

     [GR1]Alexander Pearce (1790 – 19 July 1824) was an Irish convict who was transported to the penal colony in Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania), Australia for seven years for theft. He escaped from prison several times. During one of these escapes he allegedly became a cannibal, murdering his companions one by one. In another escape, with one companion, he allegedly killed him and ate him in pieces. He was eventually captured and was hanged in Hobart for murder, and later dissected

     [GR2]Musquito (c. 1780, Port Jackson – 25 February 1825, Hobart) (also rendered MosquitoMusquettaBush Muschetta or Muskito) was an Indigenous Australian resistance leader, latterly based in Van Diemen’s Land

     [GR3]Thomas Jeffries (Jefferies) was an English bushrangerserial killer and cannibal in the early 19th century in Van Diemen’s Land (now TasmaniaAustralia). Jeffries was transported for seven years from Dorset on Albion, arriving in Van Diemen’s Land on 21 October 1823. He was sentenced to 12 months in Macquarie Harbour, the penal settlement on the colony’s west coast in June 1824 for threatening to stab Constable Lawson. By August 1825 he had been appointed a watch house keeper and flagellator (flogger) at Launceston Gaol.

     [GR4]Edward Broughton (1803 – 5 August 1831) was an English convict who was transported to Van Diemen’s Land for fourteen years for house-breaking. He escaped from Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour with four other convicts and he later confessed to murdering three of his companions and resorting to cannibalism. He and the other survivor Matthew MacAvoy were hanged in Hobart for their crimes.

     [GR5]Edward Broughton (1803 – 5 August 1831) was an English convict who was transported to Van Diemen’s Land for fourteen years for house-breaking. He escaped from Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour with four other convicts and he later confessed to murdering three of his companions and resorting to cannibalism. He and the other survivor Matthew MacAvoy were hanged in Hobart for their crimes.

     [GR6]The Cyprus mutiny took place in 1829 off the British penal settlement of Van Diemen’s Land (now TasmaniaAustralia). Convicts seized the brig Cyprus and sailed her to CantonChina, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so.

    The mutineers were eventually captured. Two of them, George James Davis and William Watts, were hanged at Execution DockLondon on 16 December 1830, the last men hanged for piracy in Britain. Their leader, William Swallow, was never convicted of piracy because he convinced the British authorities that, as the only experienced sailor, he had been forced to remain onboard and coerced to navigate the ship. Swallow was instead sentenced to life on Van Diemen’s Land for escaping, where he died four years later.

    Swallow wrote an account of the voyage including the visit to Japan, but this part of the journey was generally dismissed as fantasy until 2017, when he was vindicated by an amateur historian’s discovery that the account matched Japanese records of a “barbarian” ship flying a British flag whose origins had remained a mystery for 187 years.

     [GR7]The 51st (2nd Yorkshire West Riding) Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 105th Regiment of Foot (Madras Light Infantry) to form the King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry in 1881

     [GR8]George Jones (c. 1815 – 30 April 1844) was a convict bushranger who, with Martin Cash and Lawrence Kavenagh, escaped from Port ArthurVan Diemen’s Land, in late 1842. The three men took to bushranging for a six-month period, robbing homesteads and inns with seeming impunity. After Kavenagh and Cash were captured, Jones remained at large for a further seven months, committing a number of robberies in company with two other escaped convicts. In April 1844 he was captured in a shoot-out with police, convicted and executed.

     [GR9]James Goodall Francis (9 January 1819 – 25 January 1884), Australian colonial politician, was the 9th Premier of Victoria. Francis was born in London, and emigrated to Van Diemen’s Land (later Tasmania) in 1847, where he became a businessman. He moved to Victoria in 1853 and became a leading Melbourne merchant. He was a director of the Bank of New South Wales and president of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce. He married Mary Ogilvie and had eight sons and seven daughters.

    Francis was elected as a conservative for Richmond in 1859, and later also represented Warrnambool. He was seen as a leading representative of business interests. He was Vice-President of the Board of Land and Works and Commissioner of Public Works 1859–60, Commissioner of Trade and Customs 1863–68 in the second government of James McCulloch and Treasurer in the third McCulloch government 1870–71. When the liberal government of Charles Gavan Duffy was defeated in June 1872, Francis became Premier and Chief Secretary.

    Francis’s government, like most of its predecessors, was dominated by the education and land issues, and by conflict between the Assembly and the Legislative Council. His government passed the 1872 Education Act, but was defeated when it tried to pass a bill establishing a procedure for resolving deadlocks between the two Houses. He resigned as a result in July 1874. He was later a minister without portfolio in the government of James Service in 1880. He retired from politics in 1884, declining a knighthood. He died in Queenscliff in 1884.

     [GR10]John Whelan was an Irish-born bushranger and serial killer operating in the Huon Valley in 1855 in Van Diemen’s Land (now the Australian state of Tasmania). He was a tall man for his times, standing at 6’1” (185cm) and of heavy build, and was nicknamed Rocky for the crags and deep pock marks of his face

    List of people legally executed in South Australia

    Pencil on paper sketch of the execution of Michael Magee. He was the first man executed in South Australia, for shooting Sheriff Smart. Artwork is inscribed, “Sketched on the ground by J. M. Skipper” which suggests the artist witnessed the execution. Artwork is inscribed with pencil on verso, with two figures of women. The costume worn by each figure has been carefully studied Held at the State Library of South Australia, call no. B 7797.

    • Michael Magee – 2 May 1838 – The first public execution in South Australia. A runaway convict, hanged from a tree on Montefiore Hill for shooting at with intent to kill Sheriff Smart
    • Wang Nucha (Tommy Roundhead) – 31 May 1839 – Hanged in front of the government iron stores (very close to the site of Magee’s hanging) for the murder of James Thompson on the Para
    • Yerr-i-Cha (George) – 31 May 1839 – Hanged for the murder of William Duffield in the Gilles Plains area
    • George Hughes – 16 March 1840 – Hanged outside the Horse Police Barracks for theft and firing with murderous intent at the Para River
    • Henry Curran – 16 March 1840 – Hanged outside the Horse Police Barracks for theft and firing with murderous intent at the Para River
    • Mongarawata – 25 August 1840 – Hanged by Major O’Halloran on the Coorong in retribution for the massacre of over fifteen passengers wrecked on the Maria
    • Pilgarie (Moorcan-gac) – 25 August 1840 – Hanged by Major O’Halloran on the Coorong in retribution for the massacre of fifteen passengers wrecked on the Maria
    • Joseph Stagg – 18 November 1840 – Hanged for the murder of John Gofton near Torrens Island. The first public execution to be conducted outside Adelaide Gaol, with a crowd of roughly seven hundred in attendance.
    • Ngarbi (Nultia) – 1 August 1843 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Stubbs at Port Lincoln
    • Wera Maldera – 28 March 1845 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of George McGrath at McGrath’s Flat, on the Coorong
    • Thomas Donnelly – 29 March 1847 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Kingberrie, an indigenous local, at Rivoli Bay
    • Keelgulla – 9 November 1849 – Hanged at the scene of the crime for the murder of Captain James Beevor at Mount Drummond
    • Neulalta – 9 November 1849 – Hanged at the scene of the crime for the murder of Captain James Beevor at Mount Drummond
    • James Yates – 5 September 1850 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of a shepherd named Jack Mansforth at Skillagolee Creek
    • William Wright – 12 March 1853 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of a man known as Robert Head, committed at East Wellington
    • William Bell – 27 December 1854 – Hanged outside Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Augustus Valrecht at Port Adelaide. This was the last public execution at Adelaide Gaol, with approximately three thousand onlookers.
    • Weenpulta – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Weellanna – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Yardulunulkarna – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Eelanna – 14 January 1856 – Hanged at Franklin Harbour for the murder of Peter Brown
    • Manyetta – 5 October 1860 – Hanged at Streaky Bay for the murder of John Jones at Mount Joy
    • Pilti Miltinda (Bobby) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd (sometimes Reinbert) and her two children near Kapunda
    • Tankaworty (Alick or Jimmy) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd and her two children near Kapunda
    • Warretya (Kop Robert) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd and her two children near Kapunda
    • Warretya (Gogeye Jimmy) – 7 June 1861 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Mary Ann Rainberd and her two children near Kapunda
    • Nilgerie – 1861 – Hanged near the scene of the crime at Fowler’s Bay for the murder of Thomas Berggoist
    • Tilcherie – 1861 – Hanged near the scene of the crime at Fowler’s Bay for the murder of Thomas Berggoist
    • Mangiltie – 1861 – Hanged at Port Lincoln for the murder of Margaret Impey (Impett) at Mount Wedge
    • Karabidnie – 1861 – Hanged at Port Lincoln for the murder of Margaret Impey at Mount Wedge
    • John Seaver – 11 March 1862 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Police Inspector Richard Pettinger at a ball at Government House, Adelaide
    • [GR1] Walker near Cherado
    • Malachi Martin – 24 December 1862 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Jane Macmanamin at Salt Creek
    • Carl Jung – 10 November 1871 – Hanged at Mount Gambier for the murder of Assistant Bailiff Thomas Garraway at Deep Gully, near Mount Gambier
    • Elizabeth Woolcock – 30 December 1873 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Thomas Woolcock at North Yelta. The only woman executed in South Australia.
    • William Ridgeway – 1 January 1874 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Frederick Burt at Coonatto
    • William Page – 27 October 1875 – Hanged at Mount Gambier for the murder of Mary Julia Buchan
    • Charles Streitman – 24 July 1877 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Robert Woodhead at Wallaroo
    • Hugh Fagan (alias James Lynch) – 15 April 1878 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Patrick Bannon at Saltire
    • Jonathan Prest – 16 July 1878 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Prest near Port Adelaide
    • Robert Johnson (alias William Nugent) – 18 November 1881 – Hanged at Mount Gambier for the murder of Trooper Harry Pearce
    • William Burns – 18 January 1883 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Henry Loton on the high seas, off the Cape Verde Islands. “While waiting his doom, he formed an attachment to a young sparrow, which he tamed perfectly. He was greatly affected by the sight of the bird flitting about the scaffold while the preparations for his execution were in progress”
    • Mah Poo (alias Charlie Bow) – 10 November 1883 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Tommy Ah Fook in Hindley Street
    • William Brown (alias Allen, alias Lane)– 24 August 1894 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of George Morowsky at Waukaringa
    • George Lynch – 6 November 1895 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Donald Ross at Balaklava
    • Joshua Beard – 10 July 1897 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Walter Hall at Streaky Bay
    • Lolli Kayser Singh – 17 January 1900 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Sunda Singh at Denial Bay
    • Thomas Horton – 12 May 1904 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Florence in Rundle Street
    • Albert Bonfield – 5 January 1905 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Caroline Hinds at Kensington Gardens
    • Notella Habibulla – 16 November 1906 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Edith in Bristol Street (off Cardwell St)
    • James (Joe) Coleman – 2 July 1908 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Constable Albert Ring at Glenelg
    • John Robins – 16 March 1910 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Robert Ownsworth in Moonta St Adelaide
    • Hadji Khan – 5 April 1910 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Said Mahommed at Frome Creek
    • Carlos Augustus Bonello – 5 May 1910 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Norma Plush at Siegersdorf
    • Percival Budd – 24 April 1919 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Harold Jacques at Crystal Brook
    • Alexander Newland Lee – 15 July 1920 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Muriel at Rhynie. Lee was the nephew of Martha Needle[GR2] 
    • William Francis – 22 November 1927 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Myra at Rosaville, Mount Gambier
    • William Haines – 16 December 1927 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Devina Schmidt at Bridgewater
    • Frederick Carr – 12 November 1929 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Maude at Birkenhead
    • Thomas Blythe – 9 January 1930 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of his wife Sarah at Unley
    • Harold James Box – 26 April 1944 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Albert Edmund (Lance) Brown at Gawler Place, Adelaide
    • Charles O’Leary – 14 November 1946 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Walter ‘Spoggy’ Ballard at Nangwarry, near Penola
    • Alfred Griffin – 22 March 1950 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Elsie Wheeler at a Hutt Street boarding house
    • John Balaban – 26 August 1953 – Murdered at least four people. Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Zora Kusic at Torrensville
    • William Feast – 23 March 1956 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Eunice Gwynne at Wingfield
    • Raymond John Bailey – 24 June 1958 – Convicted for the Sundown Murders. Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Thyra Bowman
    • Glen Sabre Valance – 24 November 1964 – Hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Richard Stang at Kooroon Station. Last person to be executed in South Australia.

     [GR1]Malachy Martin (also Malachi Earl Martin) (c.1831 – 24 December 1862) lived in South Australia in the 19th century and was convicted and executed for committing a willful murder in 1862. Although in most official records his given name is written as “Malachi” it is clear that his parents actually gave him the traditional Irish form of the name, popularised through the veneration of St. Malachy, a twelfth-century Bishop of Amagh

     [GR2]Martha Needle was an Australian serial killer known for poisoning her husband, three children and future brother-in-law. She was hanged on 22 October 1894 at the age of 31. Needle was convicted for the murder of Louis Juncken, brother of her fiancé Otto Juncken, on 15 May 1894. Although Needle collected substantial sums of insurance money, her exact motive for murdering her family has not been determined. Several times she stated her innocence, but was eventually hanged.

    List of people legally executed in Queensland

    • John Bulbridge – 18 December 1830 – Hanged at Moreton Bay for absconding from the penal colony there and committing a robbery at Port Macquarie
    • Charles Fagan – 18 December 1830 – Hanged at Moreton Bay for absconding and committing a robbery at Port Macquarie
    • Mullan – 3 July 1841 – Indigenous. Hanged at the WindmillWickham Terrace, Brisbane, for the murder of surveyor Granville William Chetwynd Stapylton[GR1]  at Mount Lindesay
    • Ningavil – 3 July 1841 – Indigenous. Hanged at the Windmill, Wickham Terrace, Brisbane, for the murder of surveyor Granville Chetwynd Stapylton at Mount Lindsay
    • Patrick Fitzgerald – 8 July 1850 – Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol, Petrie Terrace, for the murder of James Marsden at Gigooman
    • Jacob Wagner – 8 July 1850 – Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murder of James Marsden at Gigooman
    • Angee (An Gee) – 6 January 1852 – Chinese. Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murder of James Holbert in the Burnett district
    • Davy – 22 August 1854 – Indigenous. Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murder of Adolphus Trevethan on Rawbelle station in the Burnett district
    • Dundalli – 5 January 1855 – Indigenous. Hanged in front of Brisbane Gaol for the murders of Andrew Gregor and William Boller. This was the last official public execution in Queensland
    • William Teagle – 28 July 1857 – Hanged at Brisbane Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Leighton at Drayton
    • Chamery – 4 August 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Mary Treatroff at Dugandan
    • Dick – 4 August 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Mary Treatroff at Dugandan
    • Thomas Woods – 7 December 1860 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Gabriel Morell at Coonambula
    • Georgie – 12 Dec 1861 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Bridget Ryan at Little Ipswich
    • Tommy – 2 April 1862 – Chinese, real name not recorded. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of George Lang at Nebo
    • Matthew McGuinness – 8 April 1862 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of a shepherd named Schaff between Gayndah and Mundubbera
    • Alexander Ritchie – 1 August 1864 – Hanged at Toowoomba Gaol for the murder of Charles Owen at Yandilla
    • Jackey – 3 November 1865 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Ann Mee at Degilbo
    • Rudolf Mornberger – 13 December 1865 – German. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Heinrich Bode on the Logan River
    • Thomas John Griffin[GR2]  – 1 June 1868 – Police officer and gold commissioner hanged at Rockhampton Gaol for the murder of troopers John Power and Patrick Cahill on the banks of the Mackenzie River while they were on duty escorting a large sum of money from Rockhampton to Clermont
    • Billy – 7 December 1868 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Mary Thompson at Tivoli
    • Jacob – 17 May 1869 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Jane Knott and Amelia Reichmann at Ideraway
    • John Williams – 24 November 1869 – Hanged at Rockhampton for the murder of Patrick Halligan[GR3]  at Eight Mile Island
    • George C.F. Palmer – 24 November 1869 – Hanged at Rockhampton for the murder of Patrick Halligan at Eight Mile Island
    • Alexander Archibald – 22 December 1869 – Hanged at Rockhampton for abetting the murder of Patrick Halligan at Eight Mile Island
    • Gee Lee – 7 March 1870 – Chinese. Hanged at Toowoomba for the murder of Louis Vernon at Caroline sheep station on the Burenda run, in the Warrego district
    • Jacky Whitton – 7 March 1870 – Indigenous. Hanged at Toowoomba for the rape of thirteen-year-old Henrietta Reiss at Bodumba station near Warwick
    • William Prendergast – 28 March 1870 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Patrick Hartnett at Fortitude Valley
    • William Brown (or Bertram) – 29 August 1870 – Hanged at Toowoomba for robbery under arms at Mangalore
    • Donald Ross – 21 November 1870 – Hanged at Rockhampton for the murder of George Rose at Springsure
    • George – 15 May 1871 – Indigenous. Hanged at Rockhampton for the rape of Ellen Manning at Gracemere
    • Dugald – 28 May 1872 – Indigenous. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of twelve-year-old Catherine Hutchinson south of Gympie
    • Patrick Collins – 29 May 1872 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Simon Zieman at Gunde Gunda Creek near Surat
    • John Garbett – 10 March 1874 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Tom Conroy at Taroom
    • Alick (alias Johnny) – 29 December 1874 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of eleven-year-old Gertrude Brauer at Doughboy Creek
    • Jackey Clayson – 14 April 1875 – Indigenous. Hanged at Rockhampton for the rape of Johanna Kopp at Palmerville
    • Johann (John) Wenzell – 29 August 1876 – German. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Joel Martin at GabbinbarToowoomba
    • George – 18 May 1877 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Maryborough Gaol for the rape of Mrs McBride
    • Tommy Ah Mow – 18 May 1877 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Maryborough for the rape of Mrs McBride
    • James Cunningham – 14 January 1878 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Frank Steinebecker near Cairns
    • Sam Ah Poo – 19 August 1878 – Chinese. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of M. Fisher McMichael at Bundaleer Plains, near Noorama
    • Ervora (alias Johnny) – 23 December 1878 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Charles “the Swede” Andrews near Tambo
    • Joseph Mutter – 9 June 1879 – German. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Maria Josephina Steffen at Ravenswood. “When the drop fell the convict’s head was completely severed from the body. The executioner attributed this horrible result to the hard condition of the rope, caused by the frost”
    • Joseph Wells – 22 March 1880 – Hanged at Brisbane for armed robbery and attempted murder at Cunnamulla
    • James Elsdale (alias Munro) – 31 May 1880 – Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Michael McEvoy at Belltopper Creek, Aramac
    • Jimmy Ah Sue – 31 May 1880 – Chinese. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Ah Coo Wah at Copperfield (Clermont)
    • Maximus ‘Pedro’ Gomez – 21 June 1880 – Filipino. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of William Clarke on Possession Island (Bedanug), Torres Strait
    • Kagariu (Johnny Campbell) – 16 August 1880 – Indigenous. Bushranger. Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Jane MacAlister at Kipper Creek, Northbrook
    • Ah Que – 12 December 1881 – Chinese. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Ah Wah and Geon Ching at Palmerville
    • George Byrne – 22 May 1882 – Hanged at Brisbane for the rape of Susan Isaacs in Elizabeth Street, Brisbane
    • Towolar (Jemmy) – 5 June 1882 – From AmbaeNew Hebrides. Hanged at Brisbane for the murder of Jeremiah Worth at Bundaberg
    • Jango – 15 October 1883 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Eliza Mills at Dingo. He was sixteen at the time of his crime
    • George – 15 October 1883 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the rape of thirteen-year-old Johanna Anderson at Gracemere
    • James Gardiner (alias McMahon) – 15 October 1883 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of ‘German Ada’ at Rockhampton
    • Walter Edward Gordon – 25 October 1885 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Walter Bunning near Rockhampton
    • Tim Tee – 5 April 1886 – Chinese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Jimmy Ah Fook at Dulvadilla
    • Wong Tong – 21 June 1886 – Chinese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Kok Tow near Bundaberg
    • Christopher Pickford – 30 May 1887 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Martin Emmerson at Ravenswood Junction
    • John Harrison – 13 June 1887 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of William Thompson
    • Ellen Thompson – 13 June 1887 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of her husband William. She was the only woman hanged in Queensland
    • Sedin – 12 November 1888 – Malay. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of John Fitzgerald and Christian Meyriga at Normanton
    • Edmond Duhamel – 12 November 1888 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Sarah Ann Descury at Croydon
    • Michael Barry[GR4]  – 2 June 1890 – Hanged at Rockhampton (Wandal) for the murder of his wife Mary. He was the last person to be hanged in Queensland outside of Brisbane
    • Donald – 25 April 1892 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the rape of Eva Scott at Hornet Bank Station near Taroom
    • Frank Charles Horrocks – 26 September 1892 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Rudolph Weissmüller at Mooraree near Brisbane
    • Charles Gleeson – 24 October 1892 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Patrick McKiernan at Prince of Wales Island (Muralug), Torres Strait
    • Leonardo William Moncado – 24 October 1892 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Bob, an Indigenous cabin-boy, on board the Northern coastal trading vessel Sketty Belle
    • George Thomas Blantern – 23 October 1893 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaod for the murder of Flora McDonald at Marlborough Station
    • Hatsuro Abe – 28 May 1894 – Japanese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of a Japanese widow, Omatzie, on Thursday Island
    • Miore – 20 May 1895 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Francis Macartney at Avondale. See Narasemai below
    • Narasemai – 20 May 1895 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Francis Macartney at Avondale
    • Sayer (also called Safhour) – 22 July 1895 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Peter Anderson near Etowrie near Mackay.
    • Jackey – 4 November 1895 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Jacky Williams near Mount Morgan.
    • Frank Tinyana – 4 November 1895 – Filipino. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the attempted murder of his wife Amelia and the murder of Constable William Conroy on Thursday Island.
    • William Broome – 11 June 1900 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Mary Le Blowitz near Bundaberg
    • Charles Beckman – 13 May 1901 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Alfred Anderson at Bowen
    • Wandee (or Wantee) – 27 May 1901 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Alfred Burnstead near Townsville
    • John Rheuben – 30 September 1901 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Fanny Hardwick[GR5]  at Rockhampton
    • Arafau (or Orifough) – 3 December 1901 – Pacific Islander. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Morris Summers near Farleigh
    • David Alexander Brown – 9 December 1901 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Graham Haygarth at Charters Towers
    • Patrick Kenniff – 12 January 1903 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Constable George Doyle at Lethbridge’s Pocket near Carnarvon
    • Sow Too Low (or Sotulo) – 22 June 1903 – From Malaita (now part of Solomon Islands). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of John Martin and Sergeant David Johnston at Mackay Gaol. He was also thought responsible for the murder of 12-year-old Alice Gunning near Mackay
    • Gosano (also called ‘Kanalso called Charlie’) – 17 April 1905 – From Malaita (now part of Solomon Islands). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of John Parsons at Ingham
    • James Wharton – 17 July 1905 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of William Munday at Toowong
    • Johannes – 14 May 1906 – From Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Constable Albert Price
    • Twadiga – 14 May 1906 – From Gawa Island (now in Papua New Guinea). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of five-year-old William Baulch, at Homebush, near Mackay
    • Look Kow (or Lee Kow) – 31 December 1906 – Chinese. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Lee Chay Yuen in Townsville
    • August Millewski – 16 December 1907 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of an Indian man, Wallum Nabby, near Nananga
    • Bismarck – 19 April 1909 – Indigenous. Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Janet Evitts at Jundah
    • Arthur Ross – 7 June 1909 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of bank clerk James Muir
    • Alexander Joseph Bradshaw – 13 June 1910 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of George and Alice Sutherland at Carron River, near Croydon
    • George David Silva[GR6]  – 10 June 1912 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of seventeen-year-old Maud Ching at Alligator Creek, near Hay Point. On the same occasion he also murdered Maud’s younger siblings Teddy, Dolly, Hugh and Winnie, and their mother Agnes
    • Charles Deen – 5 May 1913 – From Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Peter Dana (Dina, Dinna) at Innisfail
    • Ernest Austin– 22 September 1913 – Hanged at Boggo Road Gaol for the murder of Ivy Alexandra Mitchell. He was the last person executed in Queensland

     [GR1]Granville William Chetwynd Stapylton (1800-1840) was a pioneer explorer and surveyor in Australia.

    In 1839, Stapylton was one of the three surveyors (the other two being Robert Dixon and James Warner) sent by New South Wales Governor George Gipps to the Moreton Bay penal colony, arriving on the Sarah Jane.[2] Their first task was to make a coastal survey of Moreton Bay and then to survey Brisbane and the surrounding districts in preparation for the closure of the penal colony and the opening of the area for free settlement in 1842.

    He was killed on 31 May 1840 by Aboriginal people while surveying, 14 miles (23 km) east of Mount Lindesay.

     [GR2]Thomas John Augustus Griffin (27 July 1832 – 1 June 1868) was an Australian police officer and gold commissioner who was executed in 1868, after being found guilty of the double murder of two fellow police officers, Constable John Francis Power and Constable Patrick William Cahill.

    The murders were committed on the banks of the Mackenzie River near the present-day site of the Bedford Weir at Blackwater, Queensland while the troopers were escorting a large sum of money from Rockhampton to Clermont, which Griffin stole and then hid when he returned to Rockhampton. The money was discovered after Griffin was executed when it was revealed he had attempted to conspire with a turnkey while locked in his cell, negotiating a possible escape and drawing a pencil sketch of the money’s approximate location.

    In a notorious case of grave robbery, Griffin’s grave was illegally exhumed more than a week after his execution, and his body deliberately decapitated and his head stolen.[

     [GR3]Patrick Halligan (1838 – 25 April 1869) was an Irish-Australian hotel licensee and gold buyer who was murdered in Rockhampton, Queensland on 25 April 1869

     [GR4]ichael Barry (10 September 1843 – 2 June 1890) was a convicted Australian murderer.

    Barry was found guilty of murdering his wife, Mary Barry (née McNertney), in Rockhampton, Queensland on 26 February 1890.

    He was sentenced to death and was hanged at the Rockhampton Gaol on 2 June 1890

     [GR5]The murder took place in a boarding house in one of six cottages located next to the Terminus Hotel, known as Carpenter’s Cottages, owned by local identity Edwin Robert Carpenter. Hardwick had moved into the boarding house with her three-year-old son and her mother upon leaving Rheubens, after which she commenced a relationship with a Sinhalese cook called Charlie Price, which prompted Rheubens to become jealous. Rheubens desperately attempted to convince Hardwick to re-commence their relationship, during which time Rheubens allegedly assaulted Price on two separate occasions.

    On the evening of 2 June 1901, Rheubens attempted to visit Hardwick but following another of Hardwick’s rejections, he went away and returned with a tomahawk. Following a struggle, Rheubens produced a sheath knife and stabbed Hardwick in the chest before leaving the scene.

    Within an hour, police located Rheubens at his home where he was arrested in a violent struggle. After being taken back to the watchhouse, police discovered Rheubens was suffering from a head injury. After a medical examination, Rheubens was transported to Rockhampton Hospital under police escort. He was admitted to hospital where he stayed under police guard.

    Hardwick’s body was buried in the South Rockhampton Cemetery on 3 June 1901

     [GR6]George David Silva (1884 – 1912) was an Australian mass murderer. Silva, who was of Sinhalese descent, worked as a farmhand on a property owned by Charles Ching at Alligator Creek, about 20 miles from Mackay, Queensland.

    On 16 November 1911, Charles Ching told Silva he was traveling to town for supplies and money for Silva’s wages. While he was away Silva murdered the six Chings after the eldest daughter Maud had rejected his advances. The bodies of Agnes, Maud, Hugh and Winnie were found in the house. Mother and eldest daughter had been shot by a revolver and a muzzle-loading rifle, while the boy and baby had their skulls smashed in. The bodies of Teddy and Dolly Ching were found a mile and a half away; both had been shot and their skulls smashed in.

    Police and aboriginal trackers inspected the crime scene, and after the trackers stated that there was no trail to follow the police homed in on Silva. Silva, fearing a lynch mob from Mackay, eventually confessed to police.

    Tried only for the murder of Maud Ching, Silva was hanged at Boggo Road Gaol in Brisbane on 10 June 1912 and buried in South Brisbane Cemetery

    List of people legally executed in Norfolk Island

    • Peter McLean – 14 December 1800 – Irish convict and political prisoner, hanged without trial for conspiracy to mutiny
    • John Houlahan – 14 December 1800 – Irish convict and political prisoner, hanged without trial for conspiracy to mutiny
    • John McDonald – 13 April 1832 – Hanged for the attempted murder of fellow-convict Thomas Smith
    • Thomas Reilly – 23 September 1833 – Hanged for the murder of fellow-convict Edward Doolan
    • Matthew Connor – 23 September 1833 – Hanged for the attempted murder of constable Patrick Sullivan
    • James Reynolds – 23 September 1833 – Hanged for the attempted murder of constable Patrick Sullivan
    • Robert Douglas – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Henry Drummond – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • James Bell – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Joseph Butler – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Robert Glennie – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Walter Burke – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Joseph Snell – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • William McCulloch – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Michael Andrews – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • William Groves – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Thomas Freshwater – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Henry Knowles – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • Robert Ryan – 23 September 1834 – Hanged for mutiny
    • James Burrows – 26 December 1835 – Hanged for the murder of fellow-convict John Dursley
    • George Thompson – 26 December 1835 – Hanged for the attempted murder of fellow-convict John Fell at Longridge
    • William Westwood (Jackey Jackey) [GR1] – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for mutiny and the murder of convict constables John Morris, John Dinon, Thomas Saxton and police runner Stephen Smith, on 1 July 1846, known as the “Cooking Pot Uprising[GR2] 
    • John Davis – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • Samuel Kenyon – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • Dennis Pendergast – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • Owen Commuskey – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • Henry Whiting – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • William Pearson – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • James Cairnes – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • William Pickthorne – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • Lawrence Kavenagh – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • William Scrimshaw – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • Edward McGuinness – 13 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • William Brown – 19 October 1846 – Hanged for his involvement in the Cooking-Pot Uprising
    • John Liddall – 3 November 1846 – Hanged for murder of Henry Clarke
    • Bernard Macartney – 3 November 1846 – Hanged for murder of Henry Clarke

     [GR1]William Westwood (7 August 1820 – 13 October 1846), also known as Jackey Jackey, was an English-born convict who became a bushranger in Australia.

    Born in Essex, Westwood had already served one year in prison for highway robbery before his transportation at age 16 to the penal colony of New South Wales on a conviction of stealing a coat. He arrived in 1837 and was sent to Phillip Parker King‘s station near Bungendore as an assigned servant, but grew to resent working there due to mistreatment from the property’s overseer. In 1840, after receiving 50 lashes for attempting to escape, Westwood took up bushranging. The following year, troopers captured Westwood at Berrima, where he was convicted of armed robbery and horse stealing and sentenced to life imprisonment at Darlinghurst Gaol. Westwood escaped again and continued bushranging until his re-capture in July 1841. Sent to Cockatoo Island, he led a failed mass escape, and was transported for life in 1842 to Port ArthurVan Diemen’s Land.

    Westwood tried to escape from Port Arthur two times and received 100 lashes for each attempt. He successfully escaped in 1843 by swimming the channel; two other convicts who accompanied him were eaten by sharks. His new bushranging career ended that November when he was captured and sentenced to twelve months hard labour and solitary confinement. The following year, William Champ, Port Arthur’s new commandant, promoted Westwood to his boat crew, and approved his removal to Glenorchy on probation after the convict rescued two drowning men. Within several months, he returned to bushranging, and after his capture in September 1845 outside Hobart, was transported for life to Norfolk Island. There, in response to commandant Joseph Childs‘ confiscation of the prisoners’ cooking utensils, Westwood led the 1846 Cooking Pot Uprising, during which he murdered three constables and an overseer. He was captured and executed along with eleven other convicts.

    In the days before his execution, Westwood wrote an autobiography at the suggestion of Thomas Rogers, a religious instructor, who later had it published in The Australasian. Westwood also wrote a letter to a prison chaplain who had once befriended him, detailing the severe treatment of Norfolk Island prisoners by the authorities, and decrying the brutality of the convict system as a whole. It was published widely in the press and cited by activists campaigning for the end of penal transportation to Australia.

     [GR2]The Cooking Pot Uprising or Cooking Pot Riot, was an uprising of convicts led by William Westwood in the penal colony of Norfolk Island, Australia. It occurred on 1 July 1846 in response to the confiscation of convicts’ cooking vessels under the orders of the Commandant of the penal settlement, Major Joseph Childs.

    List of people legally executed in New South Wales

    From 1788 to 1830

    Precise location of execution not indicated

    • Samuel Mobbs – 16 March 1797 – Hanged for burglary.
    • James Reece – 8 February 1799 – Hanged for bestiality with a sow. Reece tried to cut his own throat on the morning of his execution.
    • John Hardy – 2 June 1800 – Hanged for vagrancy and theft.
    • William Jones – March 1803 – Hanged for robbing Thomas Harley, a settler from Prospect.
    • James Lovell – 22 February 1805 – Hanged for forging and uttering.
    • George Holland – 11 October 1806 – Hanged for breaking into the house of Laughlane Gallighcoghan at Parramatta and stealing 10 shillings. Holland had assaulted the occupant of the home, described as a “feeble old man”.
    • Dennis Kaneen – 27 November 1806 – Hanged for breaking into the house of James Hogsen and stealing six bushels of maize, some meat, sugar and a copper coin amounting to nine shillings and three pence.
    • William Page – 15 December 1806 – Hanged for burglary from the house of William Tracey at Fennel Farm.
    • Abraham Smith – 15 December 1806 – Hanged for burglary from the house of William Tracey at Fennel Farm.
    • William Poxam – 4 April 1807 – Hanged for sheep stealing.
    • John Hughes – 4 April 1807 – Hanged for entering the house of Edward Redmond and stealing a chest containing cash, bills and other property.
    • Hugh Dowling – 28 September 1808 – Hanged for armed burglary of the house of William Styles at Nepean and stealing cash and clothing.
    • William Davis – 11 June 1813 – Hanged for cutting and maiming William Mason with a knife during a drunken brawl at Ultimo.
    • Thomas Thorpe – September 1813 – Hanged for assaulting and robbing John Galligan of a silver watch on the King’s Highway.
    • William Gray – March or April 1814 – Hanged for highway robbery. Stopped the cart of Edward Powell Jr and John Beckwith on the King’s Highway and robbed them of ten gallons of spirits and other items.
    • Dennis Donovan – 12 July 1814 – Hanged for burglary of the house of John Cowley at Surry Hills, the murders of William Alder, Thomas White and Hannah Sculler on the Hawkesbury, and for rape. His body was handed over for anatomisation and dissection.
    • Patrick Dawson – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomized.
    • Philip McGee – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomized.
    • Henry Laycock – 9 February 1816 – Hanged for the robbery and murder of Edward Pugh at his home in Richmond. His body was dissected and anatomised.
    • Thomas Hill – 1 March 1816 – Hanged for cutting and maiming police constable Thomas Smith near Parramatta.
    • William Langford – 1 March 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery on the Parramatta Road, robbing William Wright of a silver watch.
    • Elizabeth Anderson – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for the murder of her husband, John Anderson, at Pitt Town. Her body was handed over to surgeons to be dissected and anatomised.
    • James Stock – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for the murder of John Anderson at Pitt Town. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Nicholas Knight – 19 July 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery of Mrs Pearce on the Liverpool Rd, of two gallons of rum and a quantity of barley.
    • Thomas Collins – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery having violently assaulted and robbed the cart of John Andrews on the Parramatta Road.
    • Hugh MacAlaire – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for highway robbery having violently assaulted and robbed the cart of John Andrews on the Parramatta Road.
    • Moowattin (also called Daniel Mowatty) – 1 November 1816 – Hanged for the rape of a fifteen-year-old girl at Parramatta. The first indigenous person legally hanged in Australia.
    • Patrick Ryan – 19 December 1825 – Hanged for arson in setting fire to the house of Richard Thompson at Bathurst.
    • John Judd – 30 April 1830 – Hanged for robbery and putting in fear of John Smith in the Singleton area. After receiving sentence of death from Judge Dowling, Judd remarked to the court “My Lord and Gentlemen of the Jury, it is only five minutes choking.”
    • John Roach – 30 April 1830 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear in the Singleton area.

    Sydney Cove

    • Thomas BarrettA person wearing a hat

Description automatically generated with low confidence – 27 February 1788 – Barrett was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing or conspiring to steal from government stores. He was the first person hanged in the colony of New South Wales.
    • John Bennett – 2 May 1788 – A 20-year-old convict who was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for theft.
    • Samuel Payton – 28 June 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing shirts, stockings and combs. He was a 20-year-old convict and stonemason.
    • Edward Corbett – 28 June 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for the theft of four cows.
    • James Daly – December 1788 – Hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of a handkerchief from a fellow convict using force and arms.
    • James Baker – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • James Brown – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Richard Lukes – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Thomas Jones – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Luke Haines/Haynes – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Richard Askew/Asky – 27 March 1789 – One of six Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
    • Ann/Anne Davis (alias Judith Jones) – 23 November 1789 – The first woman hanged in Australia. A First Fleet convict, she was found guilty of theft from a fellow convict at Sydney Cove. She claimed to be pregnant to avoid the noose and some old women were instructed to inspect her. One of the women told the court, “Gentlemen, she is as much with child as I am.”

    Sydney

    • Thomas Sanderson – 10 January 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing with force of arms flour, beef, pork, associated chattels and goods from Thomas Steel and Joseph Bishop.
    • William Chafe – 20 April 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of James Sunnyhill in Sydney Cove.
    • Hugh Low – 24 August 1790 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing. He had behaved with merit during the shipwreck of the Guardian[GR1] ; a letter of pardon arrived from His Majesty 12 months after his execution.
    • James Chapman – 28 July 1791 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking into the house of John Patree and stealing a shirt.
    • James Collington – 8 February 1792 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking into the hut of the baker John Campbell and stealing bread, flour and a check apron. At the hanging tree he addressed the assembled convicts before his execution, warning them to avoid the path he had pursued; but said that he was induced by hunger to commit the crime for which he suffered.
    • John Crowe/Crow – 10 December 1793 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Archibald Macdonald – 14 July 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • John Hemming – 17 July 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Robert Spriggs.
    • John Bevan – 6 October 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Fielder.
    • John Hill – 16 October 1794 – Hanged at Sydney for murder in the course of robbery. He had fatally stabbed Simon Burn in the left side of the chest at Parramatta.
    • William Smith – 16 November 1795 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Parrish at Prospect Hill.
    • John Fenlow – 8 August 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his servant David Lane at Mulgrave, on the Hawkesbury.
    • Francis Morgan – 30 November 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Simon Raven. Following his execution his body was gibbeted on Pinchgut Island A picture containing outdoor, water, sky, day

Description automatically generatedin Sydney Harbour. His skeleton was still hanging there four years after his execution.
    • John Lawler/Lawor – 30 November 1796 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the public stores.
    • Martin McEwan – 30 November 1796 – Soldier, hanged at Sydney for robbing the public stores.
    • John Rayner – 31 July 1797 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Johnathan Boroughbridge – April 1798 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy after he and accomplices stole two boats with the intent of escaping the colony.
    • Michael Gibson – April 1798 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy after he and accomplices stole two boats with the intent of escaping the colony.
    • Samuel Wright – February 1799 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Simeon Lord in High St (Lower George St). Wright had been reprieved at the gallows in 1793, when previously sentenced to hang for burglary.
    • Thomas Jones – 6 July 1799 – Publicly hanged in Sydney on the site of the crime for the murder of missionary Samuel Clode in the brickfields. A soldier in the NSW Corps, he had owed the missionary money but when the man came to collect he was murdered by Jones with his wife and two neighbors as accomplices. Clode was stabbed, his throat cut and his skull fractured with an axe. The Jones house was pulled down and burned on orders of the governor, the gallows were erected on its spot and he and two of his accomplices were hanged. Jones’ corpse was later gibbeted.
    • Elizabeth Jones – 6 July 1799 – Wife of Thomas Jones. Hanged at Sydney for her part in the murder of missionary Samuel Clode at the brickfields in Sydney. After being hanged her body was handed over for surgical dissection.
    • William Elberry – 6 July 1799 – Hanged at Sydney for his part in the murder of Samuel Clode, executed where the murder took place then gibbeted.
    • William Meredeth – 4 July 1800 – Hanged at Sydney for escaping from custody.
    • Thomas Thompson – 4 July 1800 – A corporal in the New South Wales Corps. Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
    • James Riley – December 1800 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary. However another source indicates that he may not in fact have been executed.
    • Charles Davis – February 1801 – Hanged at Sydney
    • David Burton – 5 December 1801 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mary Hailey
    • Laughlan Doyle – 14 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • John Lynch – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • John Francis Morgan – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Patrick Ross – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Thomas Shanks – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Michael Wollaghan – March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Laurence Dempsey – 19 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Timothy Mulch/Mulcahy/Malahoy – 25 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • John Brown – 26 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • James Connors – 26 March 1803 – Hanged at Sydney for feloniously entering the house of Thomas Neal of Richmond Hill.
    • Charles Crump – 20 February 1804 – Hanged in Sydney for the theft of nine pieces of chintzes and printed calicoes from William Tough in Sydney Cove.
    • John Brannan – 10 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Sydney.
    • Timothy Hogan – 10 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Sydney.
    • James Bevan (known as ‘Warminster’) – 21 May 1804 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of eight-year-old Elizabeth Douglas.
    • John Green – 21 November 1804 – Hanged at Sydney for rape near Parramatta on 11 November 1804. Green was African-American, born in Pennsylvania.
    • William Miller – 30 September 1805 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Bridget Kean at Hawkesbury.
    • Herbert Keeling – 28 April 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for forging and uttering two promissory notes purporting to be drawn by Henry Kable.
    • James Dabbs – 16 May 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the home of Rowland Hassall at Parramatta.
    • Elias Davis – 4 September 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the dwelling house of Robert Broughton, Parramatta.
    • William Organ – 11 October 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing nine sheep from his employer John Palmer [GR2] between the Hawkesbury and Sydney.
    • Joseph Moreton – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of Henry Williams near Castle Hill.
    • William Mason – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the house of John Prosser and stealing a cart and an article of clothing.
    • John Murphey – 27 November 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for breaking and entering the house of Michael Connor at North Boundary.
    • James Halfpenny – 17 December 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for bushranging and theft of livestock, four muskets and a chest.
    • Stephen Halfpenny – 17 December 1806 – Hanged at Sydney for bushranging and theft of livestock, four muskets and a chest.
    • Joseph Eades – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
    • John Higgins – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
    • William Morgan – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing a cart of alcohol and clothing items.
    • Robert Murray – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing from the property of James Larratts.
    • Benjamin Yeates – 3 July 1807 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing from the property of James Larratts.
    • John Brown – 30 May 1808 – Hanged at Sydney. A convict who escaped from custody and remained at large in the Van Diemen’s Land wilderness for some 20 months. During this time, with John Lemon (Lemon was shot dead while resisting capture) he was involved in the murder of three soldiers, Corporal John Curry, Private Robert Grindstone and Private James Daniels. For his involvement in the crimes Brown was transported from Van Diemen’s Land to Sydney to stand trial. His body was dissected and gibbeted.
    • Alexander Wilson (alias Charles Boyle) – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of William Moad.
    • John MacNeal – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery upon his master, having stolen two half casks and two quarter casks of gunpowder from the house of Robert Campbell.
    • Mary Grady – 18 June 1808 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Charles Stuart at Parramatta.
    • Richard Broughton – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing two head of horned cattle from John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
    • John Cheeseman – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing two head of horned cattle from John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
    • Charles Flynn – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for stealing from on board the ship Hero, lying in Sydney Cove, two spy glasses valued at 40 shillings and a table cloth valued at 10 shillings.
    • Joseph Moreton – 29 August 1808 – Hanged in Sydney for forging and uttering a promissory note thereby defrauding Benjamin South of Richmond Hill the sum of £21.
    • Thomas Doolan (Dowlan) – 26 August 1809 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of John Styles on the Hawkesbury.
    • John Campbell – June 1810 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Elizabeth Macarthur[GR3] .
    • James Hutchinson – 26 February 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from the shop of Thomas Abbott. Hutchinson was originally condemned to death in June 1810 for burglary however he escaped from custody, upon being recaptured his sentence was reduced to hard labour. In February 1811 he was convicted along with James Ratty of stealing from commercial premises and both were hanged together.
    • James Ratty – 26 February 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cloth, muslin etc. from the shop of Thomas Abbott.
    • Martin Egan – 10 May 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Cooney. After being executed his body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Thomas Clough – 13 May 1811 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Cooney. After being executed his body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Gould – 9 March 1812 – A soldier of the 73rd Regiment of Foot. Hanged in Sydney for the murder of Margaret Finnie, the wife of a fellow soldier.
    • Peter Gory – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • John McCabe – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • John Townsend – 21 January 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at arms of William Parish in Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • Matthew Kearns – 24 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Kearns (the Elder) – 24 March 1813 – (Brother of Matthew Kearns). Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Kearns (the Younger) – 24 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Joseph Sutton, body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Richard Berry – 31 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
    • John Mahony – 31 March 1813 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing (brother of Thomas Mahony who was hanged on 24 March 1813 in Paramatta for a separate offence).
    • Angelo (Giuseppe) LeRose – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of Samuel Larkin on Parramatta Road, Iron Cove.
    • Francis Barry – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing three oxen that were the property of the crown.
    • Richard Dowling – 13 April 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing three oxen that were the property of the crown.
    • Thomas John Turner – 12 July 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Elizabeth, whom he stabbed to death at Port Dalrymple, Van Diemen’s Land. His body was given up for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Bartholomew Foley – 14 July 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for sheep stealing at Launceston, Van Diemen’s Land.
    • John White – 22 July 1814 – Hanged for his part in the murders of Rowland Edwards and William Jenkins during a botched robbery of the house at the Parramatta Toll Gate. He was accompanied by Dennis Donovan (hanged for other offences on 12 July 1814); it was Donovan who fired the fatal shots. But for his part in the robbery John White was found equally guilty. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Patrick Collins – 20 December 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for his part in the murder of William Alder & Thomas White on the Hawkesbury. Body dissected and anatomised.
    • John Shepherd – 20 December 1814 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mary Bryant in The Rocks, Sydney. His body was handed over to surgeons for dissection and anatomisation.
    • John Styles – 7 July 1815 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Roberts at Botany Bay. His body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Colin Hunter – 4 November 1816 – Hanged in Sydney for the murder at Canterbury of John Miller who was shot during a burglary of his home. Body was dissected and anatomised pursuant to sentence.
    • Thomas Dooley – 4 November 1816 – Hanged in Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of John Miller. The prisoner’s body was handed over for dissection and anatomisation after he was executed.
    • Michael Ryan (real name John Mahony) – 4 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of John Miller. Body was dissected and anatomised pursuant to sentence.
    • James Flavell – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Thomas Reeds in Castlereagh St.
    • William Tripp – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Thomas Reeds in Castlereagh St.
    • John Palmer – 15 November 1816 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a bullock from the herd of Capt. Eber Bunker [GR4] at Liverpool.
    • Samuel Smith – 3 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Randall at George Town, Van Diemen’s Land
    • John Walker – 10 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Suddis at Wilberforce.
    • Ralph Pearson – 10 October 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Suddis at Wilberforce.
    • Thomas McGiff – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of John Parkes at Petersham.
    • Thomas Brown – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a mare, the property of Thomas Arkill.
    • Patrick Ducey – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a cow, the property of Patrick Devoy.
    • Bartholomew Roach – 7 November 1817 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing two heifers, the property of John Croker.
    • William Wallis – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery in the house of John Harris[GR5] .
    • Edward Haley – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a horse, cart and other sundries near Parramatta.
    • Samuel Pollock – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a horse, cart and other sundries near Parramatta.
    • James Fitzpatrick – 27 February 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the house of John Brown at Portland Head.
    • Pedro Aldanoes (also called Peter Adams) – 7 December 1818 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Joseph Yeates outside Parramatta.
    • Timothy Buckley – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of district constable William Cosgrove at South Creek.
    • David Brown – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of William Cosgrove.
    • Timothy Ford – 9 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of William Cosgrove.
    • Thomas Ray – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • John Jones – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • Thomas Smith – 16 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • John Green – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for housebreaking and attempted murder at Cockle Bay.
    • John Brennan – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for housebreaking and attempted murder at Cockle Bay.
    • John Petree (alias McIntosh) – 23 April 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery outside Liverpool.
    • Matthew Dace – 31 December 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Dennis Guiney on the Parramatta Road.
    • Robert Parsons – 31 December 1819 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Dennis Guiney on the Parramatta Road.
    • William Taylor – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in Castlereagh Street.
    • James Ingley – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in Castlereagh Street.
    • James Garland – 14 July 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery of store receipts at Parramatta.
    • Thomas McGowran – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
    • Daniel (or David) Bell – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing. Originally transported on the Friendship (1800) for his role in the Irish Rebellion.
    • Annesley McGrath – 18 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing.
    • George Rouse – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the residence of Lieutenant Hector Macquarie.
    • Dennis Malloy – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle.
    • Thomas Ford (alias Ward) – 25 August 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the residence of Anne Robinson on the Parramatta Road.
    • John Kirby – 18 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Burragong, also called Jack, an indigenous tracker, in the Newcastle district.
    • George Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
    • James Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
    • Solomon Bowerman – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at the eighteen-mile stone on the Windsor Road.
    • James Clancy (Clency) – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from a house and violent robbery of a child.
    • John Bagnell – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for house-breaking and highway robbery.
    • Nicholas Cooke – 22 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing from the house of James Seville near Constitution Hill, and assaulting Constable Edward Dillon with a stone.
    • Edward Luffin – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle duffing.
    • Michael Tracey – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at the house of John Waite.
    • John Sullivan – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Daniel O’Brien – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery.
    • John O’Brien – 23 December 1820 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle duffing.
    • William Swift – 17 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Maria Minton at Richmond.
    • James Robinson – 17 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer Charles Linton. Robinson was from Angola.
    • Francis Pascoe – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Michael Donnelly.
    • John Ryan – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery.
    • Miles Jordan – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in the Hawkesbury district.
    • Pasco Haddycott – 22 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Michael Donnelly.
    • William McGeary (Geary) – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for a string of highway robberies on the Windsor Road.
    • Thomas Smith – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • John Whiteman – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • William Kennedy – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary & theft of a hat, comb and razor from Henry McAlister near Prospect.
    • John Mills – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • Charles Young – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • John Cochrane – 24 August 1821 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Windsor Road.
    • Francis Murphy – 6 April 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Nicholas Devine[GR6]  (former Superintendent of Convicts) at what is now Erskineville.
    • William Harris – 6 April 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of James Cribb on the Parramatta Road.
    • John Maloney – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
    • William Varley – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
    • Thomas Roach – 1 May 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing the house of John McKenzie at Pitt Town.
    • George Young – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of a cart belonging to John Blaxland at South Creek.
    • James Dowden – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of John Sunderland, south of Parramatta.
    • Joseph Knowles – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from John Price’s residence at the Parramatta Toll-House.
    • George Barke – 5 July 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from John Price’s residence at the Parramatta Toll-House.
    • Thomas Barry – 14 October 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel and Esther Bradley at Birchgrove.
    • Valentine Wood – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing Sergeant Barlow on the Prospect Road.
    • William Baxter – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of Robert Hawkins on the Dog Trap Road.
    • Thomas Till – 8 November 1822 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing a boat at Port Macquarie.
    • William Poole – 22 May 1823 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally sentenced to death for leading a party of convicts in escape into the hinterland, in the hope they could walk to Timor.
    • Edward Gorman – 13 October 1823 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Wells during a robbery at Minto. Gorman was recognizable for his “remarkable tooth”.
    • Robert Grant – 15 January 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally condemned to death in 1822 for horse theft.
    • Thomas Harley – 4 March 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for returning from Port Macquarie in defiance of his commuted sentence. Originally sentenced to death in 1822 for burglary from the house of Robert Campbell [GR7] in George St.
    • Cornelius Fitzpatrick – 28 June 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Bentley outside Newcastle.
    • John Donovan – 23 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Tom Brown at Emu Plains.
    • John Hand – 30 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Minton at Richmond.
    • James Stack – 30 August 1824 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Minton at Richmond.
    • Martin Benson – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek near Windsor.
    • Eliza Campbell – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of her master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • James Coogan – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • Anthony Rodney – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • John Sprole – 23 January 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his master John Brackfield at South Creek, near Windsor.
    • Jeremiah Buckley – 4 April 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Canterbury.
    • Edmond Bates – 11 April 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for beating his wife Julia to death during a Christmas Day drunken rage at Kissing Point.
    • James Wright – 30 May 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe murder of his wife Mary Ann at the Hawkesbury.
    • James Webb – 19 August 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Robert Collett at Toongabbie.
    • Patrick Moloney – 12 September 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Elliott at Port Macquarie.
    • Daniel Leary – 12 December 1825 – Hanged at Sydney for rape of Mary Grainger at Wallis Plains.
    • John Burke – 6 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Cogan at Mulgoa.
    • William Corbett – 6 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Great Western Road.
    • Duncan McCallum – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • Peter Roberts – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • William Patient – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • William Morrison – 7 March 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at South Creek.
    • Andrew White – 1 May 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Taggart at Grant’s Creek, outside Bathurst.
    • William Cusack – 3 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Campbelltown.
    • John Hossle – 3 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of John Blackman at Bathurst.
    • Bridget Fairless – 12 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in what is now the Leichhardt section of Parramatta Road.
    • John Connolly (Collins) – 12 July 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in what is now the Leichhardt section of Parramatta Road.
    • Charles Butler – 3 August 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Kitty Carman (Catherine Collins) at Portland Head.
    • Joseph Lockett – 7 August 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road near Cabramatta.
    • Isaac Smith – 11 September 1826 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable William Green at Captain John Brabyn’s estate, Clifton, Windsor.
    • George Worrall (Fisher’s Ghost Murder[GR8] ) – 5 February 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Frederick Fisher at Campbelltown.
    • William Leddington – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • James Smith – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • John Edwards – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • Richard Johnson – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington at Norfolk Island
    • Edward Coulthurst – 12 March 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for piracy on the brig Wellington A ship in the water

Description automatically generated with low confidenceat Norfolk Island
    • William Ward – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of Michael Foley at Bringelly
    • Thomas Power – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of Michael Foley at Bringelly
    • John Curry – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joseph Cox on the road between Liverpool and Parramatta
    • William Webb – 21 May 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery and putting in fear of the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill
    • John Lynch – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for the burglary of the house of Thomas Parnell at Richmond. Lynch was also involved in the Wellington mutiny.
    • Michael Coogan – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery. Coogan was an American who had also attempted piracy of a ship called The Liberty
    • Thomas Quinn – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill. Before the noose was fastened Quinn kicked off his boots “and they fell with a hollow sound on his coffin, which lay directly under”.
    • Patrick Geary – 18 June 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill
    • John Goff – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
    • Edward Moore – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
    • William Watson – 24 September 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for murder while attempting escape on Norfolk Island.
    • Black Tommy – 31 December 1827 – (sometimes called Jackey-Jackey) Wiradjuri man from Bathurst district, hanged at Sydney for the murder of Geoffrey Connell at Reedy Swamp, near Bathurst.
    • William Lee – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
    • Jon Carrington – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
    • James Charlton – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing in the dwelling-house of John Coghill, and putting the inmates in bodily fear.
    • William (or Michael) Pearce – 31 December 1827 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery in the house of Francis Forbes at Liverpool.
    • Charles Connor – 13 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of James Mackenzie at Windsor.
    • Lot McNamara – 17 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Janet Mackellar at Minto.
    • William Johnson – 24 March 1828 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for the murder of Morris Morgan at Moreton Bay.
    • George Kilroy (Kildray, Gilroy, Kilray) – 24 March 1828 – An associate of Jack Donahue. Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Plomer on the Richmond Road.
    • William Smith – 24 March 1828 – An associate of Jack Donahue[GR9] . Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Plomer on the Richmond road. On the first attempt the rope snapped and Smith fell to the ground. He was taken away until Kilroy and Johnson were declared dead and their corpses removed, then he was hanged again.
    • William Regan – 5 May 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Davis in Castlereagh St.
    • John Timmins – 11 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • Thomas Ford – 11 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • John Curtis – 16 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a cow from the herd of William Wentworth,[GR10]  at Bringelly.
    • James (or Joseph) Johnson (also called Philip Macauley, Phillip Gawley) – 16 June 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of George Tills outside Liverpool.
    • John Welsh – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and attempted murder of George Barber at Picton.
    • Joseph Bradley – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
    • Patrick Troy – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery.
    • Patrick Kegney (sometimes Stegney) – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
    • Joseph (John) Spicer – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
    • John (James) Tomlins – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery.
    • James Henry – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a cow at Stone Quarry Creek.
    • Samuel Clarke – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • Thomas Quigley – 20 October 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Stephen Hunter at Cornwallis.
    • Alexander Browne – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for sodomy with William Lyster on the whaler Royal Sovereign.
    • John Welch – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and the armed assault of Constable William Wade at Bong Bong. Welch was about sixteen at the time of his execution. “He cried bitterly”.
    • William Bayne – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and armed assault of Constable Wade at Bong Bong.
    • Thomas Whisken (or Wiscott) – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
    • William Owens – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
    • James Holmes – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of the home of James Hassall at Bathurst.
    • John Iron – 22 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery of John Browne at Botany.
    • Thomas Ryan – 29 December 1828 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James McGrath just north of Richmond.
    • Michael Green – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
    • John Payne (sometimes Paid) – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill.
    • Edward Whelan – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and robbery from the house of Timothy Beard at Carnes Hill.
    • George Skinner – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
    • John Price – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Susannah Smith at Windsor.
    • Michael Lynch – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Thomas Kendall at Pitt Town.
    • Florence (or Henry) Driscoll – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Isaac Cornwall at Richmond.
    • Lot Molds – 12 January 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Thomas Kendall at Pitt Town.
    • William Riddell – 23 March 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Heley in the Muswellbrook district. Riddell apparently desired Heley’s wife; Heley was found dismembered in a stump hole. Riddell was an atheist, republican, radical, autodidact. He ran up the steps to the gallows, took snuff and said “I prefer death to living in chains and fetters in such a country as this”.
    • Charles White – 8 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Murphy at Luskintyre.
    • John Brunger (also called Brugan/Burgen) – 18 Apr 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William Perfoot (also called Parfitt) at Moreton Bay.
    • Thomas Matthews – 18 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Connolly, a fellow work-gang member, at Moreton Bay.
    • Thomas Allen – 18 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Connolly, a fellow work-gang member, at Moreton Bay.
    • Patrick Sullivan – 20 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Condron at Moreton Bay.
    • William Bowen – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Leslie Duguid at Wallis Plains (East Maitland).
    • Peter Reilly – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Ellis Hall at Wallis Plains.
    • James Smart – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the home of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
    • James Gallagher – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
    • John Crowther – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of John Thomas at Wallis Plains.
    • Thomas Slater – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for assault on Betty Griffiths with a tomahawk in Cumberland St. Sydney.
    • William Yemms (Jems) – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the government stores at Port Macquarie.
    • James Gardiner – 27 April 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the government stores at Port Macquarie.
    • William Davison – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
    • John Whelan – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
    • John Shorter – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for stealing cattle from James Laidley at Bathurst.
    • George Smith – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Illawarra district.
    • John Allwright – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Illawarra district.
    • George McDonald – 4 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Illawarra district.
    • James Naughton – 25 May 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Elizabeth Watson. He was previously charged, with Edward Gorman, with murder in 1823.
    • Timothy Murphy – 1 June 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow-convict John Monaghan at Mt York while they were working on the road to Bathurst.
    • John Slack (alias York) – 22 June 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary at the house of Timothy Beard at Cabramatta.
    • George Groves – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Richard Brooks at Denham Court.
    • James McColville – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary of the house of Richard Brooks at Denham Court.[GR11] 
    • John Salt – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
    • Richard Peacock – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
    • William Pitts – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Ben Crow in the Bargo Brush.
    • John Neilson – 8 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Windsor.
    • James Barnes – 13 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joshua Moore on the Liverpool Road.
    • Joseph Stephenson – 13 July 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Joshua Moore on the Liverpool Road.
    • Daniel Grier – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Charles Penson (Tinson, Tinsal) – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary
    • Joseph Parker – 28 September 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John “Kangaroo Jack” Hazeldine at Gibraltar Creek in the Cox’s River district.
    • George Williams – 22 October 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery, assault and battery of William Hickey
    • John Sly – 28 December 1829 – Hanged at Sydney for forgery
    • Thomas Finley – 11 January 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of overseer Edward Walsh at Bathurst.
    • Stephen Smith – 5 April 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow convict William Davis at Moreton Bay
    • John Hawes – 5 April 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe-murder of fellow convict William Davis at Moreton Bay
    • Henry Muggleton – 31 May 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Mark King at Moreton Bay
    • Daniel Kirwan (Curwen) – 7 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of a constable on the Windsor Road
    • John Martin – 7 June 1830 – Known as ‘Jack the Drummer’. Hanged at Sydney for the rape of seven-year-old Eliza Deering in a yard off George Street
    • Michael Toole – 7 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear at Pitt Water
    • Thomas McCormick – 21 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting the occupants in fear
    • Jack Field – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Toongabbie
    • Henry O’Neil – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Toongabbie
    • Harry Cade – 23 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Pike between Parramatta and Prospect. Cade was transported at the age of fourteen and executed after he turned sixteen
    • William Dalton – 28 June 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of John Ellison near Parramatta
    • William Coleman – 13 December 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for robbing his master Samuel Terry[GR12] . Coleman stole money and buried it in a bottle in Terry’s garden.

    Rose Hill

    • George Mitton – 1788 – Hanged at Rose Hill (Parramatta) for robbery.
    • William Harris – 28 October 1790 – Broke into a house in Rose Hill and assaulted one of the occupants, stole three pounds of beef and one pound of flour, a frock and a book. He was publicly hanged at Rose Hill.
    • Edward Wildblood – 28 October 1790 – A co-offender with the aforementioned William Harris, he was convicted of breaking into a house in Rose Hill, assaulting one of the occupants and stealing three pounds of beef and one pound of flour, a frock and a book. He was publicly hanged at Rose Hill.

    (Rose Hill was officially renamed Parramatta in June 1791)

    Parramatta

    • James Derry – 19 September 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
    • Matthew McNally – 1 December 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
    • Thomas Doyle – 1 December 1796 – Hanged at Parramatta for robbing the public stores.
    • Simon Taylor – 20 May 1799 – Hanged at Parramatta for the murder of his wife Anne Taylor.
    • Richard Weston – May or June 1800 – Hanged at Parramatta for vagrancy and theft.
    • Charles Hill – 8 March 1804 – Freeman who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Parramatta
    • Samuel Humes/Hughes – 8 March 1804 – Convict, a principal and informant who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Executed at Parramatta, then gibbeted.
    • John Place – 8 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at Parramatta.
    • Patrick McDermot – 19 May 1806 – Hanged at Parramatta for burglary from the house of Matthew Pearce at Seven Hills and theft of clothing items.
    • John Kenny – 24 January 1807 – Hanged and gibbetted at the scene of the crime in Parramatta for the murder of Mary Smith.
    • Michael Bagan – 20 June 1808 – Entered the house of Jane Codd near Parramatta, assaulted her and stole items from her home. Hanged at the Parramatta brickfields.
    • Felix Donnelly – 20 June 1808 – Entered the house of Jane Codd near Parramatta, assaulted her and stole items from her home. Hanged at the Parramatta brickfields.
    • John Dunn – 25 August 1811 – Hanged at Parramatta for the murder of Mary Rowe, his body was handed over to the medical officer at Parramatta General Hospital for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Pearce Conden – 24 March 1813 – Publicly hanged at the site of the crime in George St Parramatta for the murder of Joseph Sutton. Body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Thomas Mahony – 24 March 1813 – Publicly hanged at the site of the crime in George St Parramatta for the murder of Joseph Sutton. Body handed over for dissection and anatomisation.
    • Matthew Craven – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged outside Parramatta for ‘divers robberies’.
    • Thomas Cavanaugh – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged outside Parramatta for armed robberies.
    • Thomas (John) Ashton – 2 December 1829 – Hanged at Parramatta for rape of ten-year-old Elizabeth Price.

    Castle Hill

    • Patrick Gannon – 23 March 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for rape, attempted murder and robbery.
    • Francis Simpson – 23 March 1803 – Hanged along with Patrick Gannon at Castle Hill for robbery.
    • John Lynch – 27 September 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for the assault and robbery of Samuel Phelps at Hawkesbury.
    • James Tracey – 27 September 1803 – Hanged at Castle Hill for the assault and robbery of Samuel Phelps at Hawkesbury.
    • William Johnston – 9 March 1804 – Convict, a principal along with Phillip Cunningham in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Executed at Castle Hill, then gibbeted.
    • John Neal – 9 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at the Government Farm, Castle Hill.
    • George Harrington – 9 March 1804 – Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion. Hanged at the Government Farm, Castle Hill.

    Hawkesbury & Windsor

    • Thomas McLaughlane (the elder) – 7 October 1803 – Hanged at Hawkesbury, for robbery with violence at the house of John Palmer at Hawkesbury.
    • Phillip Cunningham – 5 March 1804 – Convict, leader of the Castle Hill Rebellion.[GR13]  Summarily hanged on the steps of the government storehouse at Greenhills (present day Windsor).
    • James Davis – 19 June 1810 – Hanged at Portland Head (Hawkesbury) for burglary from the house of John Cox.
    • Thomas Begley – 31 August 1829 – Hanged at Windsor for burglary at Mulgoa.
    • Michael Rafter – 29 January 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for a litany of burglaries in the Portland Head district.
    • John Smith – 29 January 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for rape of his seven-year-old daughter.
    • John Tiernan – 25 August 1830 – Hanged at Windsor for highway robbery, horse theft and stealing. Aged seventeen, Tiernan objected to being interrupted in his prayers on the scaffold and wrestled the executioner over the edge of the platform.

    Newcastle

    • John Pagan – 7 January 1820 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of James White.
    • William Smith – 7 January 1820 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of James White.

    Burwood

    • Daniel Watkins – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for the armed robbery of Thomas Bartie Clay at Burwood.
    • Thomas Mustin (Muston) – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for robbery and putting in fear at the house of Richard Morgan on the Liverpool Road.
    • John Brown – 16 October 1826 – Publicly hanged at Burwood for robbery and putting in fear at the house of Richard Morgan on the Liverpool Road.

    Bankstown

    • Patrick Sullivan – 18 October 1826 – Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown (‘Irish Town’, now Bass Hill) for bushranging[GR14] .
    • James Moran – 18 October 1826 – Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown (‘Irish Town’, now Bass Hill) for bushranging.

    Campbelltown

    • John Holmes – 21 August 1829 – Hanged at Campbelltown for setting fire to a barn belonging to James Bean at Campbelltown.
    • Richard McCann – 6 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for theft, assault and putting in fear in the Goulburn district
    • Thomas Beasley – 8 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary with assault in the Airds district
    • Joseph Moorbee (Mowerby, alias Nuttall) – 8 February 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary with assault in the Airds district
    • Mark Byfield – 8 March 1830 – Hanged at Sydney for the theft of a silver watch
    • Broger – 30 August 1830 – Indigenous. Publicly hanged at Campbelltown for the murder of John Rivett at Kangaroo Valley
    • Peter Dew (alias Saunders) – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary and putting in fear at Goulburn
    • William Haggerty – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for cattle theft from Francis Lawless in the Liverpool district
    • John Spellary – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for cattle theft from Francis Lawless in the Liverpool district
    • James Welsh – 31 August 1830 – Hanged at Campbelltown for burglary from the house of David Reece at Burra Burra, near Taralga.

    Maitland

    • Michael Brown – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • Patrick Corcoran – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • Andrew Cullen – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • Richard Turnstyle – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for burglary and putting in fear at the house of William Forsyth.
    • William Chandler – 1 September 1829 – Hanged at Maitland for horse theft from Peter Cunningham at Merton (near Denman).

    Liverpool

    • Jean Herman Maas – 1 September 1830 – Hanged at Liverpool for forgery.
    • James McGibbon – 1 September 1830 – Hanged at Liverpool for forgery.

    Bathurst

    • Ralph Entwistle (“The Ribbon Gang”[GR15] ) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood near present-day Georges Plains, bushranging and horse theft
    • Thomas Dunne (“The Ribbon Gang”)- 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Dominic Daley (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
    • James Driver (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
    • William Gahan (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Patrick Gleeson (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Michael Kearney (“The Ribbon Gang”)- 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • John Kenny (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft
    • John Shepherd (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John Greenwood, bushranging and horse theft
    • Robert Webster (“The Ribbon Gang”) – 2 November 1830 – Hanged at Bathurst for plundering houses, bushranging and horse theft.

    1831-1839

    • William Bubb – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island.
    • John Cook – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island.
    • James Murphy – 10 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Adam Oliver at Norfolk Island
    • John Mason – 15 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for armed robberies at Kingdon Ponds (near Scone) and Liverpool Plains
    • Edward Bowen – 15 January 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the house of John Town, Upper Hunter (Goulburn River).
    • Hugh Duffy – 15 January 1831 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear at the house of John Town.
    • Patrick Feeney – 15 January 1831 – Hanged for burglary and putting in fear at the house of John Town.
    • Lawrence Moore – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
    • Thomas Kite – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
    • Dennis Kelly – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong
    • Anthony Connor – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Gregory Blaxland at Wollongong.
    • David O’Hara – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the house of James Raymond.
    • Thomas Woolley – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the house of James Raymond.
    • John Welch – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for attempted murder at Norfolk Island.
    • Joseph Crampton – 11 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for highway robbery with violence of George Cubitt at Parramatta.
    • Charles McManus – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of John Norman at Moreton Bay.
    • John Thomas – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for cattle stealing in the Menangle Park area.
    • James Ready – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary at Annandale.
    • William Webber – 18 July 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the road from South Creek to Parramatta.
    • John Roberts – 5 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James McIlroy (James Michael Roy) at Patterson’s Plains. Roberts was Welsh and spoke little English. His corpse was sent for dissection but the remains were crudely discarded and were found scattered in the Domain.
    • John Leadbeater (alias Onions) – 23 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Maxwell at Patterson’s Plains.
    • Thomas Lucas – 23 September 1831 – Hanged for the murder of Constable Robert “Long Bob” Watersworth in the West Pennant Hills area.
    • David Pegg – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Hunter Valley.
    • Richard Anscombe – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear in the Hunter Valley.
    • Hugh Carberry – 26 September 1831 – Hanged at Sydney for theft of a horse and cattle.

    Skeleton and chains used to gibbet a man (William Mooney or John White) convicted of murder and hung at Goulburn in 1831 William Mooney – 16 November 1831 – Publicly hanged on the outskirts of Goulburn for the murder of his overseer Maurice Roach near Crookwell. Body hung in gibbet until ordered buried by Governor Bourne in 1833.

    • John White – 16 November 1831 – Publicly hanged on the outskirts of Goulburn for the murder of his overseer Maurice Roach near Crookwell. Body hung in gibbet until ordered buried by Governor Bourne in 1833.
    • Edward Slingsby – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for the murder of William Payne at Dunn’s Plains, outside Rockley.
    • Michael Lynch – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for aiding and abetting the murder of William Payne.
    • Denis O’Brien – 21 November 1831 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for aiding and abetting the murder of William Payne.
    • Charles Smithwick – 27 February 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of George Miller at Razorback.
    • Patrick McGuire – 5 March 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of fellow convict Matthew Gallagher at Moreton Bay.
    • Thomas Wood (alias Carberry) – 8 March 1832 – Hanged for highway robbery outside Parramatta.
    • Patrick Burke – 14 March 1832 – Bushranger. Publicly hanged at the scene of his crime for highway robbery at Appin.
    • Thomas Brennan – 6 April 1832 – Shot by military firing squad at Dawes Battery, Sydney. A private soldier of His Majesty’s 39th Regiment of Foot, Brennan had fired at his sergeant with the intent of killing him.
    • John Hammell – 7 May 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer George Williamson with a spade at Grose Farm (today Sydney University).
    • John Fitzsimmons – 14 June 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for arson. (Fitzsimmons set ablaze a stack of wheat at Penrith).
    • John Troy – 18 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and burglary at Canterbury.
    • Thomas Smith – 18 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and burglary at Canterbury.
    • Edward Kennedy – 23 August 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for divers highway robberies at Parramatta and Cabramatta.
    • Edward Fordham – 5 November 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Bradford at Lower Minto.
    • Russell Crawford – 8 December 1832 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of George Suttor[GR16]  on the Windsor Road.
    • James Lockhard – 4 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Murdoch Campbell in the Narellan area.
    • Patrick Brady – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Daniel Stewart at Webb’s Creek, Windsor.
    • John Walsh – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Henry Kenyon at Bathurst.
    • James Dwyer – 11 February 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Henry Dawkins at Bathurst.
    • John Bowen – 7 March 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and putting in fear at Inverary.
    • Joseph Coleman – 18 March 1833 – Hanged at Old Banks, Paterson Plains for the attempted murder of Edward Cory.
    • William Carney – 20 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Michael Keith at Penrith.
    • William Jones – 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road.
    • Robert Mullins – 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road.
    • Patrick Neagle (Nangle, Naigle)– 23 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool Road
    • Edward Green – 27 May 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Edwards at a shop in Pitt St.
    • Richard Long – 11 July 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Dog Trap Road.
    • Henry Cook – 11 July 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Dog Trap Road.
    • John Richardson – 5 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Maitland.
    • Henry Beard – 5 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Maitland.
    • William Johnstone – 6 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Prospect Hill.
    • Joseph Clifford – 6 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Prospect Hill.
    • Terence Byrne – 12 August 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Ann Davis at Lane Cove.
    • Edward Giles – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at Sutton Forest.
    • Jonathan Jones – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of an elderly lady, Mary Larkin, of silver, handkerchiefs and jewlery on the Liverpool Road.
    • John (“Flash Kiddy”) Elliott – 12 September 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery of a butcher named Mason in Liverpool St.
    • George Giddons – 28 November 1833 – Hanged for attempted murder of Thomas Millbourne at Port Macquarie.
    • Anthony Hitchcock (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Castle Forbes for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach at Patrick’s Plains, Hunter Valley.
    • John Poole (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Castle Forbes for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach at Patrick’s Plains, Hunter Valley.
    • James Riley (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach
    • John Perry (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach
    • James Ryan (“Castle Forbes Gang”) – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting with intent to kill John Larnach.
    • Michael Kearns – 21 December 1833 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault on the person of James Podman at Bathurst.
    • Bryant Kyne – 13 January 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Gavarin (Gevan, Gavan, Gavanagh, Govarin) at the Balmain residence of the solicitor-general, John Plunkett.
    • Patrick Gallagher – 23 January 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Ellen Walsh in the vicinity of St Mary’s Rd, Domain.
    • William Elliott – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of police corporal James McNally on Parramatta Road near Concord.
    • William Gills – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Donald McIntyre[GR17]  at Invermein, near Scone.
    • William “Blue Stockings” Johnson – 6 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the armed robbery of David Ramsay at Fish River in the Bathurst district.
    • John Elliott – 14 March 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Frances Cunningham at Sutton Forest
    • Michael Carey – 19 May 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for sexual assault on ten-year-old Michael Minton (son of Michael Minton, murdered in the Richmond district in 1824) on the Parramatta Rd. Minton and his younger friend (who was witness to the crime) were ordered by the magistrate to attend the hanging.
    • William Chapman – 18 August 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel Chapman (alias Priest) at Snails Bay in 1831
    • Henry Mills – 18 August 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Samuel Chapman (alias Priest) at Snails Bay in 1831
    • Thomas Tattersdale – 10 November 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dr Robert Wardell in the Marrickville-Petersham area.
    • John Jenkins – 19 November 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dr Robert Wardell[GR18] .
    • Michael Gallagher – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of John Hinton in the Bargo Brush.
    • John Edwards – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder of Corporal John Cock of the Mounted Police in the Lake Bathurst area.
    • John Walton – 11 December 1834 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the attempted murder of Corporal Cock.
    • Edward McManus – 9 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of sly-grog providore Alice Cooper (Bunton) at Emu Plains.
    • William Weatherwick – 13 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Smith on the North Shore.
    • William Phineas Bowles – 16 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Sarah in Bathurst St.
    • Charles Norford – 20 February 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Patrick Lynch. Norford was shaving Lynch when he suddenly cut his throat.
    • Mickey Mickey – 28 February 1835 – Indigenous. Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Margaret Hanswall at Watagan.
    • John McCarthy – 4 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable Duncan Kennedy near Carcoar.
    • Patrick Kilmartin – 11 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Hamilton on the Botany Road.
    • Henry Barlow – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • John Carter – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • John Bryant – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • James Barton – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery on the Liverpool coach at Penrith.
    • William Scannell (alias Daniel Hughes) – 26 May 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the highway robbery of Captain Clarke and Edye Manning on the Liverpool Road at Punchbowl.
    • John Molloy – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of Alexander Paine.
    • John Stocking – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery and assault of Alexander Paine.
    • Lawrence Whelahan – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for assault on Mary Kelly at Canterbury.
    • Joseph Keys – 2 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Charles Fisher Shepherd at Long Flats, Monaro.
    • James Masterman – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo (Stonemason’s Arms).
    • William Salter (Sawder, Solder) – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo.
    • James Thompson – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Ultimo.
    • James Green – 5 June 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting at Constable James Brown in the Braidwood district.
    • John Gould (Joseph Gold) – 24 August 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife at Bar Point. “One of the children of this unfortunate man was carried on the shoulders of a spectator, to witness the dying struggles of his parent.”
    • Charley – 4 September 1835 – Gringai[GR19]  man, actual name not recorded. Hanged at Dungog for his involvement in the murder of five white settlers at Rawdon Vale as part of the frontier conflict in the Barrington River district (“The Mackenzie Murders”). In Charley’s case, he was named specifically for being responsible for the death of Fred Simmons.
    • George Bagley – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Newcastle for the attempted murder of Hugh McIntyre near Maitland.
    • Patrick Cassidy – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Newcastle for the attempted murder of Hugh McIntyre near Maitland.
    • William O’Neill – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary and robbery.
    • Thomas Solder – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Hugh Caffey – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary.
    • Peter Doyle – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of William Akers outside Bathurst.
    • Martin Byrne – 15 September 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and robbery of William Akers outside Bathurst.
    • William Jeffries – 9 November 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Richard Somerville at Port Macquarie.
    • Richard Bayliss – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
    • John Williams – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
    • Thomas Connolly – 8 December 1835 – Hanged for burglary at sundry houses at Field of Mars and elsewhere.
    • John Maher – 8 December 1835 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Peter Robinson at Maitland.
    • Thomas Arundell – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Margaret Fitzpatrick at Lewis Ponds, near Bathurst.
    • Edward Jones – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Margaret Fitzpatrick at Lewis Ponds, near Bathurst.
    • William Doyle – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Molloy near Mount York.
    • William Baker – 8 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Mary at Penrith.
    • Robert Duffy – 15 February 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the stabbing murder of his wife Mary Duffy in Phillip St.
    • John Whitehead – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Lane Cove.
    • John Hare – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the attempted murder of Major William Elrington at Bathurst.
    • John Treish (Frisk, Fish, Trish, Frish) – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery at Lane Cove.
    • John Smith – 4 March 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary in the Hunter Valley.
    • William Kitchen – 9 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Ann in Harrington St.
    • John Wales (also called Watt) – 10 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and putting in bodily fear of Constable Daniel Riley near Bong Bong.
    • Timothy Pickering – 10 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the assault and putting in bodily fear of Daniel Riley near Bong Bong.
    • Joseph Free – 11 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Brown at Invermein.
    • James Tobin – 16 May 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fox at Marks’ Farm, Illawarra.
    • Michael Maloney – 17 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Richard Hamlyn at Goulburn.
    • James Hare – 17 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Richard Hamlyn at Goulburn.
    • Terence Lavell – 21 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Honora Davey at Williams River.
    • James Sproule (alias Fraser) – 21 June 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for burglary from the house of Honora Davey at Williams River.
    • John Gore – 10 August 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Thomas Wood at Cassilis.
    • William Walker – 10 August 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Wood at Cassilis.
    • John Gregg – 2 September 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery in the Penrith district.
    • James Smith – 14 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Jack Haydon between Marulan & Bungonia. Smith was the first non-Indigenous Australian-born person to be executed.
    • Thomas (or James) Walker – 18 November 1836 – Hanged for murder of fellow bushranger John Poole in the Hunter Valley.
    • John Mead – 29 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape and sodomy of Julius Rudder, aged ten, on the Old Botany Road.
    • William (or James or Thomas) Cook – 29 November 1836 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Alice Kent in the Upper Hunter Valley.
    • Andrew Gillies – 15 February 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Kelly near Yass.
    • George Capsey – 7 March 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and assault of Henry Jarvis near Berrima.
    • John Jones – 8 May 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Private Thomas O’Brien, a soldier of the 50th Regiment, on the highway outside Berrima.
    • John Cooper – 9 June 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for attempted murder on Dominic Gannon at Port Macquarie.
    • William Taylor – 9 June 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for aggravated highway robbery of Mr Thomas Hyacinth Macquoid on the road between Berrima and Mittagong.
    • Michael Cagney (or Cogner) – 1 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Edward Hughes at Maitland.
    • Louis Williams – 1 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John McCormick at the Gwydir River.
    • Philip Hennessy – 5 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Alexander Hamilton in the Hunter Valley.
    • Dennis Broslughan (sometimes Brossley) – 5 September 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for highway robbery of Alexander Hamilton in the Hunter Valley.
    • John Cary Willis – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Dennis Maloney at Port Macquarie.
    • Edward Doyle – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and putting in fear at the house of James Wright, Bay of IslandsNew Zealand[GR20] .
    • George Woolf – 8 December 1837 – Hanged at Sydney for shooting and wounding with intent to kill Patrick Sheedy, a police corporal who was attempting to arrest him at Bathurst.
    • William Moore – 22 February 1838 – Publicly hanged in High St, Maitland for the murder of his master John Hoskyns.
    • Patrick Cuffy – 20 March 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and assault on William Vivers at Bureen.
    • John Toole – 20 March 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery and assault on William Vivers at Bureen.
    • Edward Tufts – 29 April 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Jones at Taree.
    • George Comerford – 30 May 1838 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Constable Matthew Thompkins at Deep Creek, near Eganstown in the Port Phillip District. Comerford had murdered (or been involved in the murder of) at least seven men.
    • Bryant Flannigan – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Nagle, “Big Mary” Nagle and Patrick Riley at Bunbejong, near Mudgee.
    • Daniel Maloney – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Thomas Mahoney at Hassan’s Walls.
    • Dennis Haberlin (Haverden) – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery at the house of John and Sarah Rawles and the attempted rape of Sarah Rawles, at Woodford Bay, Longueville.
    • Thomas Ribbands – 15 June 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for putting in fear and burglary from the house of Ann Jones, at Taree. Ann’s husband John had been stabbed to death by one of their servants, Edward Tufts, earlier that year.
    • William Wilkins – 4 September 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for assault and robbery of Thomas Humphries near Maitland.
    • William Worthington (“Bumblefoot”) – 4 September 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the axe murder of Jack Swan at Port Macquarie.
    • William Hawkins – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • John Johnson – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • Edward Foley – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre[GR21] .
    • Jim Oates – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • James Parry – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • Charlie Kilmeister – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • John Russell – 18 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney Gaol for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
    • William Price – 21 December 1838 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John “My Lord” Dunn in Sorrell Street Parramatta. The victim was well known in the district at the time; he was seventy years old, a convict who had been in the colony thirty years, “very deformed” and less than a metre tall.
    • Timothy O’Donnell – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Alexander McEdwards at Mt Campbell.
    • Michael Walsh – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Alexander McEdwards at Mt Campbell.
    • Edward Hall – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fitzpatrick at Currawang.
    • James Mayne – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Patrick Fitzpatrick at Currawang
    • James Magee – 7 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Catherine at Cowpastures (Camden)
    • Thomas Sumner – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • George Cooke – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • Ryder Gorman – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • Dennis Dacey – 23 June 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for robbery with violence at the house of William Woods and rape of Ann Amlin at King’s Plains (Blayney)
    • Thomas Finney – 20 August 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his wife Elizabeth at Cockfighter’s Creek (Wollombi)
    • Patrick Quilken – 6 September 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of William MacLaren at Barrington Tops
    • William Morris – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for murder of Thomas Renton at the Bargon River
    • Peter Scullion (Scallyen) – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the robbery and murder of Andrew Shanley at Sutton Forest
    • Joseph Saunders – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of Andrew Shanley
    • George Carey – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for having stolen property in possession and abetting the murder of Shanley
    • George (John) Gorman – 26 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Ann Daly at Maitland
    • James Davies – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of James Maher at Black Creek (Branxton)
    • Alexander Telford – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of James Maher
    • Archibald Taylor – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding and abetting the murder of James Maher
    • Llewellyn Powell – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Abraham Meares near Gilgandra
    • James Lynch – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding & abetting the Meares murder
    • Charles Clipp – 29 November 1839 – Hanged at Sydney for aiding & abetting the Meares murder.

    1840s

    • John (or James) Hunt (“The Doctor”) – 10 March 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for murder of Dan McCarthy at Regentville
    • Thomas Whitton – 19 March 1840 – Publicly hanged at Goulburn for the murder of John Hawker and arson at Oak Park, Crookwell. Whitton had earlier murdered John Kennedy Hume, brother of the explorer Hamilton Hume
    • William Newman – 8 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Harry Hodgson at Rosemount station, Patrick’s Plains (Singleton).
    • James Martin – 8 December 1840 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for the murder of Jack Johnston at Gammon Plains
    • James Mason – 8 December 1840 – Bushranger. Hanged at Sydney for being an accessory to the murder of Jack Johnston
    • Michael Monaghan (sometimes recorded as Hinnigan, Minighan) – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of his overseer Robert Archer at Glendon
    • Enoch Bradley – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of George Woodman at Yass
    • John Francis Legge – 11 December 1840 – Hanged at Sydney for the rape of Sarah Brooks, his wife’s four-year-old child
    • John Shea (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for the murder of John Graham at Scone
    • Edward Davis[GR22]  (“Teddy the Jew Boy”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham. The “Jew Boy” Gang terrorised the Hunter River district with numerous robberies and murders.
    • Robert Chitty (“Jew Boy Gang“) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • James Everett (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • John Marshall (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • James Bryant (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • Richard Glanville (“Jew Boy Gang”) – 16 March 1841 – Hanged at Sydney for his role in the murder of John Graham
    • Michael Bradley – 5 April 1841 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Catherine Harrison near Morpeth
    • Charles Cannon – 25 May 1841 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Robert Bulmer at Cherry Tree Hill, near Carcoar
    • Michael Lynch – 4 June 1841 – Hanged for murder of Matthew Sullivan near Jamberoo. Lynch is assumed to be the last person hanged on the gallows at the Old Sydney Gaol, George Street
    • Patrick Curran – 21 October 1841 – Bushranger. Hanged at Berrima for attempted murder of constable Patrick McGuire at the Black Range, Molonglo, and rape of Mary Wilsmore at Bungendore
    • Robert Hudson – 29 October 1841 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering fellow convict Dean West at the hospital, Macquarie St
    • George Stroud (Stroode) – 29 October 1841 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering his wife Sarah at Concord. Stroud and Hudson were the first men executed at Darlinghurst Gaol
    • Thomas Horner – 5 April 1842 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of his overseer James Stone near Shannon Vale. Stone was the former wrestler known as “Little Elephant”
    • Patrick Kleighran (Clearehan, Clerehan, Clearham) – 22 April 1842 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of Timothy Murphy on the Murrumbidgee.
    • John Lynch [GR23] (alias Dunleavy) – 22 April 1842 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of Kearns Landregan near the Ironstone Bridge on the edge of Berrima. Confessed to ten murders.
    • John Walsh – 3 May 1842 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Catherine Collitt at Mt Victoria.
    • Henry Sears (Seen) – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • John Jones – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • Nicholas Lewis – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • George Beavers – 8 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for piracy and assault with intent to murder, off Norfolk Island.
    • Stephen Brennan – 9 November 1842 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Pat Lynch on Norfolk Island.
    • George Wilson – 24 April 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for the malicious wounding of Francis Bigge at the Peel River.
    • Thomas Forrester (“Long Tom”) – 24 April 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for aiding and abetting the malicious wounding of Francis Bigge at the Peel River.
    • Matthew Whittle – 2 May 1843 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the attempted murder of Patrick Grady near Oberon.
    • Benjamin Harris – 17 October 1843 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Constable John Rutledge near Denman.
    • Lucretia Dunkley – 22 October 1843 – Hanged at Berrima Gaol for the murder of her husband Henry Dunkley near Gunning.
    • Martin Beech – 22 October 1843 – Hanged at Berrima Gaol for the murder of Henry Dunkley near Gunning.
    • Therramitchie – 24 October 1843 – Indigenous. Confessed to at least two murders. Publicly hanged at Port Macquarie for the murder of John Pocock.
    • Harry – 8 November 1843 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of a baby named Michael Keoghue near Glendon.
    • Melville – 8 November 1843 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of a baby named Michael Keoghue near Glendon.
    • John Knatchbull – 13 February 1844 – Former Royal Navy captain, publicly hanged in front of Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of shopkeeper Ellen Jamieson with a tomahawk in Margaret Street.
    • Joseph Vale – 17 April 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of John Thornton near Mulbring.
    • Mary Thornton – 17 April 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of her husband John Thornton near Mulbring.
    • Frederick (or Abraham) Gasten (or Gaston) – 31 October 1844 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Elizabeth Price near Kanimbla.
    • George Vigors – 13 August 1844 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Noble in Clarence St.
    • Thomas Burdett – 13 August 1844 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Noble in Clarence St.
    • Henry Atkins – 8 October 1844 – Hanged at Berrima for the murder of John Daly near Tumut.
    • Benjamin Stanley – 7 November 1844 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Robert Campbell at Williams River.
    • John Vidall – 7 February 1845 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Thomas Warne in George St.
    • John Ahern – 12 August 1845 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his niece Mary-Anne Clark in the area that subsequently became Railway Square.
    • James Fitzpatrick – 24 October 1845 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Peter McCormick, a fellow-convict at the Newcastle Stockade.
    • William Shea – 17 April 1846 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Andrew Menzies at Hillsborough.
    • John Kean (Liddell) – 30 April 1847 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Ellen Hyndes near Campbelltown.
    • Peter Pigeon – 4 November 1847 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of William “Coachey” Taylor at Morpeth.
    • William Fyfe (Foyle in Prison Records) – 4 July 1848 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for murder of Robert Cox at Kangaroo Point, Moreton Bay.
    • Francis Dermott (or Diamond or Durham) – 22 September 1848 – African-American. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of Mary Green on the Shoalhaven.
    • Patrick Bryan – 1 November 1848 – Hanged at Newcastle for the murder of Eliza Neilson at Clarence Town.
    • Charles Henry Mackie – 10 November 1848 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of a nine-year-old girl.
    • George Waters Ward – 19 March 1849 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Richard Connolly (or King) at Muswellbrook.
    • James Richardson – 7 May 1849 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Elizabeth Richardson at Campbelltown. He had also murdered Elizabeth’s daughter and nine-month-old grandchild and attempted to murder a four-year-old grandchild.
    • Owen Molloy – 18 September 1849 – Publicly hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of John Leonard at Moreton Bay.
    • Patrick Walsh – 2 November 1849 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Benjamin Fox on the Turon River.

    1850s

    • Mogo Gar – 5 November 1850 – Bundjalung man, hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Daniel Page at the Bellinger River.
    • James Whelan – 5 November 1850 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Catherine Byrnes near Kent St.
    • William Hayes – 26 April 1851 – Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of Benjamin Cott near present-day Gillieston.
    • Michael Collihane (alias “Mickey Bad-English”) – 8 October 1851 – Publicly hanged at Maitland for the rape of Anne Milsom at Aberdeen
    • Patrick McNamara – 29 March 1852 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Rose McNamara at Aberglasslyn.
    • Thomas Wilmore – 14 April 1852 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of Phillip Alger in the Wellington District.
    • Francis Thomas Green – 21 September 1852 – Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of John Jones at Buckley’s Creek. This was the last public hanging in NSW.
    • Timothy Sullivan – 30 September 1852 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Daniel Harrington at King’s Plains, near Carcoar. This execution was badly botched.
    • John Newing – 30 September 1852 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Hing, another Chinese man, on 17 October 1851, at Brown’s Station on the Castlereagh
    • Paddy – 8 April 1853 – Wiradjuri man, hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Catherine Schmidt at Oakey Creek in the Mudgee district.
    • Patrick McCarthy – 8 April 1853 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Henry Williamson at Bookimbla.
    • Billy Palmer – 9 May 1854 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Jane Bradley near Obley.
    • James McLaughlan – 9 May 1854 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Sarah Atkins at Kikiamah, near Grenfell.
    • James Talbot – 30 May 1854 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of James Barry at Kangaloola Creek, near Yass.
    • Daniel Gardiner – 4 April 1854 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Catherine at Rocky River.
    • Christopher Walsh – 28 September 1854 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of his wife Mary Walsh at Lidney Park, near Millers Forest.
    • William Ryan – 28 February 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Catherine near the corner of Hay and Castlereagh Sts.
    • William Rodgers – 5 July 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Joseph Allsopp at Baulkham Hills.
    • Samuel Wilcox – 5 July 1855 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Johanna Smith in Liverpool St, Sydney.
    • Mary-Ann Brownlow −11 November 1855 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of her husband George Moore Brownlow at Gundaroo.
    • Henry Curran – 12 May 1857 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape and violent assault of Bridget Watkins at Dirty Swamp (Locksley).
    • Addison Mitchell – 12 May 1857 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of William Ablett between Carcoar and Cowra.
    • Patrick Walsh – 4 November 1857 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of William Graham at Balranald.
    • James Moyes – 7 September 1858 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Alden on board the Oliver Jordan, berthed at Sydney.
    • John Arrow – 11 May 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Catherine Leary at Summer Hill Creek, Orange.
    • Thomas Ryan (alias William Martin) – 11 May 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Leah England in the Wellington Valley.
    • Harry – 18 May 1859 – Indigenous. Hanged at Goulburn for the rape and attempted murder of fifteen-year-old Margaret McMahon at Coolamatong near Berridale.
    • John Norris – 22 July 1859 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of six-year-old Harriet Curren near Prospect.
    • Robert Davis – 3 November 1859 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Roger Flood (or Robert Quinn) at Dubbo.
    • William Ross – 22 November 1859 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Jack Hamilton at Walcha.
    • Jemmy – 22 November 1859 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Sam Pong at Gunnedah.

    1860s

    • John Jones – 26 April 1860 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Rebecca Bailey outside Maitland.
    • Jim Crow – 26 April 1860 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the rape of Jane Delantry at Thalaba, outside Dungog.
    • Ellen Monks – 8 May 1860 – Hanged at Goulburn for the hammer murder of her husband Thomas Monks at Longnose Creek, near Crookwell.
    • Frederick Clarke – 8 May 1860 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Walter Angel in the Moppity Range, near Murringo.
    • William Goodson – 16 May 1860 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Mary Goodson at Kissing Point.
    • Black Harry (also called Sippey Shippy, Sippy, Sheepy, Lippy) – 6 November 1861 – Indigenous. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Mary Mills at Hall’s Creek, near Merriwa.
    • William Johnson (Baldwin) – 3 December 1861 – Hanged at Goulburn for the rape of Alice Hutchings at Rossiville, outside Goulburn.
    • Jackey Bullfrog (alias “Flash Jack”) – 25 April 1862 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of William Clark near Condobolin.
    • John Peisley – 25 April 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder (fatal wounding) of William Benyon at Bigga. An associate of the Ben Hall[GR24]  – Frank Gardiner[GR25]  Gang.
    • Henry Keene – 5 May 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of James Lawrie on Billabong Creek.
    • Benjamin Allerton – 5 May 1862 – Bushranger. Hanged at Goulburn for the robbery and wounding with intent of David Elliott at Wakool.
    • John Smith (alias Regan) – 4 June 1862 – Hanged at Goulburn for attempted murder on Alfred Bishop at Tipperary Gully, near Young.
    • Jackey – 23 October 1862 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Louisa Brown at Winburndale.
    • Alexander Ross – 18 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of Harry Stephens at Caloola, near Blayney.
    • Charles Ross – 18 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of Harry Stephens at Caloola, near Blayney.
    • Henry Manns – 26 March 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for his part in the highway robbery of the gold escort at Eugowra Rocks. An associate of the Ben Hall – Frank Gardiner Gang.
    • Charles Robardy – 20 May 1863 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Daniel Crotty on the Boorowa-Murringo Road, near Willawong Creek.
    • Mahommed Cassim – 2 June 1863 – Circus Juggler, born in India. Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of a fellow juggler (name lost) at Sawpit Gully, near Queanbeyan.
    • Henry Wilson – 2 October 1863 – Bushranger. Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Peter Clarke near Murrurundi.
    • Thomas McCann – 1 February 1864 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for highway robbery and the attempted murder of William Saville near Cordeaux Creek, Berrima.
    • James Stewart – 22 November 1864 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Charles Verdhun near Bourke.
    • George Gibson (alias Paddy Tom) – 20 May 1865 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Alec Musson at Pyramul.
    • Sam Poo [GR26] – 19 September 1865 – Bushranger. Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Snr Constable John Ward at Barney’s Reef near Birriwa.
    • Ah Luan – 21 November 1865 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Nee Jack at Bald Hills Creek.
    • John Dunn – 19 March 1866 – Bushranger, member of the Ben Hall Gang. Hanged at Darlinghurst for robbery and the murder of Constable Sam Nelson at Collector
    • James Crookwell – 14 April 1866 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Constable William Raymond in the Bargo Brush.
    • Michael Green – 11 June 1866 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Andrew Shearer at Rushcutter’s Bay.
    • Spider – 26 November 1866 – Indigenous. Hanged at Bathurst for the rape of Elizabeth Anderson at Canonbar, near Nyngan.
    • Michael Maher – 3 December 1866 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Richard Higgins at Garrawilla, near Coonabarabran.
    • Harry Suis – 10 December 1866 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Ah Wong at Goulburn.
    • William Henry Scott – 18 March 1867 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Anne Ramsden (Scott) in Sussex St.
    • Thomas Clarke – 25 June 1867 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable William Walsh at Jinden.
    • John Clarke – 25 June 1867 – Bushranger. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable William Walsh at Jinden.
    • William Peters – 26 June 1867 – Hanged in Bathurst for the attempted murder of eight-year-old Faith Perkins at Orange.
    • Henry James O’Farrell – 21 April 1868 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted assassination of Prince Alfred Duke of Edinburgh on 12 March 1868 at Clontarf.
    • Albert Barnes – 26 May 1868 – Hanged in the old gaol at Bathurst for the murder of James Casey at Hassan’s Walls.
    • John McEvitt – 26 May 1868 – Hanged in the old gaol at Bathurst for the murder of a boy named Francis Evans at Clark’s Creek.
    • John Munday (alias Collins)- 2 June 1868 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of John Conroy, Bridget Conroy, Thomas Smith, a shepherd surnamed White and another shepherd, name not recorded, near Bowning.
    • Ah Sung – 24 November 1868 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Ralph Lee and Amelia Lee (aged five), near Avisford.

    1870s

    • John Baker – 1871 – Bushranger hanged at Bathurst for murder and other crimes. A partner of Wiliam Bertam, who was hanged at Toowoomba on 29 August 1870. They stuck up Mount Murchison Station, Cobham’s station and a Poolamacca resident and stole horses, etc. Also committed other robberies on the road and entered homes; in Oct 1869 on the Barrier Ranges they bailed up a hawker, Charles Young, whom they murdered.
    • Robert Campbell (alias Palmer) – 10 January 1871 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of John and Louis Pohlman at Yanco.
    • Chong Gow – 6 June 1871 – Hanged at Deniliquin for the murder of Tommy Ah Gun at Hay.
    • Michael McMahon – 12 December 1871 – Hanged at Maitland for the murder of Jack Jones at Hall’s Creek.
    • Thomas Kelly – 2 January 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Superintendent William McLaren at Parramatta Gaol.
    • George Robert Nichols (The Parramatta River Murders) – 18 June 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Percy Walker (and John Bridger) in upper Sydney Harbour.
    • Alfred Lester (alias Froude)(The Parramatta River Murders) – 18 June 1872 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Percy Walker (and John Bridger) in upper Sydney Harbour.
    • John Conn – 11 June 1872 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Aveline Littler near Wyndeyer.
    • William McCrow – 8 April 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Margaret Ward at a residence on the corner of Crown and Stanley streets, Woolloomooloo.
    • John Scource – 8 April 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Elizabeth Lee on Sydney Harbour.
    • Julius Krauss (also called William Cross) – 1 July 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Captain John Longmuir on board HMS Rifleman.
    • Henry Vincent Jarvis – 23 December 1873 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of James Muggeridge on the Orange-Bathurst Road near Evans Plains Creek.
    • John Hawthorne (alias Perry, real name Sherrin) – 19 May 1874 – Bushranger. Believed to have committed at least four murders. Hanged at Goulburn for the robbery & attempted murder of James Slocombe near Wheeo.
    • John Glover – 19 May 1874 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of William Piety at Bolaro, near Adaminaby.
    • Gottlieb Eichhorn – 23 June 1874 – Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the rape of seventy-two-year-old Eliza Chapman at Saumarez Ponds. Mrs Chapman died from the injuries received. Eichhorn was sixteen at the time of the crime.
    • John McGrath – 10 September 1875 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for rape of Sarah Murfin at Warragubra, near Bega.
    • George Rope – 7 December 1875 – Hanged at Mudgee Gaol for the murder of his sister-in-law Hannah Rope at Lawson’s Creek.
    • Ah Chong – 18 April 1876 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Po Tie at Parramatta Gaol.
    • George Pitt – 21 June 1876 – Hanged at Mudgee for the murder of Ann Martin at Guntawang.
    • Michael Connelly – 28 June 1876 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of his wife Mary Connelly at Carroll Gap.
    • Daniel Boon – 19 July 1876 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Alexander McMullan at North Wagga.
    • Thomas Newman – 29 May 1877 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of a child, Mary-Ann McGregor, near Coonabarabran.
    • Peter Murdoch (Murdick, alias Higgins) – 18 December 1877 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Henry Ford near Cartwright’s Hill.
    • Ing Chee – 28 May 1878 – Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the murder of Li Dock in Goulburn.
    • Alfred – 10 June 1879 – Indigenous. Hanged at Mudgee for the rape of Jane Dowd at Three Mile Flat, near Wellington.

    1880s

    • Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlite[GR27] ) – 20 January 1880 – (Bushranger) Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Constable Webb-Bowen at Wantabadgery.
    • Thomas Rogan – 20 January 1880 – (Bushranger) A member of the Moonlite Gang, hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Constable Webb-Bowen at Wantabadgery.
    • Albert – 26 May 1880 – Indigenous stockman, hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the shooting murders of Nugle Jack and Sally at a camp at Baradine.
    • Daniel King – 11 June 1880 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Lizzie Hart (alias Rolk, alias Betts) at Tamworth.
    • William Brown – 29 March 1881 – Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the rape of his twelve-year-old daughter Ann at Yappa Brush, The Bight, across the Manning from Wingham.
    • Henry Wilkinson – 1 June 1881 – Hanged at Albury Gaol for the murder of Mary Pumpa at Lyster’s Gap, near Jindera.
    • John McGuane – 22 November 1882 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Thomas Smith at Inverell.
    • Charles Cunningham – 29 November 1882 – Hanged at Goulburn for the attempted murder of his warder Walter Izard at Berrima Gaol. “His last moments were marked by the expression of undiminished hatred to authority, which he personified to Her Majesty the Queen.”
    • Henry Tester – 7 December 1882 – Hanged at Deniliquin for the murder of seven-year-old Louisa Preston at Moira.
    • George Ruxbourne – 23 May 1883 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Jimmy Young at Armidale.
    • William Rice- 23 April 1884 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of James Griffin at 51 Phelps St, Surry Hills.
    • Joseph Cordini – 13 June 1884 – Hanged at Deniliquin Gaol for the murder of George Mizon on the Hay road outside Deniliquin.
    • Charles Watson – 14 April 1885 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of William Matthews at Wyadra, near Hillston.
    • Frank Johns – 14 July 1885 – (Bushranger) A member of the Moonlite Gang, hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted murder of William Roberts at Parramatta Gaol.
    • Matthew Friske – 10 December 1885 – Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murder of Matt Matteson at Coffs Harbour.
    • William Liddiard – 8 June 1886 – Hanged at Grafton for the murder of Pat Noonan at Wardell.
    • Alfred Reynolds – 8 October 1886 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Rhoda at Gowrie St, Newtown.
    • Robert Read – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.[GR28] 
    • George Duffy – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
    • William Boyce – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
    • Joseph Martin – 7 January 1887 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for his involvement in the Mount Rennie rape case.
    • John Creighan (alias Grace) – 29 May 1888 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Jack Stapleton at Hillgrove.
    • Robert Hewart – 11 September 1888 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Thomas Park in a cell at the Central Police Court.
    • Louisa Collins[GR29]  – 22 January 1889 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the poisoning of her husband at Botany. She was the last woman hanged in New South Wales.
    • James Morrison – 19 July 1889 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Constable David Sutherland in Macleay St, Potts Point.
    • Thomas Reilly – 6 November 1889 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of Christian Eppel on the Wagga Common. Reilly was a cousin of Ned Kelly.

    1890s

    • Albert Schmidt – 18 November 1890 – Hanged at Wagga Wagga for the murder of John Young Taylor near Old Junee. Believed to have committed at least two other murders.
    • Lars Peter Hansen – 2 June 1891 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of Charles Duncker on the Peak Hill road.
    • Maurice Dalton – 17 November 1891 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Catherine at 1 Foveaux St Surry Hills.
    • Harold Dutton Mallalieu – 26 November 1891 – Hanged at Old Dubbo Gaol for the murder of Jerome Casey on the Moonagee Road near Nyngan.
    • Jimmy Tong – 29 November 1892 – Hanged at Armidale for the murder of Harry Hing at Walcha.
    • Edward Smedley – 14 June 1893 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of his wife Phoebe at Qurindi.
    • George Archer – 11 July 1893 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Emma Harrison at a house on the corner of Burton and Bourke streets, Darlinghurst. This hanging was mishandled and Archer suffocated to death on the rope.
    • John Makin – 15 August 1893 – (“The Macdonaldtown Baby Farmer[GR30] “). Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of the infant Horace Murray.
    • Woy Hoy (Jimmy Ah Hoy) – 24 November 1893 – Hanged at Mudgee for the murder of Ah Fook in Lewis St, Mudgee.
    • Herbert Edward ‘Bertie’ Glasson (sometimes Edwin Hubert) – 29 November 1893 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of John William Phillips and Frances Letitia ‘Fanny’ Cavanough at Carcoar on 23 September 1893. The first prisoner executed at Bathurst Gaol on its present site (opened 1888).
    • Charles Montgomery – 31 May 1894 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable Fred Bowden near the corner of Bridge and Macquarie streets.
    • Thomas Williams – 31 May 1894 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Constable Fred Bowden near the corner of Bridge and Macquarie streets.
    • Alexander Lee – 20 July 1894 – Hanged at Tamworth for the murder of William McKay at the CBC bank at Barraba.
    • John Cummins – 20 July 1894 – Hanged at Tamworth for the murder of William McKay at the CBC bank at Barraba.
    • Frederick Paton (alias Frederick Dennis) – 11 December 1894 – Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of John Hall at Fifield on 6 May 1894.
    • Alfred Grenon – 7 February 1895 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the attempted murder of Thomas Heavey at Elizabeth Bay.
    • Thomas Meredith Sheridan – 7 January 1896 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Jessie Nicholls, who died at Castlereagh St from the effects of an illegal abortion.
    • Charles Hines – 21 May 1897 – Hanged at Maitland for the rape of his thirteen-year-old stepdaughter Mary Emily Hayne at Gundy
    • Thomas Moore – 24 June 1897 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Edward (or Edwin) Smith at Brennan’s Bend on the Darling River below Bourke in November, 1896.
    • Frank Butler – 17 July 1897 – (“The Glenbrook Murders”) Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Arthur Preston and Lee Weller at Penrith and Glenbrook.
    • Wong Min – 13 December 1898 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Joe Mong Jong (or Woung) at Warren, New South Wales on 16 August 1898. Also stabbed Alice Spong during same incident.
    • Stewart Wilson Christopher Briggs – 5 April 1899 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Margaret Miller and Margaret Dutt at 89 Douglas St Petersham (now Stanmore).

    1900s

    • John Sleigh (alias Ward) – 6 December 1900 – Hanged at Goulburn for the murder of Frank “Bones” Curran at Back Creek, near Bombala.
    • Jackie Underwood – 14 January 1901 – Indigenous. Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of Percival Mawbey at Breelong. He and Jimmy Governor also killed Helen Josephine Kerz, Mrs Sarah Mawbey, Grace Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey in the same incident.
    • Jimmy Governor[GR31]  – 18 January 1901 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Helen Josephine Kerz at Breelong. In the same incident he and Jackie Underwood also killed Mrs. Sarah Mawbey, Grace Mawbey, Percival Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey. Jimmy and his brother Joe also killed Alexander McKay near Ulan, Elizabeth O’Brien and her baby son at Poggie, near Merriwa, and Keiran Fitzpatrick near Wollar.
    • Joseph Campbell – 20 December 1901 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape of nine-year-old Violet Oldfield at Queanbeyan. He had also raped another nine-year-old at Ramsay’s Bush (Haberfield)
    • Thomas Moore – 14 April 1903 – Indigenous. Hanged at Darlinghurst for the rape and murder of ten-year-old Janet Irene Smith at Ramsay’s Bush, Leichhardt (now Haberfield).
    • Digby Grand – 7 July 1903 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn.
    • Henry Jones – 7 July 1903 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn.
    • Ah Check – 28 June 1904 – Hanged at Dubbo for the murder of William Tregaskis at Peak Hill, NSW. He was the last person executed at Old Dubbo Gaol.
    • John Raymond Brown – 11 December 1906 – Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murders of Daniel O’Keefe, Margaret O’Keefe and Patrick Gillick at German Creek, near Ballina (now called Empire Vale).
    • Peter Sadeek – 11 June 1907 – Hanged at Broken Hill Gaol for the murder of Mary Cooney (or Jewson) at White Cliffs.
    • Nicholas Baxter – 29 October 1907 – Hanged at Darlinghurst for the murder of Mary MacNamara at 2 Sarah St Enmore.
    • George Toffts – 26 November 1907 – Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Eliza Maud Fletcher at Quirindi.

    1910s

    • William Frederick Ball – 17 June 1912 – Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the murder of Louisa Ball at Bingara.
    • ·       [GR32]  20 December 1916 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham.
    • Roland Nicholas Kennedy – 20 December 1916 – Hanged at Bathurst for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham.
    • James Wilson – 31 May 1917 – Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of George Pappageorgi at Haymarket, Sydney.
    • Christian William Benzing – 16 June 1917 – Hanged at Long Bay for the rape and murder of eleven-year-old Dorothy Myra Small at Rockdale.

    1920 onwards

    • Edward Williams – 29 April 1924 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of his three children, five-year-old Rosalie, three-year-old Mary and two-year-old Cecillia at Underwood St Paddington.
    • William George Gordon Simpson – 10 December 1924 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murders of Guy Chalmers Clift and Police Constable James Flynn at Appin.
    • William Cyril Moxley – 17 August 1932 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murders of Dorothy Ruth Denzel and Frank Barnby Wilkinson at Moorebank.
    • Edwin John Hickey – 14 May 1936 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of former Conciliation Commissioner Montague Henwood on the train between Faulconbridge and Linden. Hickey was seventeen at the time of the crime.
    • James Leighton Massey – 15 June 1936 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of Norman Samuel McLaren Stead at Darlinghurst.
    • Alfred Spicer – 26 May 1938 – Hanged at Long Bay for the rape and murder of six-year-old Marcia Hayes at Windsor.

    John Trevor Kelly – 24 August 1939 – Hanged at Long Bay for the murder of Marjorie Constance Sommerlad at Tenterfield. He was the last person to be judicially executed in the state of New South Wales


     [GR1]HMS Guardian was a 44-gun Roebuck-class fifth-rate two-decker of the Royal Navy, later converted to carry stores. She was completed too late to take part in the American War of Independence, and instead spent several years laid up in ordinary, before finally entering service as a store and convict transport to Australia, under Lieutenant Edward Riou. Riou sailed Guardian, loaded with provisions, animals, convicts and their overseers, to the Cape of Good Hope where he took on more supplies. Nearly two weeks after his departure on the second leg of the journey, an iceberg was sighted and Riou sent boats to collect ice to replenish his water supplies. Before he could complete the re-provisioning, a sudden change in the weather obscured the iceberg, and Guardian collided with it while trying to pull away. She was badly damaged and in immediate danger of sinking. The crew made frantic repair attempts but to no apparent avail. Riou eventually allowed most of the crew to take to Guardian‘s boats, but refused to leave his ship. Eventually through continuous work he and the remaining crew were able to navigate the ship, by now reduced to little more than a raft, back to the Cape, a nine-week voyage described as “almost unparalleled”. Riou ran Guardian aground to prevent her sinking, but shortly afterwards a hurricane struck the coast, wrecking her. The remains were sold in 1791.

     [GR2]John Palmer (17 June 1760 – 27 September 1833) was a commissary of New South Wales, responsible for the colony’s supplies. He arrived with the First Fleet in 1788, and was opposed to those who plotted against Governor William Bligh.

     [GR3]Elizabeth Macarthur was born in Bridgerule, Devon, England, the daughter of provincial farmers, Richard and Grace Veale of Cornish origin. Her father died when she was aged four years. Her mother remarried when she was 11, leaving Elizabeth in the care of her grandfather, John, and friends.

    Elizabeth married Plymouth soldier John Macarthur in 1788. In 1790, with her newborn son Edward, she accompanied John and his regiment, the New South Wales Corps, to the recently established colony of New South Wales, travelling on the Second Fleet.

     [GR4]Eber Bunker (1761–1836) was a sea captain and pastoralist, and he was born on 7 March 1761 at Plymouth, Massachusetts. He commanded one of the first vessels to go whaling and sealing off the coast of Australia. His parents were James Bunker and his wife Hannah, née Shurtleff.

     [GR5]Harris arrived in New South Wales as a surgeon’s mate on the Surprize charter, one of the six ships arriving as a part of the second fleet in 1790. During his time in New South Wales, he played a very active role in his community by growing in his profession and purchasing land.

    Due to the extent of the number of civil responsibilities Harris held, he became involved with traders and officers and was asked by Lieutenant Colonel William Patterson to be relieved of his duties that conflicted with his military duties. Harris actions as a Naval Officer included reporting private conversations from the King about his dissatisfaction of the military and this led to Harris being charged with ungentlemanlike conduct and faced an additional court martial six months later for supposedly disclosing voting actions. Harris was acquitted in both occasions and was debarred from the civil office and was not up until 1804 that Harris was reinstated as a Naval Officer and was later re-sworn as a magistrate and supervisor of the police force.

    In 1807, Harris was dismissed as a Naval Officer and from the bench by Governor William Bligh which lead to Harris becoming a bitter opponent of Governor William Bligh, portraying him as “avaricious, dishonest and tyrannical” and his hostility towards Bligh won’t back the military officers who was espoused in the Rum Rebellion. However, Major George Johnston reinstated Harris as a magistrate in January 1808, however Johnston was quick to lose favour in Harris from his criticism of John Macarthur, a pioneer of the wool industry. Johnston dismissed Harris again in April 1808 and Harris was ordered to London to deliver the rebel case against the British government, however, Harris pleaded sick and in January 1809, he was appointed once again as a magistrate. Harris left for England and Ireland in April 1809 for two years and returned accompanied by his newly wedded wife, 25 year old Eliza Jones, which married at the Covent Garden’s.

    In 1814, Harris resigned and returned to Port Jackson with his wife Eliza Jones and became a private settler. Harris kept his properties in control and devoted the final years of his life farming and stock raising while actively being involved in public affairs and served in many committees, including supporting the establishment of the Bank of New South Wales and became one of the first directors. In 1819, he participated on John Oxley‘s Bathurst expedition as a surgeon. Within the same year of participating in John Oxley‘s expedition, he was once again elected as a magistrate.

    In 1830s, Harris developed a hip problem which confined him to a wheelchair and he dropped out of community activities and began managing his pastoral and agricultural holdings and worked until his death on 27 April 1838.

     [GR6]Nicholas Devine, also spelled Divine (1739? County Cavan, Ireland – May 29, 1830), was an Irish prison official who was superintendent of convicts for New South Wales, Australia, from 1790 to 1808.

    Devine obtained land grants in what was to become Erskineville.

    After Devine’s death, a legal battle occurred over his estate. This led to Doe dem Devine v. Wilson and Others, popularly known as the “Newtown Ejectment Case”.

     [GR7]Campbell was born in GreenockInverclydeScotland and at the age of 27 moved to India to join his older brother John. In India, he and his brother were partners in Campbell Clark & Co., merchants of Calcutta, which in July 1799 became Campbell & Co. when the Clarkes gave up their interest in the firm. In 1798, Robert Campbell, with a cargo from Calcutta, visited Sydney to develop a trading connexion there, and he also purchased some land at Dawes Point, near the western entrance of Sydney Cove. In February 1800, he returned to Sydney with another cargo to both settle in Sydney, and to establish a branch of Campbell & Co. In 1801 he married Commissary John Palmer‘s sister Sophia Palmer (1777–1833). After settling in Sydney he built the private Campbell’s wharf and warehouses on his land at Dawes Point, and developed a large business as a general merchant

     [GR8]On 17 June 1826 an English-born Australian farmer from Campbelltown named Frederick Fisher (born 28 August 1792 in London) suddenly disappeared. His friend and neighbour George Worrall claimed that Fisher had returned to his native England, and that before departing had given him power of attorney over his property and general affairs. Later, Worrall claimed that Fisher had written to him to advise that he was not intending to return to Australia, and giving his farm to Worrall.

    Four months after Fisher’s disappearance a respectable local man named John Farley, ran into the local hotel in a very agitated state. He told the astonished patrons that he had seen the ghost of Fred Fisher sitting on the rail of a nearby bridge. Farley related that the ghost had not spoken, but had merely pointed to a paddock beyond the creek, before disappearing.

    Initially Farley’s tale was dismissed, but the circumstances surrounding Fisher’s disappearance eventually aroused sufficient suspicion that a police search of the paddock to which the ghost had pointed was undertaken – during which the remains of the murdered Fisher were discovered buried by the side of a creek. George Worrall was arrested for the crime, confessed, and subsequently hanged. Fred Fisher, whose lands he had coveted, was buried in the cemetery at St. Peter’s Anglican Church in Campbelltown.

    It has been suggested that Farley invented the ghost story as a way of concealing some other speculated source of his knowledge about the whereabouts of Fisher’s body, but this cannot be confirmed. Joe Nickell has written the ghost story may have originated from an anonymous poem in 1832 which fictionalised Fisher and Worrall. The poem, “The Sprite of the Creek!”, has since been identified as the work of James Riley (1795-ca.1860), who would republish it with explanatory footnotes in 1846 under the pseudonym “Felix”.

    Contemporary police and court records do not mention the ghost story. The legend of Fisher’s ghost has since entered popular folklore and the creek beside which the body was discovered is known as Fisher’s Ghost Creek, although it has now, however, been converted into mostly a storm water drain.

     [GR9]Jack Donahue was born in Dublin, Ireland about 1806. An orphan, he began pick-pocketing and, after later involvement in a burglary, was convicted of intent to commit a felony in 1823. After being detained aboard Surprise, a convict hulk moored in Cork, in September 1824, he was transferred to Ann and Amelia and transported with 200 other prisoners to Australia, arriving in Sydney in January 1825. Upon being shown his cell at Carter’s barracks, Donahue remarked ‘A home for life’. During his early imprisonment, he was twice sentenced to fifty lashes as punishment.

     [GR10]William Charles Wentworth (13 August 1790 – 20 March 1872) was an Australian explorer, journalist, politician and author, and one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. He was the first native-born Australian to achieve a reputation overseas, and a leading advocate for self-government for the Australian colonies.

     [GR11]Denham Court is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South WalesAustralia located 44 kilometres (27 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government areas of the City of Campbelltown and City of Liverpool. It is part of the Macarthur region.

    The suburb is one of the most affluent in south-west Sydney, with the median property price standing at $1.60 million in January 2015, over three times higher than the median of properties in surrounding suburbs. The median income also stands noticeably above the average of surrounding suburbs at over $1,900 per week, while the median of surrounding areas stands at $900 per week. Willowdale Estate which was developed by Stockland is one of the most noticeable settlement in Denham Court.  The area is most well known for its luxurious properties, including a colonial era compound from which the suburb takes its name

     [GR12]Samuel Terry (c. 1776 – 22 February 1838) was transported to Australia as a criminal, where he became a wealthy landowner, merchant and philanthropist. His extreme wealth made him by far the richest man in the colony with wealth comparable to the richer in England. Terry left a personal estate of £250,000, an income of over £10,000 a year from Sydney rentals, and landed property that defies assessment. At his death in 1838 he was worth 3.39% of the colony’s gross domestic product, the equivalent today of over $24 billion.

    The year and circumstances of his birth are unknown. While working as a labourer in Manchester, England, on 22 January 1800 he was sentenced to transportation to the colony of Australia for the crime of stealing 400 pairs of stockings. He was taken to Sydney, Australia, where he served as a stone cutter. After working several jobs, he earned a farm in 1808.

    On 27 March 1810 Terry married Rosetta (Rosata) Marsh or Madden, née Pracey, who had come free to the colony in 1799 on the ship, The Hillsborough. She was a widow (possibly of convict Edward Madden, and later of Henry Marsh), and she had three children when she married. She was an innkeeper, and on marriage Terry took over her Pitt Street property. He continued to prosper, becoming a trader and became a supplier of food to the government.

    By 1820 he possessed significant amounts of property and was a large shareholder in the Bank of New South Wales. There is some controversy about the means he used to acquire his wealth, and he became accused of extortion by his enemies. It was alleged that he brought land owners to his inn, who would become intoxicated and sign away their property in payment of debts. By 1821 he also brought 28 actions to the Supreme Court.

    In the 1820s he was wealthy and a public figure. He was also a philanthropist, contributing to local societies and schools. He also worked for the emancipists and, in 1826, became president of the Masonic Lodge. He died on 22 February 1838 following three years incapacitated as a result of a seizure

     [GR13]The Castle Hill rebellion of 1804 was a convict rebellion in the Castle Hill area of Sydney, against the colonial authorities of the British colony of New South Wales. The rebellion culminated in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia, on 5 March 1804 at Rouse Hill. It was dubbed the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill after the first Battle of Vinegar Hill, which had taken place in 1798 in Ireland. The incident was the first major convict uprising in Australian history to be suppressed under martial law.

    On 4 March 1804, according to the official accounts, 233 convicts, led by Philip Cunningham (a veteran of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, as well as a mutiny on the convict transport ship Anne), escaped from a prison farm, intent on “capturing ships to sail to Ireland”. In response, martial law was quickly declared in the colony. The mostly Irish rebels, having gathered reinforcements, were hunted by the colonial forces until they were caught on a hillock nicknamed Vinegar Hill on 5 March 1804. While negotiating under a flag of truce, Cunningham was arrested. The troops then charged, and the rebellion was crushed. Nine of the rebel leaders were executed, and hundreds were punished, before martial law was finally revoked a week after the battle.

     [GR14]Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who used the bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term had evolved to refer to those who took up “robbery under arms” as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

    Bushranging thrived during the gold rush years of the 1850s and 1860s when the likes of Ben HallBluecap, and Captain Thunderbolt roamed the country districts of New South Wales. These “Wild Colonial Boys“, mostly Australian-born sons of convicts, were roughly analogous to British “highwaymen” and outlaws of the American Old West, and their crimes typically included robbing small-town banks and coach services. In certain cases, such as that of Dan Morgan, the Clarke brothers, and Australia’s best-known bushranger, Ned Kelly, numerous policemen were murdered. The number of bushrangers declined due to better policing and improvements in rail transport and communication technology, such as telegraphy. Although bushrangers appeared sporadically into the early 20th century, most historians regard Kelly’s capture and execution in 1880 as effectively representing the end of the bushranging era.

    Bushranging exerted a powerful influence in Australia, lasting for over a century and predominating in the eastern colonies. Its origins in a convict system bred a unique kind of desperado, most frequently with an Irish political background. Native-born bushrangers also expressed nascent Australian nationalist views and are recognised as “the first distinctively Australian characters to gain general recognition.” As such, a number of bushrangers became folk heroes and symbols of rebellion against the authorities, admired for their bravery, rough chivalry and colourful personalities. However, in stark contrast to romantic portrayals in the arts and popular culture, bushrangers tended to lead lives that were “nasty, brutish and short”, with some earning notoriety for their cruelty and bloodthirst. Australian attitudes toward bushrangers remain complex and ambivalent.

     [GR15]The Bathurst rebellion of 1830 was an outbreak of bushranging near Bathurst in the British penal colony (now the Australian state) of New South Wales.

    The rebellion involved a group of escaped convicts who ransacked villages and engaged in shootouts over the course of two months. Led by 25-year-old English-born convict Ralph Entwistle, the group numbered up to 80 men at its peak, making it the largest convict uprising in New South Wales history since the Castle Hill rebellion of 1804. The rebels became known as the Ribbon gang on account of Entwistle wearing “a profusion of white streamers about his head”.

     [GR16]Suttor arrived at Sydney on 5 November 1800. In spite of the delays, Suttor managed to land some of his trees and vines still alive. He was given a grant of land, and settled at Chelsea Farm, Baulkham Hills. In a few years time he was sending oranges and lemons to Sydney, obtaining good prices for them, and had become a successful settler.

    At the time of the William Bligh rebellion in 1808, Suttor was a firm supporter of the deposed governor. When Colonel Paterson arrived, Suttor’s was the first signature to an address presented to him promising to give him

    every information and support in our power in order that full satisfaction and justice may be given to the governor (whom we highly revere) . . . we cannot but feel the most confidant reliance that you will take prompt and effectual means to secure the principals in this most unjustifiable transaction.

    Suttor was, however, arrested and sentenced to be imprisoned for six months for failing to attend Lieutenant-Governor Joseph Foveaux’s general muster and for impugning his authority. The stand taken by Suttor was much to his honour; a full account of it will be found in the Historical Records of Australia, vol. VII, pp. 131–7. Suttor always spoke of Bligh as a “firm and kind-hearted English gentleman, no tyrant and no coward” (W. H. Suttor, Australian Stories Retold, p. 6). In 1810 Suttor was summoned to England as a witness on behalf of Bligh, and arrived in Australia again in May 1812. In August 1814 Suttor was given the position of superintendent of the lunatic asylum at Castle Hill with a salary of £50; in February 1819 he was dismissed from this position on charges he used lunatic labour on his farm.

    Suttor again took up land, and in 1822 he moved to beyond the Blue Mountains to the newly settled lands on the Bathurst plains. There he established the 130 hectares (320 acres) ‘Brucedale Station’ at the junction of Winburndale and Clear Creeks, which turned out to be a successful landholding leading to great prosperity, and by the 1830s it had been expanded to 4,055 hectares (10,020 acres). During a time of great conflict with the Indigenous Australians of the Wiradjuri nation, who resisted the taking of their lands, Suttor and his family (in particular son William) established good relations with the aborigines. They were known to have been close to the Wiradjuri’s warrior leader Windradyne, and when Windradyne died he was buried at Brucedale.

     [GR17]McIntyre was born in 1789/1790 to Donald (Daniel) and Mary McIntyre from Perthshire, Scotland. McIntrye’s brother Peter established a property Blairmore, on the land of the Wanaruah people, near what is now Aberdeen. Donald emigrated to New South Wales and in 1827 established a property nearby, Kayuga. In 1834 he established another station Dalkeith at what is now Cassilis, on the land of the Wiradjuri people.

    In November 1833 a shepherd that McIntyre employed, variously referred to as Edward Hills, Edward Giles or William Gills, hit him in the back of the head with a piece of iron. The shepherd was convicted of attempted murder, sentenced to death, and was hanged in March 1834

     [GR18]In 1824 Wardell sold his Statesman paper and formed a partnership with Wentworth. Printing materials were purchased as part of a plan to found an Australian newspaper, and they sailed for Australia, arriving about September. Soon afterwards they started The Australian, the first number appearing on 14 October 1824 and was to be published weekly at a cost of one shilling. It was the first independent paper to be published in Australia, and Governor Thomas Brisbane who was approaching the end of his term was inclined to welcome it. After the arrival of Governor Ralph Darling in December 1825, friction between the governor and the paper developed. Early in 1827 governor Darling was devising means to control its criticism of his actions; he brought in a newspaper tax of fourpence a copy, but chief justice Francis Forbes refused to sanction the act. In September 1827 Wardell who had referred to the governor in The Australian as “an ignorant and obstinate man” was charged with libel. Wardell conducted his own defence with great ability and the jury failed to agree. Wardell was again on trial for libel in December, and Wentworth who was defending him asserted that the jurors, who were members of the military, might lose their commissions if they did not return a verdict for Darling. The jury again disagreed.

    Wardell was now editor and sole proprietor of The Australian and his practice as a barrister was increasing; early in 1831 the government was glad to brief him in an action for damages against it. Towards the end of 1831 Governor Darling was informed by Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich that his six-year term as governor would soon be expiring, and after the arrival of Governor Richard Bourke, Wardell’s writing became much more temperate in tone. In 1834, having made a moderate fortune, he was intending to go to England, but on 7 September 1834 when inspecting his estate on horseback at Petersham, New South Wales he came across three runaway convicts and tried to persuade them to give themselves up. The leader of the men, John Jenkins, however, picked up a gun and fatally shot Wardell. The men were arrested a few days later and two of them were subsequently hanged. Wardell was unmarried

     [GR19]Gringai otherwise known as Guringay, is the name for one of the Australian Aboriginal people who were recorded as inhabiting an area of the Hunter Valley in eastern New South Wales, north of Sydney. They were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups as a clan of the Worimi people

     [GR20]New Zealand (MāoriAotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New CaledoniaFiji, and Tonga. The country’s varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand’s capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

    Owing to their remoteness, the islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable lands to be settled by humans. Between about 1280 and 1350, Polynesians began to settle in the islands and then developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, and in 1907 it became a dominion; it gained full statutory independence in 1947, and the British monarch remained the head of state. Today, the majority of New Zealand’s population of 5 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand’s culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are EnglishMāori, and New Zealand Sign Language, with English being dominant.

    developed country, New Zealand ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, government transparency, and economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. The service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, and agriculture; international tourism is a significant source of revenue. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister, currently Jacinda ArdernQueen Elizabeth II is the country’s monarch and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand’s territorial claim in Antarctica.

    New Zealand is a member of the United NationsCommonwealth of NationsANZUSOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentASEAN Plus SixAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum.

     [GR21]Description of the massacre

    A group of eleven stockmen, consisting of assigned convicts and former convicts, ten of them white Europeans, the 11th, John Johnstone, a black African, led by John Henry Fleming, who was from Mungie Bundie Run near Moree, arrived at Henry Dangar‘s Myall Creek station in New England on 9 June 1838. They rode up to the station huts beside which were camped a group of approximately thirty-five Aboriginal people. They were part of the Wirraayaraay (also spelled ‘Weraerai’) group who belonged to the Kamilaroi people. They had been camped at the station for a few weeks after being invited by one of the convict stockmen, Charles Kilmeister (or Kilminister), to come to their station for their safety and protection from the gangs of marauding stockmen who were roaming the district slaughtering any Aboriginal people they could find. These Aboriginal people had previously been camped peacefully at McIntyre’s station for a few months. They were therefore well known to the whites. Most of them had been given European names such as Daddy, King Sandy, Joey, Martha and Charley. Some of the children spoke a certain amount of English. When the stockmen rode into their camp they fled into the convict’s hut pleading for protection.

    When asked by the station hut keeper, George Anderson, what they were going to do with the Aboriginal people, John Russell said they were going to “take them over the back of the range and frighten them”. The stockmen then entered the hut, tied them to a long tether rope and led them away. They took them to a gully on the side of the ridge about 800 metres to the west of the station huts. There they slaughtered them all except for one woman whom they kept with them for the next couple of days. The approximately 28 people they murdered were largely women, children and old men. Ten younger men were away on a neighbouring station cutting bark. Most of the people were slaughtered with swords as George Anderson, who refused to join the massacre, clearly heard there were just two shots. Unlike Anderson, Charles Kilmeister joined the slaughter.

    Testimony was later given at trial that the children had been beheaded while the men and women were forced to run as far as they could between the stockyard fence and a line of sword-wielding stockmen who hacked at them as they passed. After the massacre, Fleming and his gang rode off looking to kill the remainder of the group, who they knew had gone to the neighbouring station. They failed to find the other Aboriginal people as they had returned to Myall that night and left after being warned the killers would be returning. On the party’s return to Myall two days later, they dismembered and burnt the bodies before resuming the search for the remaining people. The ten people had gone to MacIntyre’s station near Inverell, 40 kilometres to the east, where between 30 and 40 Aboriginal people were reportedly murdered with their bodies being cast onto a large fire. Many suspect this massacre was also committed by the same stockmen. After several days of heavy drinking the party dispersed.

    When the manager of the station, William Hobbs, returned several days later and discovered the bodies, counting up to twenty-eight of them (as they were beheaded and dismembered he had difficulty determining the exact number) he decided to report the incident but Kilmeister initially talked him out of it. Hobbs discussed it with a neighbouring station overseer, Thomas Foster, who told squatter Frederick Foot who rode to Sydney to report it to the new Governor, George Gipps. Supported by the Attorney General, John Plunkett, Gipps ordered Police Magistrate Edward Denny Day at Muswellbrook to investigate the massacre.

    They carried out a thorough investigation despite the bodies having been removed from the massacre site where only a few bone fragments remained. He arrested eleven of the twelve perpetrators. The only one to escape was the only free man involved, the leader, John Fleming. Anderson was crucial in identifying the arrested men. He had initially refused to name the men involved but after finding out that the massacre had been planned more than a week earlier to coincide with the absence of Hobbs he agreed to identify the killers to the magistrate

     [GR22]Edward Davis (1816–1841) was an Australia convict turned bushranger. His real name is not certain, but in April 1832 he was convicted under the name George Wilkinson for attempting to steal a wooden till and copper coins to the total value of 7 shillings. Sentenced to seven years transportation, he arrived in Sydney on the Camden in 1833 and was placed in the Hyde Park Barracks. Over the next few years he escaped four times: on 23 December 1833 from the Barracks, on 1 December 1835 from Penrith, on 10 January 1837 from the farmer he had been assigned to, and for a final time on 21 July 1838.

    In the summer of 1839 he formed a bushranger gang of escaped convicts which roamed in New South Wales, from Maitland to the New England Highway, in the Hunter Region, and down to Brisbane Water near Gosford. They had a main hideout at Pilcher’s Mountain, near Dungog. The gang members gained a Robin Hood like reputation, for supposedly giving some of the plunder of the wealthy to their assigned convict servants, and for adopting a gallant air and flamboyant dress, and tying pink ribbons to their horses’ bridles. Davis instructed his gang that violence was only permissible in order to escape capture, but in December 1840 a store keeper’s clerk was killed by gang member John Shea in the course of a robbery at Scone (Davis was elsewhere in the town at the time). Davis immediately retreated with the gang to a hideout at Doughboy Hollow at Murrurundi, but they were surprised by a posse that had followed them. In the shootout, Davis was wounded in the shoulder. Davis, John Everett, John Shea, Robert Chitty, James Bryant and John Marshall were captured, Richard Glanvill escaped.

    They stood trial in the Supreme Court in Sydney, Shea charged with murder and the others with aiding and abetting Shea. They were all found guilty by a jury and condemned to death by Chief Justice Sir James Rowling. There was public sympathy for Davis with many appealing for a reprieve, but the Executive Council confirmed the sentence. Davis was hanged on 16 March 1841. Davis was a Jew, and was referred to later as “Teddy the Jewboy”. He was assisted at his execution by the reader of the Sydney synagogue and buried in the Jewish portion of the Sydney Devonshire Street Cemetery

     [GR23]John Lynch (1813 – 22 April 1842) was an Irish-born Australian serial killer, convicted for the murder of Kearns Landregan, but is believed to have killed 10 people in the Berrima area of New South Wales from 1835 to 1841. Possibly the worst serial killer in Australian history, Lynch was a bushranger who murdered and robbed cattle and laborers in the trails around Berima.

    Lynch was sentenced to death, and was executed in 1842.

     [GR24]Ben Hall (9 May 1837 – 5 May 1865) was an Australian bushranger and leading member of the Gardiner–Hall gang. He and his associates carried out many raids across New South Wales, from Bathurst to Forbes, south to Gundagai and east to Goulburn. Unlike many bushrangers of the era, Hall was not directly responsible for any deaths, although several of his associates were. He was shot dead by police in May 1865 at Goobang Creek. The police claimed that they were acting under the protection of the Felons Apprehension Act 1865 which allowed any bushranger who had been specifically named under the terms of the Act to be shot and killed by any person at any time without warning. At the time of Hall’s death, the Act had not come into force, resulting in considerable controversy over the legality of his killing

     [GR25]Frank Gardiner (1830 – c. 1882) was an Australian bushranger. He was born in Rosshire, Scotland in 1830, and migrated to Australia as a child with his parents in 1834. Also aboard was Henry Monro, a wealthy Scottish businessman who would soon form a relationship with his mother, Jane. His real name was Francis Christie, though he often used one of several other aliases including Gardiner, Clarke or Christie. In 1835 Monro appointed his father, Charles Christie as overseer on his property at Boro Creek, south of Goulburn. In 1837 Monro obtained the lease for a property on the Campaspe Plains, about 80 km northwest of Melbourne with Charles again the overseer. By 1840 Monro had the lease on another run near Hotspur, about 50 km north of Portland in western Victoria. Once again Charles was overseer and moved there with the young family

     [GR26]Poo (nicknamed ‘Cranky Sam’) was a Chinese emigrant to Australia during the Gold Rush, but instead of mining took to highway robbery on the road between Gulgong and Mudgee. A skilled and elusive bushman, he evaded capture from the authorities for several weeks. He often targeted solitary travellers on foot, both East Asians and Europeans, and was also responsible for the rape of a settler’s wife.

    On 3 February 1865, Senior Constable John Ward of the New South Wales Police Force was returning to Coonabarabran from a prisoner escort to Mudgee. Near the locality known as Barney’s Reef he was informed that a Chinese man had been robbing passing travellers in the vicinity, and was nearby in the scrub. Following a short search, Ward located the offender’s camp and approached him. When the offender saw the constable he dived into the bush. A long foot chase ensued, during which the pursued shot the constable in the chest, mortally wounding him. The murderer was later identified as Poo.

    Two weeks after the incident, Poo was finally tracked down. When confronted by police troops he attempted to escape, but was shot in the thigh. Continuing to fire from the ground, he was finally subdued, and taken to a prison hospital in Mudgee. When he recovered nine months later, he was taken to Bathurst, where he was tried by Judge Edward Hargreaves and hanged on 19 December 1865

     [GR27]On 8 May 1869, Scott was accused of disguising himself and forcing bank agent Ludwig Julius Wilhelm Bruun, a young man whom he had befriended, to open the safe. Bruun described being robbed by a fantastic black-crepe masked figure who forced him to sign a note absolving him of any role in the crime. The note read “I hereby certify that L.W. Bruun has done everything within his power to withstand this intrusion and the taking of money which was done with firearms, Captain Moonlite, Sworn.” After this he went to the Maitland district, near Newcastle and was there convicted on two charges of obtaining money by false pretences for which he was sentenced to twelve and eighteen months’ imprisonment. Of these concurrent terms, Scott served fifteen months, at the expiration of which time he returned to Sydney where, in March 1872, he was arrested on the charge of robbing the Egerton Bank and forwarded to Ballarat for examination and trial.

    He succeeded in escaping gaol by cutting a hole through the wall of his cell and gained entrance into the cell adjoining, which was occupied by another prisoner, who was as desirous of escaping as himself. Together they seized the warder when he came on his rounds, gagged him and tied him up. Making use of his keys, they proceeded to other cells, liberating four other prisoners, and the six men succeeded in escaping over the wall by means of blankets cut into strips, which they used as a rope. Scott was subsequently re-captured, and held safely until he could be trialed. In July he was tried before judge Sir Redmond Barry at the Ballarat Circuit Court when, by a series of cross-examinations of unprecedented length conducted by himself after rejecting his counsel, he spread the case over no less than eight days, but was at last convicted, and sentenced to 10 years’ hard labour. Despite some evidence against him, Scott claimed innocence in this matter until his dying day.

     [GR28]The gang rape occurred on 9 September 1886. Sixteen-year-old Mary Jane Hicks had been educated at the Bathurst convent school, then worked as a domestic servant at Katoomba, and at a hotel and private houses in Sydney. While walking to a city employment registry, she was offered a lift by Charles Sweetman, the driver of a hansom cab, who instead drove her in his cab to what is now the Moore Park area, then an isolated piece of bushland in the suburb of Waterloo and called Mount Rennie. He attempted to molest her in the cab but she screamed for help. Two young men approached and took her out of the cab, purporting to save her from disgrace. At this point, Sweetman departed with his cab.

    The young men walked Hicks to a different isolated location, where they were joined by several others, some of whom began to take turns in raping her. The girl’s screaming was heard by a passerby, William Stanley, who attempted to rescue her but was driven off by the gang with bricks, stones, and bottles. Stanley ran to distant Redfern police station, where he reported the crime at about 4 p.m. When the police arrived on the scene at 5 p.m., they interrupted the crime, which was still in progress, but were unable to apprehend any of the fleeing offenders. Following inquiries, twelve men were identified and eventually arrested, including Charles Sweetman, the cabman. At least one reporter formed the view that Sweetman had deliberately planned to deliver a girl to the Push members, who were assembled and waiting for the purpose.

    The victim, Mary Jane Hicks, testified that she had fallen into and out of consciousness during the ordeal, but gave evidence that at least eight men held her down and took turns raping her, and that many others were present, including some who had not been apprehended

     [GR29]Louisa Collins (formerly Andrews nee Hall😉 11 August 1847 – 8 January 1889) was an Australian poisoner and convicted murderer. Collins, who was dubbed the “Borgia of Botany” by the press of the day, endured four trials in front of 48 men, after the first three juries failed to convict. Collins was hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol on the morning of 8 January 1889.

     [GR30]John Makin (14 February 1845 – 15 August 1893) and Sarah Jane Makin (20 December 1845 – 13 September 1918) were Australian baby farmers who were convicted in New South Wales (NSW) for the murder of infant Horace Murray. Both were tried and found guilty in March 1893 and were sentenced to death. John was hanged on 15 August 1893 but Sarah’s sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. On 29 April 1911, Sarah was paroled from the State Reformatory for Women at Long Bay in response to the petition of her daughters

     [GR31]Jimmy Governor (1875 – 1901) was an Indigenous Australian who was proclaimed an outlaw after committing a series of murders in 1900. His actions initiated a cycle of violence in which nine people were killed (either by Governor or his accomplices). Jimmy Governor and his brother Joe were on the run from the police for 14 weeks before Jimmy was captured and Joe was shot and killed.

    In July 1900 Jimmy Governor and Jack Underwood murdered four members of the Mawbrey family and a school-teacher at Breelong near Gilgandra. Underwood was captured soon afterwards, but Governor and his younger brother Joe took to the bush. During the period they were at large, ranging over a large area of north-central New South Wales, the Governor brothers committed further murders and multiple robberies. A manhunt involving hundreds of police and volunteers was initiated, with the Governors occasionally taunting their pursuers and deriding the police.

    In October 1900 Jimmy Governor was wounded and, a fortnight later, captured near Wingham. Four days after his brother’s capture Joe Governor was shot and killed north of Singleton. Jimmy Governor was tried for murder and hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol in January 1901

     [GR32]The Sydney Twelve were members of the Industrial Workers of the World arrested on 23 September 1916 in SydneyAustralia, and charged with treason under the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) which incorporated the Treason Felony Act 1848 (Imp). They were John Hamilton, Peter Larkin, Joseph Fagin, William Teen, Donald Grant, Benjamin King, Thomas Glynn, Donald McPherson, Thomas Moore, Charles Reeve, William Beattie, and Bob Besant. The treason charges were dropped prior to trial and replaced with three conspiracy charges: (1) conspiracy to commit arson (2) conspiracy to procure the release of Tom Barker from gaol by unlawful means and (3) conspiracy to excite sedition.

    Some within the Australian labour movement claimed the men were framed for their strong anti-war views and their opposition to conscription during the First World War. Former Labor Prime Minister (and later Nationalist) Billy Hughes forced through the Unlawful Associations Act (1916) through Federal Parliament in five days during December 1916, then had the IWW declared an unlawful association.

    The case against the Twelve was assisted by the Government hysteria against the IWW. This was typified in the Tottenham murder case involving three members of the IWW and the murder of a policeman at Tottenham, New South Wales, on 26 September 1916. The prosecution made every effort to connect the murder with the charges against the Sydney IWW men. Frank Franz and Roland Nicholas Kennedy were found guilty and executed on 20 December 1916 at Bathurst Gaol, the first executions in New South Wales after a decade. Herbert Kennedy was acquitted.

    The case was tried in the Central Criminal Court before Justice Robert Pring and a jury. The jury found Glynn, McPherson, Teen, Beattie, Fagin, Grant and Hamilton guilty of all three charges while Reeve, Larkin, Besant and Moore guilty of the arson and sedition conspiracies and King was guilty of the sedition conspiracy. Justice Pring handed down sentences of fifteen years to Hilton, Beatty, Fagin, Grant, Teen, Glynn and McPherson; ten years to Moore, Besant, Larkin and Reeve; and five years to King. Grant remarked after his sentence was passed: “Fifteen years for fifteen words”. The actual words which were quoted in his trial were: “For every day that Tom Barker is in gaol it will cost the capitalist class £10,000.” The twelve lodged appeals against their convictions, however these met with limited success – the Court of Criminal Appeal quashed the convictions of Glynn and McPherson for the Barker conspiracy and reduced their sentences to ten years – however the majority of the convictions and sentences were confirmed.

    There was an active campaign for the release of the Sydney Twelve and other IWW members held in prison. The Defence and Release Committee was established at the behest of Henry Boote, Editor of the Australian Workers’ Union weekly paper, The Worker, and of Ernie Judd, delegate from the Municipal Workers Union on Labor Council of New South Wales. Supporters included Percy Brookfield, the member for Sturt (Broken Hill) in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, and the poet Lesbia Harford. Unions such as the Ship Painters and Dockers Union were active in the campaign.

    The Labor Council of New South Wales commissioned a report into the case in 1918, and an enquiry into the case was also conducted by Justice Philip Street. Both the trade union report and the judicial report found problems with the case, for example the chief witness, Scully, had concocted evidence which he gave at the trial.

    After the Storey Labor Government was elected in New South Wales on 20 March 1920, Justice Norman Ewing was appointed to inquire into the trial and sentencing. The judge found that Grant, Beattie, Larkin and Glynn may have been involved in conspiracy of a seditious nature, but recommended that they be released. Six of the men, the judge found, were not “justly or rightly” convicted of sedition: Teen, Hamilton, McPherson, Moore, Besant and Fagin. King was considered rightly convicted of sedition, but recommended for immediate release. Reeve was found to have been rightly convicted of arson. However the judge also rejected any suggestion that the men had been framed. Ten of the men were released in August 1920, and King and Reeve slightly later.

    Pyramids In The Pacific

    The Unwritten History Of Australia

    Copied, compiled & edited by George W Rehder


    Footprints From The Dreamtime Australia’s Unknown Stone-Age Past

    “When Giant fellas alive, them big animals still bin

    walkabout this country, Ground shake when he

    walk. He eat peoples”

    Wullagun

    Tribal Elder of the Yabuduruwa people

    of Arnhem Land,

    concerning the Nagarun, a race of giant people

    that once roamed the region.


    Above some of the Bathurst NSW Stone-Megatools

    Recovered by Rex Gilroy

    One day in 1931 on a windswept sandhill, the remains of the shoreline a long-vanished lake about 100km south of the Murray River, at Glenloth, Victoria, John Gibbs, a 10 year old local boy, was playing in the shell grit of an ancient Aboriginal midden. In a basin of the sandhill amid the debris of broken shells, he picked up a large fragmenting football-size lump of petrified mud. Protruding from one of the fragments, he found a small bronze coin. Years later a Melbourne Museum numismatist would identify it as Greek, and that it had been minted in Egypt during the reign of the Greek Ptolemy Philometor the 6th in the 2nd century B.C.

    There will be more to say about this coin in a future chapter. The suggestion as to how the coin turned up where it was found is of course that it had been left behind by ancient visitors; Greek explorers perhaps, or even Arabs, Indians or Malayans with whom the Greeks traded.

    Similarly, in 1961 a family picnicking on the Daly River, west of Katherine in the Northern territory, found a gold scarab, an object of worship of the ancient Egyptians. How did this valuable ornament find its way to such a remote location? One might ask the same question of a carved stone head of the ancient Chinese Goddess Shao Lin {protectress of mariners at sea} removed from a beachfront hillside at Milton, on the New South Wales far south coast in 1983.

    The many ancient rock inscriptions of Phoenician, Libyan, Egyptian, Celtic, Scandinavian and other origins that have turned up across Australia. Relics, rock inscriptions and megalithic ruins left here by seafaring adventurers who came here from civilizations now long turned to dust. They sailed in search of new lands rich in gold, silver, copper and tin, precious stones and pearls, using the worlds’ oceans as watery highways.

    It is one of the objectives of this book to demonstrate that these people not only discovered and mined the mysterious “great south land” and its neighbours, but established colonies {some of which may have survived for generations} and were large and important enough to establish a local ruling class. By the time they vanished they had influenced the cultures of the native peoples of the region, leaving behind them ghostly megalithic ruins of temples, tombs and pyramids and rock scripts in a host of ancient tongues; relics that continue to perplex conservative historians and question the dogma that the peoples of the ancient world lacked the ability to construct and navigate oceangoing water craft.

    The fact is that people were putting to sea centuries before the invention of a written language, and that the water craft they sailed in were far from flimsy. Although my book concerns the ‘unknown’ history of Australia’s discovery and exploration, it also is to some degree a history of ancient mining activities throughout the Australian-West Pacific region. In forthcoming chapters, I shall demonstrate that, at various times in antiquity, and during the Copper and Bronze ages in particular, Australia’s coastline saw the sails of mineral-seeking peoples from many ancient exotic lands.

    Giant Hominid FootprintThe “King Kong” of KanangraGiant Hominid Footprint
    Dawn of The God Kings -Uru- The Lost Megalithic Civilisation of Australia

    “And on this point he {Poseidonius} does well to cite the

    statement of Plato that it is possible that the story

    about the island of Atlantis is not fiction. Concerning

    Atlantis….an island no smaller in size than a continent”.

    Rex and Stone-Head

    What is it like to suddenly realise that you are the discoverer of an hitherto unknown ‘lost’ civilisation? Words cannot describe the feeling at the moment I realised I had made such a discovery, and the enormous importance it had for Australian and World History.

    I suppose the nearest description one could give of my feelings, would compare them with the excitement of Heinrich Schliemann, when he discovered the ‘mythical’ lost city of Troy in 1873. Schliemann [1822-1890} influenced more by his interpretation of the writings of the ancients, than by the negative scholarship of his day, scorned by protests of ‘learned’ university professors, who said he was wasting his time and money searching for a city that was nothing more than a myth born in the mind of Homer. Schliemann, as every history student knows, proved them all wrong.

    Many other important discoveries were made by this great amateur archaeologist, all of which earned him the animosity of the university establishment, who argued his findings were questionable because of his lack of academic qualifications. The charge that he was not a qualified scholar stemmed from the academic conceit, which rates university degrees, even if secured by the most mediocre minds, above genius. Genius Schliemann[GR1]  truly was. Today he is regarded as one of the greatest archaeologists who ever lived.

    Scattered across the Australian landscape stand great grey stones weathered with age, arranged in a variety of formations; circles, alignments, single standing stones, tombs and temples; granduous monolithic structures forming great cultural centres of religious and astronomical importance, whose construction would have demanded architectural planning on a grand scale, and the participation of thousands of labourers.

    They are megaliths, the monuments of along-vanished race that once spread its advanced stone-age culture across the Earth, from the Australian/West Pacific islands northwards to the furthest reaches of Asia and westward across Europe.

    They were the work of the earliest civilisation known to mankind. Who the builders were, their achievements, and why they vanished are mysteries that have long perplexed scholars. No official systematic census has yet been carried out on these monuments, but at least 50,000 of them are known throughout western Europe alone. Thousands more stand across mainland and island south-east Asia and still more in Australia.

    The Serpent Altar Discovered 1965 by Rex GilroyThe EagleThe Serpent Altar Frontal View

    ‘Australantis’ Did Civilisation Spread From Australia?

    “They who build in granite,

    who set a hall inside their pyramid,

    and wrought beauty with their fine work…

    Thier altar stones also are empty as those of the weary ones,

    the ones who die upon the embankment leaving no mourners”.

    Ancient Egyptian Saying


    Western End of the 234.3m Stone Alignment

    Found by Rex Gilroy[GR2] 

    Deep in the Glen Innes hills in 1976, Heather {my wife] and I investigated a granite-covered property. Scattered over an area of about 12 square acres we identified a number of huge menhirs, altars and other stone arrangements; the most impressive of these being a lengthy alignment of huge boulders, a megalithic temple and three circles, as being the largest we have found to date.

    The largest circle is actually pear-shaped, and stands on an open flat upon an east-west axis. The western end is marked by a larger pointer stone, from where the sun could be sighted rising in the east through a wide gap in the stones. The ‘pointer ‘ actually forms the apex of the ‘pear’ as well as a triangular formation which makes up the western end of the pear-circle. Thirty four stones form the ‘pear-circle’, which measures 120m in length by 60m width. The triangular formation being 15.2m across its north-south base by 57.1m and 80.1m on its north and south sides respectively.

    The exact purpose of this crude ‘triangle’ is still uncertain. 157.2m to the east lies the second circle formed of ten massive boulders 30.9m from east to west by 28.4m from north to south with a large 4.6m by 1.8m wide altar near the southern edge, and an alignment of three small rocks spaced 6.7m and 8m, apart on an south east-north west axis within the structure point beyond a 16.5m wide gap between two monoliths.

    The third circle,{actually ‘horseshoe’ shaped}, measures 96.8m circumference by 34.3m width east-west, and 32.4m from north-south. Constructed of mostly huge boulders, the centre is marked by one of these, and a large pine tree now growing beside it obscures the view. There is a 4.2m wide entrance between the two boulders on the north-west side, and a 10.6m wide gap on the south-west side allowed the ancient astronomers to observe the sunset in the winter months from the large central boulder. Other stones on the eastern side were employed to mark the Winter Solstice [GR3] {June 22nd}

    Some of the stones forming this circle average 3.7m or more in height by 12.4m and more in circumference, weighing 30 to 40 tonnes. The stone alignment consists of seven standing stones {one being a massive 40 tonne boulder}, erected on an east-west axis to a length of 97.3m. There is a 137m gap toward the east until a 3m tall boulder. Behind this facing west, lying broken in two is an obelisk-like menhir {standing stone}. Upon its exposed surface, which faced the east when erected upright, are nine deeply carved grooves several centimetres apart.

    The broken base measures 4.6m square and when intact and upright this huge menhir stood 15.3m tall. The purpose of the grooves, it is thought, was to catch and in some way calculate, the receding shadow of the rising sun. This menhir towered over the alignment, which has a total length of 328.7m. An observer standing some metres beyond the westernmost stone would have been able to line up the rising sun with the ‘obelisk’ menhir at the Summer Solstice[GR4] . South of the third circle stand massive stone blocks in a square formation measuring 30.8m by 16m; the remains of a temple.

    A corridor extends between the blocks along the structures’ southern side. Two large altars are found here. One measures 4m long by 2.1m wide and 90cm tall, with a 1.6m length and 36cm wide ‘pathway’ cut up the left side of the stone to a flat surface.

    Stone Head


    Sumerian God-Kings and the land of Uru.

    ‘In the distant sea 100 beru of water {away]..

    The ground of Arali {is}

    It is where the Blue Stones cause ill,

    Where the craftsman of Anu *

    The Silver Axe carries, which shines

    as the day

    {*Anu-King of the Gods}

    Ancient Sumerian text


    Sumerian Galley

    The ancient folklores of the Indus Valley and Sumer speak of their culture-bearing ancestors arriving from out of the Indian ocean {or as it is called in ancient Brahman Sanscrit [GR5] ‘Sumundra’} at the dawn of history. India’s sacred book ‘the Rig Veda’ written between 5000-4000 BC, speaks of these culture-bearers as having arrived from a great land far across the {Indian} Ocean called Aryanam Veijo. Veijo means ‘seed’ and Aryanam ‘Aryan’s’, thus “Seed of the Aryans”. It was to them the land of origin of the Ayrans. Similarly, the Persians called it “Azer-baijan”, or the “seed place of the Azar people”, the people who worship fire, locating it in the Southern Hemisphere. Azar-baijan survives as the name of modern Armenia.

    According to Babylonian mythology, the deity Ea, [GR6] the god of fertilizing and creative waters produced a son, Marduk, who created the {southern} Paradise by laying a reed upon the face of the waters. He then formed dust and poured it out beside the reed to create the first humans. The water-worshippers of Eridu believed that the Sun and the Moon which rose from the primordial deep, had their origins in the everlasting fire in Ea’s domain at the bottom of the sea; ie the ‘Underworld’ Paradise of Uru. It was from this Paradise that a mysterious child came across the {Indian} Ocean to inaugurate a new era of civilisation and instruct the people how to grow corn and become warriors.

    Berosus of Caldea {270-230 BC} described a race of monster beings, half-men and half-fish who, led by a great culture-bearer, Oannes, arrived on the shores of the Persian Gulf, to introduce the arts of writing, architecture and agriculture to Mesopotamia. In other words, they were skilled mariners; Gods who introduced civilisation into Mesopotamia[GR7]  and the rest of mankind.

    The spread of Uruan culture by water craft to Mesopotamia and India could be called the first great maritime expansion; and if so, then the rise of Sumer saw another which spread Sumerian influences to the Indus Valley and Persia, to Egypt and Greece. Their vessels eventually penetrating beyond south-east Asia into the west Pacific to ‘rediscover ‘ their ‘land of origin’, {the mysterious land of Uru} and sail on across the Pacific to the Americas. Sumerian influence upon the biblical world was considerable, and they provided the first ruling classes of Indus and Egyptian civilisations. The Sumerians first came to prominence around 3500BC.

    The land of Sumer at first developed into a collection of fifteen or twenty small states, situated at the head of the Persian Gulf in lower Babylonia, where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have their mouths. From here the large ocean-going reed boats of Sumer ventured forth on trade and mineral-seeking expeditions to Asia and the Middle-East. The cities, including Ur and kish, were situated far inland, but they were within trading distance with the Mediterranean lands. Archaeologists estimate that, at their height these cities supported considerable populations.

    For example, Ur may have held as many as 500,000 people. The Sumerian ports of the Persian Gulf, which date from as early as the 4th millennium BC, were ideally located for trade between India and the Middle-East, although Sumerian trade was mostly directed eastwards.  

    Ancient Mining In Australia Found

    by Rex Gilroy 


    Sons of fire and Dwellers of darkness. Indians explore the Pacific.

    “Sons of the Sea, mighty to save

    discoverers of riches, ye Gods with deep

    thought who find out wealth”

    Hymn 136, 10th book of the Rig Veda.


    Ayres Rock / Uluru Photographed

    by Rex Gilroy

    After Uru and Sumer, India became the home of one of the world’s most ancient civilisations, with a written history which scholars date back 4,000 years. As previously discussed India’s earliest known civilised society began in the Valley of the Indus River, which lies between Pakistan and north-west India. Now largely arid, in Antiquity it was a jungle and marsh covered region.

    Migrating dark-skinned people from the mountainous area of Iran, who had contact with the people of Mesopotamia, entered the region around 4000 BC to establish farming communities which grew into cities. The Indus Valley people made mud bricks with which they constructed better dwellings that resisted the yearly floods. They also developed many other skills in soil cultivation, tanning leather, garment weaving and the manufacturing of pottery and furniture.

    By 2000 BC their cities had grown around the coast of the Arabian Sea, extending from the Iranian border eastwards and southwards to the region of modern Bombay, and in a broad area stretching far northwards across the flood plain of the Indus Valley. The people of the Indus civilisation developed well-organised governments and a form of picture writing {yet to be deciphered}.

    Their civilizations possessed many Mesopotamia features with an organised religion. They manufactured copper tools and shared the wheeled cart with Mesopotamia, and made Jewlery equal to any elsewhere at the time. These people and their culture are identified as the Harappan Civilisation[GR8] , 100 sites are known to archaeologists, two of these were large cities–Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Several other sites were large towns, and the rest were small villages. It is estimated that Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro each supported populations of up to 40,000 people with a busy commercial life. Many materials had to be imported, particularly metals.

    There nearest source of silver, lead and gold came from Afghanistan, where they also obtained lapis lazuli. Here they also obtained copper, as well as from Rajasthan not far from the Indus Valley. They obtained Jadeite from northern Burma and Tibet, and from Iran {via northern India} and further west, turquoise and tin. They produced bronze tools and weapons and traded with Mesopotamia, especially Ur. Their large single-sailed wooden ships ventured farther afield than often claimed, for there is evidence that Indus crews reached remote lands beyond the Indian Ocean.

    Comparisons have been drawn between the Indus and the mysterious script of Easter Island and other similar inscriptions found upon rocks in Brazil and Australia. Their ships returned home with copper, ivory and wood from Oman on the Persian Gulf. But Indus crews must have reached Ceylon {Sri Lanka} and other south-east Asian islands on their way into the Pacific Ocean {as suggested by the Australian rock inscriptions} and vessels sailing between the Indus and south-east Asian ports, might have occasionally been blown off course to find our shores, as were Phoenicians, Egyptians and others throughout the ages.

    As the name ‘Uru’ was known throughout the Indian sub-continent and Mesopotamia, the Harappans must already have had knowledge of Australia. The Harappans were worshippers of a horned fertility god that resembled Shiva, one of the most prominent of all Hindu deities, figurines of the gods and goddesses recovered from their ancient settlements show close similarities with those of Hindu deities today; thus the Harappans had an influence upon the Hindu religion.

    Siddhartha


     [GR1]Heinrich Schliemann, in full Johann Ludwig Heinrich Julius Schliemann, (born January 6, 1822, Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Germany]—died December 26, 1890, Naples, Italy), German archaeologist and excavator of TroyMycenae, and Tiryns. He is sometimes considered to be the modern discoverer of prehistoric Greece, though scholarship in the late 20th and early 21st centuries revealed that much self-mythologizing was involved in establishing his reputation.

     [GR2]Rex Gilroy is an Australian who has written articles and self-published books on cryptids and unexplained or speculative phenomena. His work has focused on yowie reports, ‘out of place’ animals, UFOs, and propositions regarding a ‘lost’ Australian civilization. He has contributed to, or been the subject of, several articles, in speculative media such as Nexus magazine and in Australian newspapers. He is the author and publisher of several books, the first of which appeared in 1986. He has documented over 3000 reports relating to yowies. His eclectic career has seen field research into butterflies and anthropology, but he remains most notable for his controversial searches for the recently extinct Thylacine, Moas, alien big cats or the source of the yowie legend.

    •  [GR3]Also called: the Longest Night
    • Celebrations: Festivals, spending time with loved ones, feasting, singing, dancing, fires
    • Observed by: Various cultures
    • Significance: Astronomically marks the beginning of lengthening days and shortening nights
    • Related to: Winter festivals and the solstice
    • Frequency: Twice a year (once in the northern hemisphere, once in the southern hemisphere, six months apart)

     [GR4]The summer solstice, also known as estival solstice or midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth’s poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere. For that hemisphere, the summer solstice is when the Sun reaches its highest position in the sky and is the day with the longest period of daylight. Within the Arctic circle or Antarctic circle, there is continuous daylight around the summer solstice. On the summer solstice, Earth’s maximum axial tilt toward the Sun is 23.44°. Likewise, the Sun’s declination from the celestial equator is 23.44°.

    t Brahman (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मन्, Hindi: ब्रह्म) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept refers to the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the “creative principle which lies realized in the whole world”. Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) as well as having a form (Sakar) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Sanskrit: आत्मन्), (self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being. In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.

     [GR6]Ea, (Akkadian), Sumerian Enki, Mesopotamian god of water and a member of the triad of deities completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Enlil. From a local deity worshiped in the city of Eridu, Ea evolved into a major god, Lord of Apsu (also spelled Abzu), the fresh waters beneath the earth (although Enki means literally “lord of the earth”).

     [GR7]Mesopotamia (Arabic: بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن‎ Bilād ar-RāfidaynAncient Greek: Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām-Nahrīn or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Bēṯ Nahrīn) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent. It occupies the area of present-day Iraq, and parts of IranTurkeySyria and Kuwait.

    The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Later the Arameans dominated major parts of Mesopotamia (c. 900 BC – 270 AD)

    Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, the eastern regions of Mesopotamia fell to the Sassanid Persians. The division of Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. A number of primarily neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century BC, including AdiabeneOsroene, and Hatra.

    Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having “inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops, and the development of cursive script, mathematicsastronomy, and agriculture“. It has been known as one of the earliest civilizations to ever exist in the world

     [GR8]Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km (0.62 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the British Raj period, it is a small crossroads town of 15,000 people today.

    The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilisation centred in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay brick houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600 BC – 1900 BC), which is considered large for its time. Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilisation by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilisation is also called the Harappan Civilisation.

    The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore–Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artefacts during the early stages of building work.

    Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History)

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    Abstract

    Intermittent outbreaks of infectious diseases have had profound and lasting effects on societies throughout history. Those events have powerfully shaped the economic, political, and social aspects of human civilization, with their effects often lasting for centuries. Epidemic outbreaks have defined some of the basic tenets of modern medicine, pushing the scientific community to develop principles of epidemiology, prevention, immunization, and antimicrobial treatments. This chapter outlines some of the most notable outbreaks that took place in human history and are relevant for a better understanding of the rest of the material. Starting with religious texts, which heavily reference plagues, this chapter establishes the fundamentals for our understanding of the scope, social, medical, and psychological impact that some pandemics effected on civilization, including the Black Death (a plague outbreak from the fourteenth century), the Spanish Flu of 1918, and the more recent outbreaks in the twenty-first century, including SARS, Ebola, and Zika.

    Keywords: Pandemic outbreaks, History of pandemics, Plague, Spanish influenza, SARS, Ebola, Zika, Disease X

    Very few phenomena throughout human history have shaped our societies and cultures the way outbreaks of infectious diseases have; yet, remarkably little attention has been given to these phenomena in behavioural social science and in branches of medicine that are, at least in part, founded in social studies (e.g., psychiatry).

    This lack of attention is intriguing, as one of the greatest catastrophes ever, if not the greatest one in the entire history of humankind, was an outbreak of a pandemic . In a long succession throughout history, pandemic outbreaks have decimated societies, determined outcomes of wars, wiped out entire populations, but also, paradoxically, cleared the way for innovations and advances in sciences (including medicine and public health), economy, and political systems . Pandemic outbreaks, or plagues, as they are often referred to, have been closely examined through the lens of humanities in the realm of history, including the history of medicine . In the era of modern humanities, however, fairly little attention has been given to ways plagues affected the individual and group psychology of afflicted societies. This includes the unexamined ways pandemic outbreaks might have shaped the specialty of psychiatry; psychoanalysis was gaining recognition as an established treatment within medical community at the time the last great pandemic was making global rounds a century ago.

    There is a single word that can serve as a fitting point of departure for our brief journey through the history of pandemics – that word is the plague. Stemming from Doric Greek word plaga (strike, blow), the word plague is a polyseme, used interchangeably to describe a particular, virulent contagious febrile disease caused by Yersinia pestis, as a general term for any epidemic disease causing a high rate of mortality, or more widely, as a metaphor for any sudden outbreak of a disastrous evil or affliction . This term in Greek can refer to any kind of sickness; in Latin, the terms are plaga and pestis (Fig. 2.1).

    Figure 2.1

    Plagues of Egypt depicted in Sarajevo Haggadah, Spain, cca. 1350, on display at National Museum of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sarajevo

    Perhaps the best-known examples of plagues ever recorded are those referred to in the religious scriptures that serve as foundations to Abrahamic religions, starting with the Old Testament. Book of Exodus, Chapters 7 through 11, mentions a series of ten plagues to strike the Egyptians before the Israelites, held in captivity by the Pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, are finally released. Some of those loosely defined plagues are likely occurrences of elements, but at least a few of them are clearly of infectious nature. Lice, diseased livestock, boils, and possible deaths of firstborn likely describe a variety of infectious diseases, zoonoses, and parasitosis . Similar plagues were described and referred to in Islamic tradition in Chapter 7 of the Qur’an (Surat Al-A’raf, v. 133) .

    Throughout the Biblical context, pandemic outbreaks are the bookends of human existence, considered both a part of nascent human societies, and a part of the very ending of humanity. In the Apocalypse or The Book of Revelation, Chapter 16, seven bowls of God’s wrath will be poured on the Earth by angels, again some of the bowls containing plagues likely infectious in nature: “So the first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth, and harmful and painful sores came upon the people who bore the mark of the beast” (Revelation 16:2).

    Those events, regardless of factual evidence, deeply shaped human history, and continue to be commemorated in religious practices throughout the world. As we will see, the beliefs associated with those fundamental accounts have been rooted in societal responses to pandemics in Western societies and continue to shape public sentiment and perception of current and future outbreaks. Examined through the lens of Abrahamic spiritual context, serious infectious outbreaks can often be interpreted as a “Divine punishment for sins” (of the entire society or its outcast segments) or, in its eschatological iteration, as events heralding the “End of Days” (i.e., the end of the world).

    Throughout known, predominantly Western history, there have been recorded processions of pandemics that each shaped our history and our society, inclusive of shaping the very basic principles of modern health sciences. What follows is an outline of major pandemic outbreaks throughout recorded history extending into the twenty-first century.

    The Athenian Plague of 430 B.C.

    The Athenian plague is a historically documented event that occurred in 430–26 B.C. during the Peloponnesian War, fought between city-states of Athens and Sparta. The historic account of the Athenian plague is provided by Thucydides, who survived the plague himself and described it in his History of the Peloponnesian War . The Athenian plague originated in Ethiopia, and from there, it spread throughout Egypt and Greece. Initial symptoms of the plague included headaches, conjunctivitis, a rash covering the body, and fever. The victims would then cough up blood, and suffer from extremely painful stomach cramping, followed by vomiting and attacks of “ineffectual retching” . Infected individuals would generally die by the seventh or eighth day. Those who survived this stage might suffer from partial paralysis, amnesia, or blindness for the rest of their lives. Doctors and other caregivers frequently caught the disease, and died with those whom they had been attempting to heal. The despair caused by the plague within the city led the people to be indifferent to the laws of men and gods, and many cast themselves into self-indulgence . Because of wartime overcrowding in the city of Athens, the plague spread quickly, killing tens of thousands, including Pericles, Athens’ beloved leader. With the fall of civic duty and religion, superstition reigned, especially in the recollection of old oracles .

    The plague of Athens affected a majority of the inhabitants of the overcrowded city-state and claimed lives of more than 25% of the population [9]. The cause of the Athenian plague of 430 B.C. has not been clearly determined, but many diseases, including bubonic plague, have been ruled out as possibilities [10]. While typhoid fever figures prominently as a probable culprit, a recent theory, postulated by Olson and some other epidemiologists and classicists, considers the cause of the Athenian plague to be Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever .

    The Antonine Plague

    While Hippocrates is thought to have been a contemporary of the plague of Athens, even possibly treating the afflicted as a young physician, he had not left known accounts of the outbreak . It was another outbreak that occurred a couple of centuries later that was documented and recorded by contemporary physicians of the time. The outbreak was known as the Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD and the physician documenting it was Galen; this outbreak is also known as the Plague of Galen .

    The Antonine plague occurred in the Roman Empire during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161–180 A.D.) and its cause is thought to be smallpox . It was brought into the Empire by soldiers returning from Seleucia, and before it abated, it had affected Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece, and Italy. Unlike the plague of Athens, which affected a geographically limited region, the Antonine plague spread across the vast territory of the entire Roman Empire, because the Empire was an economically and politically integrated, cohesive society occupying wide swaths of the territory . The plague destroyed as much as one-third of the population in some areas, and decimated the Roman army, claiming the life of Marcus Aurelius himself .

    The impact of the plague on the Roman Empire was severe, weakening its military and economic supremacy. The Antonine plague affected ancient Roman traditions, leading to a renewal of spirituality and religiousness, creating the conditions for spreading of new religions, including Christianity. The Antonine Plague may well have created the conditions for the decline of the Roman Empire and, afterwards, for its fall in the West in the fifth century AD .

    The Justinian Plague

    The Justinian plague was a “real plague” pandemic (i.e., caused by Yersinia Pestis) that originated in mid-sixth century AD either in Ethiopia, moving through Egypt, or in the Central Asian steppes, where it then travelled along the caravan trading routes. From one of these two locations, the pestilence quickly spread throughout the Roman world and beyond. Like most pandemics, the Justinian plague generally followed trading routes providing an “exchange of infections as well as of goods,” and therefore, was especially brutal to coastal cities. Military movement at the time also contributed to spreading the disease from Asia Minor to Africa and Italy, and further to Western Europe. Described in detail by Procopius, John of Ephesus, and Evagrius, the Justinian epidemic is the earliest clearly documented example of the actual (bubonic) plague outbreak .

    During the plague, many victims experienced hallucinations prior to the outbreak of illness. The first symptoms of the plague followed closely behind; they included fever and fatigue. Soon afterwards, buboes appeared in the groin area or armpits, or occasionally beside the ears. From this point, the disease progressed rapidly; infected individuals usually died within days. Infected individuals would enter a delirious, lethargic state, and would not wish to eat or drink. Following this stage, the victims would be “seized by madness,” causing great difficulties to those who attempted to care for them . Many people died painfully when their buboes gangrened; others died vomiting blood. There were also cases, however, in which the buboes grew to great size, and then ruptured and suppurated. In such cases, the patient would usually recover, having to live with withered thighs and tongues, classic aftereffects of the plague. Doctors, noticing this trend and not knowing how else to fight the disease, sometimes lanced the buboes of those infected to discover that carbuncles had formed. Those individuals who did survive infection usually had to live with ‘‘withered thighs and tongues’’, the stigmata of survivors. Emperor Justinian contracted the plague himself, but did not succumb .

    Within a short time, all gravesites were beyond capacity, and the living resorted to throwing the bodies of victims out into the streets or piling them along the seashore to rot. The empire addressed this problem by digging huge pits and collecting the corpses there. Although those pits reportedly held 70,000 corpses each, they soon overflowed . Bodies were then placed inside the towers in the walls, causing a stench pervading the entire city.

    Streets were deserted, and all trade was abandoned. Staple foods became scarce and people died of starvation as well as of the disease itself . The Byzantine Empire was a sophisticated society in its time and many of the advanced public policies and institutions that existed at that time were also greatly affected. As the tax base shrank and the economic output decreased, the Empire forced the survivors to shoulder the tax burden . Byzantine army suffered in particular, being unable to fill its ranks and carry out military campaigns, and ultimately failing to retake Rome for the Empire. After the initial outbreak in 541, repetitions of the plague established permanent cycles of infection. By 600, it is possible that the population of the Empire had been reduced by 40%. In the city of Constantinople itself, it is possible that this figure exceeded 50 % .

    At this point in history, Christian tradition enters the realm of interpreting and understanding the events of this nature . Drawing on the eschatological narrative of the Book of Revelations, plague and other misfortunes are seen and explained as a “punishment for sins,” or retribution for the induction of “God’s wrath” . This interpretation of the plague will reappear during the Black Death and play a much more central role throughout affected societies in Europe. Meanwhile, as the well-established Byzantine Empire experienced major challenges and weakening of its physical, economic, and cultural infrastructure during this outbreak, the nomadic Arab tribes, moving through sparsely populated areas and practicing a form of protective isolation, were setting a stage for the rapid expansion of Islam .

    The Black Death

    “The Plague” was a global outbreak of bubonic plague that originated in China in 1334, arrived in Europe in 1347, following the Silk Road. Within 50 years of its reign, by 1400, it reduced the global population from 450 million to below 350 million, possibly below 300 million, with the pandemic killing as many as 150 million. Some estimates claim that the Black Death claimed up to 60% of lives in Europe at that time .

    Starting in China, it spread through central Asia and northern India following the established trading route known as the Silk Road. The plague reached Europe in Sicily in 1347. Within 5 years, it had spread to the virtually entire continent, moving onto Russia and the Middle East. In its first wave, it claimed 25 million lives .

    The course and symptoms of the bubonic plague were dramatic and terrifying. Boccaccio, one of the many artistic contemporaries of the plague, described it as follows:

    In men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumours in the groin or armpits, some of which grew as large as a common apple, others as an egg…From the two said parts of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous. As the gavocciolo had been and still was an infallible token of approaching death, such also were these spots on whomsoever they showed themselves .

    Indeed, the mortality of untreated bubonic plague is close to 70%, usually within 8 days, while the mortality of untreated pneumonic plague approaches 95%. Treated with antibiotics, mortality drops to around 11% .

    At the time, scientific authorities were at a loss regarding the cause of the affliction. The first official report blamed an alignment of three planets from 1345 for causing a “great pestilence in the air” . It was followed by a more generally accepted miasma theory, an interpretation that blamed bad air. It was not until the late XIX century that the Black Death was understood for what it was – a massive Yersinia Pestis pandemic .

    This strain of Yersinia tends to infect and overflow the guts of oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) forcing them to regurgitate concentrated bacteria into the host while feeding. Such infected hosts then transmit the disease further and can infect humans – bubonic plague . Humans can transmit the disease by droplets, leading to pneumonic plague.

    The mortality of the Black Death varied between regions, sometimes skipping sparsely populated rural areas, but then exacting its toll from the densely populated urban areas, where population perished in excess of 50, sometimes 60% .

    In the vacuum of a reasonable explanation for a catastrophe of such proportions, people turned to religion, invoking patron saints, the Virgin Mary, or joining the processions of flagellants whipping themselves with nail embedded scourges and incanting hymns and prayers as they passed from town to town . The general interpretation in predominantly Catholic Europe, as in the case of Justinian plague, centered on the divine “punishment for sins.” It then sought to identify those individuals and groups who were the “gravest sinners against God,” frequently singling out minorities or women. Jews in Europe were commonly targeted, accused of “poisoning the wells” and entire communities persecuted and killed. Non-Catholic Christians (e.g., Cathars) were also blamed as “heretics” and experienced a similar fate . In other, non-Christian parts of the world affected by the plague, a similar sentiment prevailed. In Cairo, the sultan put in place a law prohibiting women from making public appearances as they may tempt men into sin .

    For bewildered and terrified societies, the only remedies were inhalation of aromatic vapours from flowers or camphor. Soon, there was a shortage of doctors which led to a proliferation of quacks selling useless cures and amulets and other adornments that claimed to offer magical protection .

    Entire neighbourhoods, sometimes entire towns, were wiped out or settlements abandoned. Crops could not be harvested, traveling and trade became curtailed, and food and manufactured goods became short. The plague broke down the normal divisions between the upper and lower classes and led to the emergence of a new middle class. The shortage of labour in the long run encouraged innovation of labour-saving technologies, leading to higher productivity .

    The effects of such a large-scale shared experience on the population of Europe influenced all forms of art throughout the period, as evidenced by works by renowned artists, such as Chaucer, Boccaccio, or Petrarch. The deep, lingering wake of the plague is evidenced in the rise of Danse Macabre (Dance of the death) in visual arts and religious scripts , its horrors perhaps most chillingly depicted by paintings titled the Triumph of Death (Fig. 2.2) .

    Figure 2.2

    The Triumph of Death (Trionfo Della Morte), fresco, author unknown, cca. 1446, on display at Palazzo Abatellis, Palermo, Italy

    The plague made several encore rounds through Europe in the following centuries, occasionally decimating towns and entire societies, but never with the same intensity as the Black Death .

    The Plague Doctor

    With the breakdown of societal structure and its infrastructures, many professions, notably that of medical doctors, were severely affected. Many towns throughout Europe lost their providers to plague or to fear thereof. In order to address this shortage in times of austere need, many municipalities contracted young doctors from whatever ranks were available to perform the duty of the plague doctor (medico della peste) . Venice was among the first city-states to establish dedicated practitioners to deal with the issue of plague in 1348. Their principal task, besides taking care of people with the plague, was to record in public records the deaths due to the plague . In certain European cities like Florence and Perugia, plague doctors were the only ones allowed to perform autopsies to help determine the cause of death and managed to learn a lot about human anatomy. Among the most notable plague doctors of their time were Nostradamus, Paracelsus, and Ambrois Pare . The character of the plague doctor was immortalized by a later invention (from the seventeenth century) of a plague doctor costume by Charles De l’Orme (Fig. 2.3) .

    Figure 2.3

    Doctor Beak (Doctor Schnabel), copper engraving by Paulus Fürst, cca. 1656, from Die Karikatur und Satire in der Medizin: Medico-Kunsthistorische Studie von Professor Dr. Eugen Holländer, 2nd edn (Stuttgart:Ferdinand Enke, 1921), fig. 79 (p. 171)

    Quarantine

    Drawing from experiences from ancient cultures that had dealt with contagious diseases, medieval societies observed the connection between the passage of time and the eruption of symptoms, noting that, after a period of observation, individuals who had not developed symptoms of the illness would likely not be affected and, more importantly, would not spread the disease upon entering the city. To that end, they started instituting mandatory isolation. The first known quarantine was enacted in Ragusa (City-state of Dubrovnik) in 1377, where all arrivals had to spend 30 days on a nearby island of Lokrum before entering the city. This period of 30 days (trentine) was later extended to 40 days (quarenta giorni or quarantine) . The institution of quarantine was one of the rarely effective measures that took place during the Black Death and its use quickly spread throughout Europe. Quarantine remains in effect in the present time as a highly regulated, nationally and internationally governed public health measure available to combat contagions .

    “Spanish Flu” Pandemic 1918–1920

    The Spanish flu pandemic in the first decades of the twentieth century was the first true global pandemic and the first one that occurred in the setting of modern medicine, with specialties such as infectious diseases and epidemiology studying the nature of the illness and the course of the pandemic as it unfolded. It is also, as of this time, the last true global pandemic with devastating consequences for societies across the globe . It was caused by the H1N1 strain of the influenza virus, a strain that had an encore outbreak in the early years of the twenty-first century.

    Despite advances in epidemiology and public health, both at the time and in subsequent decades, the true origin of Spanish flu remains unknown, despite its name. As possible sources of origin, cited are the USA, China, Spain, France, or Austria. These uncertainties are perpetuated by the circumstances of the Spanish flu – it took place in the middle of World War I, with significant censorships in place, and with fairly advanced modes of transportation, including intercontinental travel .

    Within months, the deadly H1N1 strain of influenza virus had spread to every corner of the world. In addition to Europe, where massive military movements and overcrowding contributed to massive spread, this virus devastated the USA, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The mortality rate of Spanish flu ranged between 10% and 20%. With over a quarter of the global population contracting that flu at some point, the death toll was immense – well over 50 million, possibly 100 million dead. It killed more individuals in a year than the Black Death had killed in a century .

    This pandemic, unusually, tended to mortally affect mostly young and previously healthy individuals. This is likely due to its triggering a cytokine storm, which overwhelms and demolishes the immune system. By August of 1918, the virus had mutated to a much more virulent and deadlier form, returning to kill many of those who avoided it during the first wave .

    Spanish flu had an immense influence on our civilization. Some authors (Price) even point out that it may have tipped the outcome of World War I, as it affected armies of Germany and the Austrian–Hungarian Empire earlier and more virulently than their Allied opponents (Fig. 2.4) .

    Figure 2.4

    American Expeditionary Force, victims of Spanish flu in France, 1918. Uncredited U.S. Army photographer – U.S. Army Medical Corps photo via National Museum of Health & Medicine website at U.S. Army Camp Hospital No. 45, Aix-Les-Bains, France, Influenza Ward No. 1

    Many notable politicians, artists, and scientists were either affected by the flu or succumbed to it. Many survived and went on to have distinguished careers in arts and politics (e.g., Walt Disney, Greta Garbo, Raymond Chandler, Franz Kafka, Edward Munch, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson). Many did not; this pandemic counted as its victims, among others, outstanding painters like Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele , and acclaimed poets like Guillaume Apollinaire. It also claimed the life of Sigmund Freud’s fifth child – Sophie Halberstadt-Freud.

    This pandemic was also the first one where the long-lingering effects could be observed and quantified. A study of US census data from 1960 to 1980 found that the children born to women exposed to the pandemic had more physical ailments and a lower lifetime income than those born a few months earlier or later. A 2006 study in the Journal of Political Economy found that “cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments compared with other birth cohorts” .

    Despite its immense effect on the global civilization, Spanish flu started to fade quickly from the public and scientific attention, establishing a precedent for the future pandemics, and leading some historians (Crosby) to call it the “forgotten pandemic” . One of the explanations for this treatment of the pandemic may lie in the fact that it peaked and waned rapidly, over a period of 9 months before it even could get adequate media coverage. Another reason may be in the fact that the pandemic was overshadowed by more significant historical events, such as the culmination and the ending of World War I. A third explanation may be that this is how societies deal with such rapidly spreading pandemics – at first with great interest, horror, and panic, and then, as soon as they start to subside, with dispassionate disinterest.

    HIV Pandemic

    HIV/AIDS is a slowly progressing global pandemic cascading through decades of time, different continents, and different populations, bringing new challenges with every new iteration and for every new group it affected. It started in the early 1980s in the USA, causing significant public concern as HIV at the time inevitably progressed to AIDS and ultimately, to death. The initial expansion of HIV was marked by its spread predominantly among the gay population and by high mortality, leading to marked social isolation and stigma.

    HIV affects about 40 million people globally (prevalence rate: 0.79%) and has killed almost the same number of people since 1981 . It causes about one million deaths a year worldwide (down from nearly two million in 2005) . While it represents a global public health phenomenon, the HIV epidemic is particularly alarming in some Sub-Saharan African countries (Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland), where the prevalence tops 25% . In the USA, about 1.2 million people live with HIV and about 12,000 die every year (down from over 40,000 per year in the late 1990s). HIV in the USA disproportionately affects gay population, transgendered women, and African-Americans .

    Being a fairly slowly spreading pandemic, HIV has received formidable public health attention, both by national and by international administrations and pharmaceuticals. Advances in treatment (protease inhibitors and anti-retrovirals) have turned HIV into a chronic condition that can be managed by medications. It is a rare infectious disease that has managed to attract the focus of mental health which, in turn, resulted in a solid volume of works on mental health and HIV . By studying the mental health of HIV, we can begin to understand some of the challenges generally associated with infectious diseases. We know, for example, that the lifetime prevalence rate for depression in HIV individuals is, at 22%, more than twice the prevalence rate in general population .

    We understand how depression in HIV individuals shows association with substance abuse and that issues of stigma, guilt, and shame affect the outlook for HIV patients, including their own adherence to life-saving treatments . We know about medical treatments of depression in HIV and we have studies in psychotherapy for patients with HIV. Some of those approaches can be very useful in treating patients in the context of a pandemic. Given the contrast between the chronicity of the HIV and the acuity of a potential pandemic, most of those approaches cannot be simply translated from mental health approach to HIV and used for patients in a rapidly advancing outbreak or a pandemic.

    Smallpox Outbreak in Former Yugoslavia (1972)

    Smallpox was a highly contagious disease for which Edward Jenner developed the world’s first vaccine in 1798. Caused by the Variola virus, it was a highly contagious disease with prominent skin eruptions (pustules) and mortality of about 30%. It may have been responsible for hundreds of millions of fatalities in the twentieth century alone. Due to the well-coordinated global effort starting in 1967 under the leadership of Donald Henderson, smallpox was eradicated within a decade of undertaking the eradication on a global scale .

    The smallpox outbreak in the former Yugoslavia in 1972 was a far cry from even an epidemic, let alone a pandemic, but it illustrated the challenges associated with a rapidly spreading, highly contagious illness in a modern world. It started with a pilgrim returning from the Middle East, who developed fever and skin eruptions. Since a case of smallpox had not been seen in the region for over 30 years, physicians failed to correctly diagnose the illness and nine healthcare providers ended among 38 cases infected by the index case and first fatality .

    Socialist Yugoslavia at the time declared martial law and introduced mandatory revaccination. Entire villages and neighbourhoods were cordoned off (cordon sanitaire is a measure of putting entire geographic regions in quarantine). About 10,000 individuals who may have come into contact with the infected were placed in an actual quarantine. Borders were closed, and all non-essential travel was suspended. Within 2 weeks, the entire population of Yugoslavia was revaccinated (about 18 million people at the time). During the outbreak, 175 cases were identified, with 35 fatalities. Due to prompt and massive response, however, the disease was eradicated and the society returned to normal within 2 months . This event has proven to be a useful model for working out scenarios (“Dark Winter”) for responses to an outbreak of a highly contagious disease, both as a natural occurrence and as an act of bioterrorism .

    SARS

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was the first outbreak in the twenty-first century that managed to get public attention. Caused by the SARS Corona virus (SARS-CoV), it started in China and affected fewer than 10,000 individuals, mainly in China and Hong Kong, but also in other countries, including 251 cases in Canada (Toronto) .

    The severity of respiratory symptoms and mortality rate of about 10% caused a global public health concern. Due to the vigilance of public health systems worldwide, the outbreak was contained by mid-2003 . This outbreak was among the first acute outbreaks that had mental health aspects studied in the process and in the aftermath, in various part of the world and in different societies, yielding valuable data on effects of an acute infectious outbreak on affected individuals, families, and the entire communities, including the mental health issues facing healthcare providers . Some of the valuable insights into the mental health of patients in isolation, survivors of the severe illness, or psychological sequelae of working with such patients were researched during the SARS outbreak.

    “Swine Flu” or H1N1/09 Pandemic

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was a reprise of the “Spanish flu” pandemic from 1918, but with far less devastating consequences. Suspected as a re-assortment of bird, swine, and human flu viruses, it was colloquially known as the “swine flu” . It started in Mexico in April of 2009 and reached pandemic proportions within weeks . It began to taper off toward the end of the year and by May of 2010, it was declared over.

    It infected over 10% of the global population (lower than expected), with a death toll estimated varying from 20,000 to over 500,000 . Although its death rate was ultimately lower than the regular influenza death rates, at the time it was perceived as very threatening because it disproportionately affected previously healthy young adults, often quickly leading to severe respiratory compromise. A possible explanation for this phenomenon (in addition to the “cytokine storm” applicable to the 1918 H1N1 outbreak) is attributed to older adults having immunity due to a similar H1N1 outbreak in the 1970s .

    This pandemic also resulted in some valuable data studying and analysing the mental health aspects of the outbreak. It was among the first outbreaks where policy reports included mental health as an aspect of preparedness and mitigation policy efforts. This outbreak of H1N1 was notable for dissonance between the public sentiment about the outbreak and the public health steps recommended and undertaken by WHO and national health institutions. General public sentiment was that of alarm caused by WHO releases and warnings, but it quickly turned to discontent and mistrust when the initial grim outlook of the outbreak failed to materialize . Health agencies were accused of creating panic (“panicdemic”) and peddling unproven vaccines to boost the pharmaceutical companies (in 2009, some extra $1,5 billion worth of H1N1 vaccines were purchased and administered in the USA) .

    This outbreak illustrated how difficult it may be to gauge and manage public expectations and public sentiments in the effort to mobilize a response. It also demonstrated how distilling descriptions of the impact of a complex public health threat like a pandemic into a single term like “mild,” “moderate,” or “severe” can potentially be misleading and, ultimately, of little use in public health approach .

    Ebola Outbreak (2014–2016)

    Ebola virus, endemic to Central and West Africa, with fruit bats serving as a likely reservoir, appeared in an outbreak in a remote village in Guinea in December 2013. Spreading mostly within families, it reached Sierra Leone and Liberia, where it managed to generate considerable outbreaks over the following months, with over 28,000 cases and over 11,000 fatalities. A very small number of cases were registered in Nigeria and Mali, but those outbreaks were quickly contained . Ebola outbreak, which happened to be the largest outbreak of Ebola infection to date, gained global notoriety after a passenger from Liberia fell ill and died in Texas in September of 2014, infecting two nurses caring for him, and leading to a significant public concern over a possible Ebola outbreak in the USA . This led to a significant public health and military effort to address the outbreak and help contain it on site (Operation United Assistance) .

    ZIKA (2015–2016)

    Zika virus was a little known, dormant virus found in rhesus monkeys in Uganda. Prior to 2014, the only known outbreak among humans was recorded in Micronesia in 2007. The virus was then identified in Brazil in 2015, after an outbreak of a mild illness causing a flat pinkish rash, bloodshot eyes, fever, joint pain and headaches, resembling dengue. It is a mosquito-borne disease (Aedes Aegypti), but it can be sexually transmitted. Despite its mild course, which initially made it unremarkable form the public health perspective, infection with Zika can cause Guillain-Barre syndrome in its wake in adults and, more tragically, cause severe microcephalia in unborn children of infected mothers (a risk of about 1%) .

    In Brazil, in 2015, for example, there were 2400 birth defects and 29 infant deaths due to suspected Zika infection . Zika outbreak is an illustrative case of the context of global transmission; it was transferred from Micronesia, across the Pacific, to Brazil, whence it continued to spread . It is also a case of a modern media pandemic; it featured prominently in the social media. In early 2016, Zika was being mentioned 50 times a minute in Twitter posts. Social media were used to disseminate information, to educate, or to communicate concerns .

    Its presence in social media, perhaps for the first time in history, allowed social researchers to study the public sentiment, also known as the emotional epidemiology (Ofri), in real time . While both public health institutions and the general public voiced their concern with the outbreak, scientists and officials sought to provide educational aspect, while concerned public was trying to have their emotional concerns addressed. It is indicative that 4 out of 5 posts on Zika on social media were accurate; yet, those that were “trending” and gaining popularity were posts with inaccurate content (now colloquially referred to as the “fake news”) . This is a phenomenon that requires significant attention in preparing for future outbreaks because it may hold a key not only to preparedness, but also to execution of public health plans that may involve quarantine and immunization.

    Since 2016, Zika has continued to spread throughout South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and several states within the USA. It remains a significant public health concern, as there is no vaccine and the only reliable way to avoid the risk for the offspring is to avoid areas where Zika was identified or to postpone pregnancy should travel to or living in affected areas be unavoidable .

    Disease X

    Disease X is not, as of yet, an actual disease caused by a known agent, but a speculated source of the next pandemic that could have devastating effects on humanity. Knowing the scope of deleterious effects a pandemic outbreak can have on humankind, in the wake of the Ebola outbreak, the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to dedicate formidable resources to identifying, studying, and combating possible future outbreaks. It does so in the form of an R&D Blueprint, though devising its global strategy and preparedness plan that allows the rapid activation of R&D activities during epidemics .

    R&D Blueprint maintains and updates a list of so-called identified priority diseases. This list is updated at regular intervals and, as of 2018, it includes diseases such as Ebola and Marburg virus diseases, Lassa fever, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Nipah and henipa virus diseases, Zika, and others . For each disease identified, an R&D roadmap is created, followed by target product profiles (i.e., immunizations, treatment, and regulatory framework). Those efforts are important to help us combat a dangerous outbreak of any of the abovementioned diseases, but also to fend off Disease X. Since Disease X is a hypothetical entity, brought by a yet unknown pathogen that could cause a serious international pandemic, the R&D Blueprint explicitly seeks to enable cross-cutting R&D preparedness that is also relevant for both existing culprits and the unknown future “Disease X” as much as possible.

    WHO utilizes this R&D Blueprint vehicle to assemble and deploy a broad global coalition of experts who regularly contribute to the Blueprint and who come from several medical, scientific, and regulatory backgrounds. Its advisory group, at the time, does not include mental health specialists .

    TABLE 1

    Timeline of the pandemics described in this paper.

    YearsPandemicsPathogensVectors
    541–543Plague of JustinianYersinia pestisFleas associated to wild rodents
    1347–1351Black DeathYersinia pestisFleas associated to wild rodents
    1817–1824First cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1827–1835Second cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1839–1856Third cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1863–1875Fourth cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1881–1886Fifth cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1885–ongoingThird plagueYersinia pestisFleas associated to wild rodents
    1889–1893Russian fluInfluenza A/H3N8?Avian?
    1899–1923Sixth cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1918–1919Spanish fluInfluenza A/H1N1Avian
    1957–1959Asian fluInfluenza A/H2N2Avian
    1961-ongoingSeventh cholera pandemicVibrio choleraeContaminated water
    1968–1970Hong Kong fluInfluenza A/H3N2Avian
    2002–2003Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)SARS-CoVBats, palm civets
    2009–2010Swine fluInfluenza A/H1N1Pigs
    2015-ongoingMiddle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)MERS-CoVBats, dromedary camels
    2019-ongoingCOVID-19SARS-CoV-2Bats, pangolins?